(1) If a monk lax in behavior lives with a similar person and yet wishes to enter the Gana, he may be allowed to do so after confession, atonement and undergoing the cheya or parihara.

                                         —Vav. I, 29-32.


(2) Washing one's limbs with hot or cold water— masiyam parihdratthanam ugghaiyam.

                                               —Nis. II, 21.


(3) Dressing the nails or hair or moustache—m.p.u. —Nis. III, 41-46.


(4) Brushing or cleaning the teeth—m.p.u. Nis. III, 47- 49.


 (5) Not scanning the ground for easing nature; depositing the excreta in an improper manner; not cleaning the anus properly—m.p.u.—Nis. IV, 102-11


(6) Depositing excrete in a house, or at the front of a house or at the door or at the open verandah, or in a house where there is a dead body (?), or on the ash of a burnt body or on a pillar for the dead, etc., or in a temple or on mud; or in a new earth-mine, or in a grove of umbara or Banyan or asvattha trees; or in a sugar-cane field or rice-field or cotton-field; or in a place where there are vegetables, groves, flowers, seeds or leaves—m.p.u. —Nis. III, 70-78.


(7) Entering the nunnery in an improper way or keeping the requisites in the path of the nuns—m.p.u. -Nis. IV, 24.


(8) Creating new quarrels or re-raising old pacified ones—m.p.u.

                       —Nis. IV, 25-26.


(9) Laughing with a wide-open mouth—m.p.u.

                       —Nis. IV, 27.


(10) For making sounds through the mouth, teeth, lips, nose, armpits, hands, nails, fruits etc.— m.p.u.

                             —Nis. V, 36-59.


(11) For practicing masturbation, moving the penis by means of a piece of wood, pressing it, massaging it with oil or ghee, cleaning it with water, spraying powder over it, cutting it; trying to ejaculate semen—masiyam pariharatthanam a nugghaiyam.


 (12) Dispelling the smoke in the house by requesting a heretic or householder—m.p.a.

                                                          —Nis. I, 57.


(13) Sitting or sleeping over a place which is full of living beings or which is unstable—c.p.u.

                                         —Nis. XIII, 1-11.


 (14) For wearing garlands or girdles or decorative clothes or furs or skins out of curiosity—c.p.u.

                       —Nis. XVII, 3-14.


(15) Looking at one's reflection in mirror or in a bead or in oil or in fat etc.—c.p.u.

                       —Nis. XIII, 30-41.


(16) Telling (of one's own accord) one's own qualifications for the post of an acarya—c.p.u.

                             —Nis. XVII, 133.


(17) Seeing, pondering over or getting attracted towards woodwork, sculpture, books, ivory-work, jewel-work; beautiful wells, tanks; large festivals; horse-plays, elephant-plays; horse-fights, buffalo-fights, etc., any scenes of merry-making, scenes of quarrel or places where persons of all ages sing or dance putting on ornaments or fineries—c.p.u.

                                    —Nis. XII, 16-28.


(18) Breaking the vow of 'pratyakhyana' frequently

                                         —Nis. XII, 3.


(19) Pondering over the feet of women when they are going or coming—c. p.a.

                                                    —Nis. I X 8-9.


(19a) Causing a heretic or the owner of the lodge to stitch the samghadi of a nun—c.p.u.

                                         —Nis. XII, 7.


(20) If the monk pondered over a nun—laghumasa.


(21) If he desired to see her again—gurumasa.


(22) If he got fever due to this desire—catvaro masah laghukah.


(23) If he got fever due to this desire—catvaro masah.


(24) If he had burning sensation—sanmasa laghavah.


 (25) If he had no taste for food—sanmasa guravah.


(26) If he had swooning—cheda.


(27 If he had hysteria—mula.


(28) If he lost understanding—anavasthapya.


 (29) If he died—parancika.

—Brh. kalp. Bha. III, 2258-62.


(30) One who maintained his livelihood by practicing medicine and astronomy and became a servant of the king —mula.

                       —Angd. 7, 55, comm.


(31) One who did not follow properly the 'vratas' due to sway of passions and thus brought shame to the Samgha —mula.

                     —Anga. 7, 55 comm.


 (32) One of lax morals, lazy in study and ignorant of scriptures—mula

                       —Angd. 7, 55 comm.


(33) Violation of any of the mulavratas—sraddhana.

                             —Angd. 7, 57 comm.


(34) Condemnation of the Tirthankara, Ganadhara, ganins, the Agama, or samgha—parancika.

                                                   —Angd. 7. 56 comm.


(35) Enjoying a queen, behaving against a king—

                                                     —Angd. 7, 57 comm.


(36) Using complete, new, washed, or dyed pieces of garments for the sake of attracting women; or eating vikritis for the above purpose; making or wearing garlands of various materials for the above purpose, or using excellent blankets, skins of deer, camel etc., or garments so soft cotton or gold-embroidered clothes—c.p.a.

                             —Nis. VII, 1-12.


(37) Telling stories at odd times in the company of women—c.p.a.

                                   —Nis. VIII, 10,


(38) Indulgence in sexual intercourse by a monk or a nun with opposite counterparts


(39) Stealing something belonging to the member of one's own sect—anavasthapya.

                                               —Kalp. IV, 3.


(40) Stealing something of one belonging to other sect—anavasthappa.



(41) Striking somebody with the fist—anavasthapya.



(42) For a criminal—parancika.


(43) For a careless fellow—parancika.


(44) For a sodomite—parancika.

                             —Kalp. IV, 2.





(1) If a monk goes to another place either for study or sleep without the permission of the superior—cheya or parihara.


(2) Staying in a residence which contains liquor or sour barley gruel, or a vessel with cold or warm water, or where a torch burns throughout the night—santara chew -or parihara.


(3) Not accommodating a co-religionist when space is sufficient—c.p.u.


(4) Accepting lodging in condemned families—c.p.u.

Nis. XVI, 29.


(5) Making a known or an unknown person stay in 'the monastery either for a full night or for half a night— p.a.

                                         —Nis. VIII, 12.


(6) Staying out for more than three days—c.p.a.

                                                                —Nis. X, 13.


(7) One who was attached to a particular residence and stayed there with lax behavior—mula.

                                                  —Angd. VII, 55, comm.


(8) If a bhikkhu stayed in a place full of seeds then — laghako masa tapasa kalena ca laghukah.


(9) —Vasaha—l.m., kalena gurukah.


(10) —Uvajjhaya—l.m., tapasa gurukah.


(11) —ayariya—l.m., taposa Elena ca gurakah.

                       —Brh. kalp. Bha. IV, 3304.


(12) If the acarya, while on tour, did not consult the members of his party regarding a proper residence—then masalaghu.

                               —Ibid. II, 1456-63.


(13) One who was attached to a particular residence and stayed there with lax behavior—mula.

                            —Angd. 7, 55, comm.


 (14) For accepting a residence previously occupied by heretics or that which was originally built by the owner for himself and later on handed over to the monks— calvaro laghaka.


(15) For accepting a residence where sinful fire activity was frequently done the Brahmans, or that which was specially built for the monks, or that which was built for a particular sect of monks—calvaro guravah.

                          —Brh. kalp. Bha., II, 1456ff.







                 (1) For begging food twice in a day—                                                masalaghu.

                 (2) For begging food thrice—masaguru.

                 (3) For begging food four times caturlaghu,

                 (4) For begging food five times—caturguru.

                 (5) For begging food six times— sadloghu.

                 (6) For begging food seven times—sadguru.

                 (7) For begging food eight times—cheda.

                 (8) For begging food nine times—mula.

(9) For begging food ten times -anavasthapya.

(10) For begging food eleven times— parancika. —Brh. kalp. Bha. II, 1697-1700




Udgama faults:


(1) Adhakarma—catvaro gurukah


(2) Auddesika—catvaro gurakah


(3) Misra—catvaro gurukah


(4) (Badara)—catvaro gurukah.


(5) Abhyahrta—catvaro gurukah.


(6) Kita—masaguru.


(7) Putika—masaguru.


(8) Adhyavapuraka—masaguru.


(9) Sthapita—masalaghu.


(11) Pramitya—masalaghu.


(12) Krita—masalaghu.


(13) Parivartita—masalaghu.


(14) Svagrama abbyahrta—masalaghu.


(15) Pihita—masolaghu.


(16) Malapahrta—masalaghu.


(17) Itvara sthapita—pancaratrindinani.


(18) Suksma~prabhrtikayam;— pancaratrindinani.


For the rest of the Udgama dosas—catvaro laghukah;


Utpadana faults:


(1) Nimitta— catvaro gurukah.


(2) Mayapinda—masaguru.


(3) Cikitsapinda— laghuko masah.


(4) Vacanasamstava— laghako masah.


(5) Mula— laghuko masah.


(6) For the rest— catvaro laghukah.


(7) Accepting food from a leper or an eunuch— catvaro laghukah.


Esana faults:


(1) Lipta—pancaratrindinani.


(2) Lipta with articles like wine, flesh, and excreta catvaro laghukah.


(3) Lipta with oil, ghee etc.—catvaro laghukah.


(4) Purekarma - catvaro laghukah.


(5) Paicatharma— catvaro laghukah.


(6) Accepting food containing powdered bulbs, roots, etc.—masalaghu.


(7) Accepting food from a leper or an eunuch— catvaro laghukah.


 (8) Accepting food from one who is spinning, cutting or pounding—masalaghu.


(9) Eating in excess—catvaro laghavah.


(10) Eating with hatred—catvaro laghavah.


11) Eating sadhuma—catvaro laghavah.


(12) Eating niskarana—catvaro laghavah.


(13) Eating food in the festival of heretics—caturlaghavah


(14) Taking with permission a fruit belonging to a heretic—caturguru.


(15) -Do- a bhogika—sadlaghu.


(16) -Do-a vanik—sadguru.


(17) Taking with permission a fruit belonging to the gosthi—cheda.


(18) -Do- the householder—mula.


(19) -Do- the policeman—anavasthapya.


(20) -Do- the king—parancika.

               —Brh. kalp. Bha., I, 532ff.; V, 5089; II, 906.

                 —Jit., 1087ff.


(21) Going to one's relatives for alms without the permission of the Therasantara cheya or parihara.

                             —Vav. VI, 1.


(22) Going to the condemned families for alms without knowing anything about them (beforehand) or without asking (them)—m.p.u.

                                   —Nis. IV, 22.


(23) Requesting a heretic for food—m.p.u.

                             —Nis. III, 1-12.


(24) Visiting the same house twice for alms—m.p.u.

                             —Nis. III, 13.


(25) Accepting food or-drink in new settlements, villages, iron-mines, copper-mines, lead-mines, gold mines or jewel-mines—m.p.u.

                             —Nis. V, 34-35.


(26) Eating that which is not given to or by the acarya —m.p.u.

                           —Nis. IV, 20.


(27) Eating only the good items of food and depositing the rest elsewhere—m.p.u.

                          —Nis. II, 43-49.


(28) For accepting a raw fruit in a settlement, catvaro laghavah.


(29) -Do- in a pataka— catvaro guravah.


(30) -Do- in a row of houses—sadlaghavah.


(31) -Do- in a village— sadguravah.


(32) For accepting a raw fruit at the gates of a village —cheda.


(33) -Do- outside the village—mula.


(34) -Do- at the boundary of a village—parancika —Brh. kalp. Bha. I, 786.


(35) Eating food in the vessels of a householder— c.p.u.

—Nis. XII, 10-13.


(35) Seeking common alms together and then dividing it in the company of one who is undergoing the parihara -tapa—m.p.u.

—Nis. IV, 112.


(36) Receiving food in the first porisi of the day and keeping it up to the fourth porisi and then eating it or giving it to somebody else—c.p.u.

                             —Kalp. IV, 11.


(37) Buying, exchanging or making somebody to buy or exchange or bring on credit or accepting bought vikritis—c.p.u.

                                   —Nis. XIX, 1-4.


(38) Accepting food brought from the terrace or granary or by breaking the seal; or that placed on living beings; or that, being hot, is being fanned by hand, fan, cloth-end or by mouth; accepting hot food; accepting a wash of rice, sesamum etc.—c.p.u.

                                   —Nis. XVII, 123-32.


 (39) Accepting food or drink or eatables or chewable" from condemned families—c.p.u.

                                         —Nis. XVI, 27.


(40) Obtaining food by acting as a nurse, or messenger or astrologer or beggar or doctor; getting food out of anger, pride, deceit or greed; acquiring food through magic, spells or incantations— c.p.u.

                                   —Nis. XIII, 60-74.


 (41) Accepting food in a boat—c.p.u.


                                   —Nis. XVIII, 17-20.


(42) Seeking alms beyond the limit of half a yojana— c.p.u.

                       —Nis. XII, 31.


(43) Accepting food or drink offered by the householder by first doing a sinful activity (purekada), or offered with a hand, a pot or a ladle wet with cold water—c.p.u.

                       —Nis. XII, 14-15.


(44) Praising night-meal or eating food acquired by day at night and vice versa—c.p.a.

                                   —Nis. XI, 73-77.


(45) Accepting food from those of non-vegetarian habits or those who are about to start on or return from pilgrimages—c.p.a.

                                         —Nis. IX, 10-17.


(46) Accepting royal food, or food meant for the beasts, horses, elephants; food for the ill or for the guest; food meant to be distributed in famine, food taken out for the royal persons or for the actors, wrestlers and such other people; food for caretakers of horses, elephants, peacocks, deer, etc.; or for those who bring under control horses, elephants etc.; food for those who massage (other's) body, or for the umbrella bearers, or holders of weapons; or food for the chamberlain or the doer-keepers or the female servants in the harem—c.p.a.

                 —Nis. IX, 1-6; 20-28.


(47) Accepting nivedana-pinda—c.p.a.

                       -Nis. XI, 81.


 (48) Accepting food full of living beings, or adhakarmika food, or eating deliberately that food which involves major or minor faults—c.p.a.

                  —Nis. X, 5-6, 19-27.


(49) Accepting food or drink from the Ksatriya kings when they are in the uttara-sala, or in the horse stable or in the elephant-stable or have gone to secret places, counsel halls or private apartments —c.p.a.

—Nis. VIII, 13-17.


(50) Accepting food that is given up or which is meant for orphans and beggars—c.p.a.

                                   —I bid.






(1) Omitting some words while reading—masala- ghu.


(2) Transgressing the sequence of the Tirthankara —caturguru.


(3) Mixing or adding words—masalaghu.


(4) Having wrong faith—caturlaghu.


(5) Transgressing the order of the guru—caturguru. —Brh. kelp. Bha. I, 288-99.


(6) Asking more than three questions regarding the kalikasruta and more than seven questions regarding the Ditthivaya—c.p.u.

                       —Nis. XIX, 8-12.


(7) Not studying at four times; studying at an improper time; reading only the lower portions; reading in an indistinct tone; not reading the text in due sequence or reading only one out of two identical passages—c.p.u.

                                   —Nis. XIX, 13-23.







(1) Using complete and intact pieces of skins or clothes—masiyam pariharatthanam ugghaiyam.

—Nis. II, 22-24.




(2) Obtaining the returnable payapunchana on the condition of returning it the same night, but returning it the next day; or returning it the same night when promised to return it the next day—m.p.u.

                       —Nis. V, 15-16.




(3) Taking out the returnable bedding or that owned by the householder without his consent; or not searching the lost bedding, or not scanning the requisites—m.p.u.

                       —Nis. II, 50-59.




(4) Making, using or enjoying raw, colored or variously colored wooden, bamboo or cane sticks —m.p.u

           —Nis. V, 25-33.


(5) Using a broom which is bigger in measurements; or having fine thread-ends for it; giving one tie to the broom; giving more than three ties to the broom; binding it in a kadusaga way, holding it loosely; keeping it as a pillow; breaking it —m.p.u.

                 —Nis. V, 67-77.




(6) Expanding the mouth of the pot; binding it improperly; using a pot with many ties for more than one and a half months—m.p.a.

                         —Nis. I, 41-45.


(7) Exchanging the alms-bowl without the consent of the ganin; not giving it to him who is unable to procure one—c.p.u.

                        —Nis. XIV, 1-48.


(8) Discoloring colored pots and vice versa;

Polishing it with oil, ghee or butter; coating it with powder or paint, washing it with water so as to give it a new appearance—c.p.u.



(9) Frequently demanding a bowl in the congregation by getting up—c.p.u.

                          —I bid.


(10) For him who sent a person who had not studied the rules about the begging of the alms-bowl, to bring the coating for a pot—calvaro gurakah.


(11) -Do- who had studied it but did not remember the details about it—catvaro laghukah.


 (12) For coating the pot without the permission of the acarya—masalaghu.


(13) For not taking the permission of the cart-owner for oil—masalaghu.


(14) For taking oil at night and using it at night— calvaro laghukah.


(15) For taking oil at dew- fall or when bulls or calves are tied to the cart—catvaro laghukah.


(16) For taking oil when a dog is sitting below the cart

                       —Ealvaro gurakah.


(17) For coating the pot for decoration—catvaro



(18) Accepting a mediocre pot when decided to accept the best—masika.


 (19) Determining to accept the inferior one but accepting the mediocre—masika.


(20) For accepting an inferior pot when decided to accept the best—pancaka.


(21) For determining to accept a mediocre pot but accepting an inferior one—pancaka.


(22) For determining to accept a mediocre one, but accepting the best—caturlaghu.


(23) For determining to accept the inferior one but accepting the best pot—caturlaghu.

                       - Brh. kalp. Bha. I, 471-529.




(24) Carrying the seat of the householder—c.p.u.

                                   - Nis. XII, 10-13.




(1) For transforming the best piece of cloth into a medium type—masalaghu.


(2) -Do- into an inferior one—pancaratrindiva.


(3) -Do- a mediocre one into the best type— caturlaghu.


(4) -Do- into jaghanya—pancaratrindiva.


(5) -Do- an inferior one into the best—caturlalaghu.


(6) -Do- into medium type—masika.


(7) For accepting a piece of cloth worth Pataliputra rupees 18—catvaro laghavah, or laghumasa, or caturguru.


(8) Do —rupees 20 catvaro laghva


(9)—Do—rupees 49—sadlaghavah


(10) —Do—rupees 50—sadguru


(11) —Do—rupees 100—cheda


(12)— Do—rupees 250—sadlaghavah


(13) —Do—rupees 500—sadguruvah


14) -Do—rupees 999—cheda


(15) —Do—rupees 1000—cheda or mula.


(16) —Do—rupees 10000 _ mula


(17) —Do - rupees 50000—anavasthapya


(18) —Do—rupees 100000—parancika

           —Brh. kalp. Bha. IV, 3893-98.


(19) For wearing a garment like a turban—      masalaghu.


(20) For so arranging the garment on the shoulder that it hangs down like a cow's tail—masalaghu


(21) For covering both the shoulders like a nun—

                 Catvaro laghavah.


(22) For so arranging the ends of the upper garment on the shoulders that it appears like the garuda      bird—catvaro gurumasah.


(23) For putting on the dress like that of a householder—Hula.


(24) Putting on the clothes of a householder—c.p.u. — Nis. XII, 11.


(35) Exchanging clothes without the consent of the ganin—c.p.u.

—Nis. XVIII, 21-64.


(26) Coloring an uncolored cloth and vice versa— c.p.u.



(27) Getting the samphadi of a nun stitched by a      heretic or the owner of the lodge—c.p.u.

                                   —Nis. XII, 7.






(1) Crossing or swimming the following five great rivers twice or thrice within a month—Ganga, Jauna, Sarau, Eravai, Mahi—c.p.u.

—Nis. XII, 42.


(2) getting into the boat with bad intentions; buying, selling, bringing on credit or exchanging the boat, or making others to do so; pushing the boat into water from the ground or vice versa; helping in taking out a grounded boat; working as a helmsman; getting into a boat which is going up or down the stream; pulling or stopping the boat by a rope; taking out water from the boat by either a pot or an alms-bowl or an earthen vessel; covering the hole in the boat by means of hand, foot, leaves and bamboo in order to stop water getting in; accepting food in the boat—c.p.u.

                             —Nis. XVIII, 1-20.


(3) Touring during regular rains—c.p.a.

—Nis. X, 40-43.


(4) Frequently entering into or coming out of inimical, anarchical or rebellion-infected regions, or approving of anybody else doing so—c.p.a.

                    —Nis. XI, 71; Ralph. I, 38.


(4a) One who wandered alone and condemned the law of the Jina —Mula.

                       —Angd. VII, 55, comm.


(5) If out of attachment for a place, a party of monks stays there for more than eleven days, then parancika.

                       —Brh. kalp. Bha. II, 1555-59.


(6) If a gitartha wandered alone— caturlaghu.


(7) If an agitartha wandered alone— caturguru.

                       —Brh. kalp. Bha. I, 694-5.


(8) For touring with a heretical nun in a woman's dress at day time—laghukaccheda


(9) —Do—with an eunuch—gurakoccheda


(10) —Do—at night—Mula


(11) —Do with a Jaina nun at day—anavasthapya


(12) —Do—with a Jaina nun at night—parancika.


—Brh. kalp. Bha., II, 886-88.


(13) Resorting to a short cut by day—masalaghu


(14) —Do—at night—masaguru


(15) Walking carelessly at day—masalaghu


(16) —Do—at night—masaguru


(17) One who wandered alone and condemned the law of the Jinas— Mula

                       —Angd. 7, 55, comm.'




 (1) if a monk, going out of the Gana for the sake of practicing the 'egallaviharapadima', returns without completing it,—cheya or parihara


                                         —Vav. I, 25.




(1) Praising the types of death which are designated as 'balamarana'—c.p.a.

           —His. XI, 92.