The Species of the Karman

The Duration of the Karman

The Intensity of the Karman

The Quality of the Pradesas of the Karman


The atoms which have become karman in the soul can be contemnplated from 4 points of view:

1)   according to the manner of their effect (prakrti),

2)   according to the duration of their effect (sthiti),

3)   according to the intensity of their effect (rasa), and

4)   according to their quantity, i.e. according to the number of their pradesas.


Even as an article of confectionery (modaka), which is composed of a substance that cures wind in the body through its natural quality annihilates the wind- a sweetmeat composed of a substance that cures the bile, annihilates the bile- a sweetmeat composed of material that destroys phlegm, annihilates phlegm- so the pudgalas which have become jnanavarana-karman veil the knowledge, those changed into caritra-mohaniya-karman disturb the right conduct, etc. Even as the effect of one modaka is restricted to one day, of another to two days, and so forth, so the duration of one karman is 30 sagaropamakotikotis, that of another is 70, and so forth. Even as this pill has a sweet, that a still sweeter taste, so the one karman works with a lesser, the other with a greater intensity. And, finally, even as one pill measures 1 prakrti, or 2 prakrti, according to the number of grains that composite, so also a karman-particle has a greater or less dimension according to whether it contains more or less pradesas 1.




There are 8 chief or fundamental species (mula-prakrti) of the karman, namely:

1.   jnanavarana-k, the k which obscures knowledge,

2.   darsanavarana-k, the k which obscures undifferentiated cognition,

3.   vedaniya-k, the k which produces the feeling of joy and brief,

4.   mohaniya-k, the k which obstructs belief and conduct,

5.   ayus-k, the k which determines the duration of life,

6.   nama-k, the k which gives the various factors of individuality,

7.   gotra-k, the k which destines family surroundings,

8.   antaraya-k, the k which hinders the jiva in his capability of resolution and enjoyment.


Each of these mula-prakrtis is divided into a number of uttara-prakrtis, sub-species. The latter can, on their part, be separated into yet smaller sub-divisions, so that the entire number of the karmans is exceedingly large. For the system, however, only the 8 mula and the 148 uttara-prakrtis are of importance; I can therefore restrict myself to presenting a summary of these.



The jnanavarana-k obscures the knowledge peculiar to the soul, i.e. it hinder the jiva from recognizing a thing with its individual attributes. It is divided into 5 uttara-prakrtis, according to the 5 kinds of knowledge:


1.   mati-jnanavarana-k which causes the obscuration of the knowledge, transmitted through the senses,

2.   sruta-jnanavarana-k which produces the obscuration of knowledge acquired by interpreting signs (i.e. words, writings, gestures),

3.   avadhi-jnanavarana-k which hinders transcendental knowledge of material things,

4.   manahparyaya-jnanavarana-k which hinders transcendental knowledge of the thoughts of others,

5.   kevala-jnanavarana-k which obscures the omniscience inherent in the jiva by natural disposition.


Of these, the last mentioned karman hinders omniscience altogether; the four others do not always involve, through their realization, a complete destruction of the corresponding faculties of knowledge, but often produce only greater or less disturbances.



The word darsana has two different meanings in Jain Philosophy. Firstly it means: "opinion, doctrine, philosophical system", and samyag-darsana then has the signification "the fight view, the true belief". But, secondly, the word darsana has also the meaning "the recognition of a thing in its general outlines or in its notional generality." (Jacobi ad Tattv. 1.1) i.e. formaliter indistinct knowledge. Here the darsana mentioned in the second place is dealt with: for the sake of brevity and for lack of a better word, we translate it by "undifferentiated cognition". According to the 4 species of undifferentiated cognition1 there are 4 species of the darsanavarana-karman, namely:

1.   caksur-darsanavarana-k which produces the obscuration of the darsana conditional upon the eye,

2.   acaksur-darsanavarana-k which causes the obscuration of the undifferentiated cognition, conditional upon the other senses and the organ of thinking,

3.   avadhi-darsanavarana-k which causes the obscuration of the transcendental undifferentiated cognition of material things,

4.   kevala-darsanavarana-k which hinder the absolute undifferentiated cognition (the counterpart of the omniscience).


The last mentioned k hinders completely; the three others produce under certain circumstances only a disturbance of the respective cognition-faculties.


In addition to these 4 darsanavarana-ks come still 5 others which produce physio-psychological conditions in which the sense-organs are not active, and which, therefore, exclude all possibility of perception. These are the 5 nidra-ks, "sleep-ks", namely:


1.   nidra-k which produces a light, pleasant slumber, out of which the sleeper is already aroused by the clicking of finger-nails.


2.   nidranidra-k which produces a deep slumber, out of which the sleeper can only be awakened by being shaken violently,


3.   pracala-k which sitting or standing upright (cf. Desi-Kosa VI, 6).


4.   pracalapracala-k which produces an exceedingly intensive sleep, that overcomes a person while walking,


5.   styanagrddhi-(styanarddhi-)k which causes somnambulism, acting an unconscious state.



The vedaniya-k causes the feeling of pain and pleasure. It has, therefore, 2 sub-species:


1.   sata-vedaniya-k which causes a feeling of pleasure, created, e.g. by licking something sweet,

2.   asata-vedaniya-k which causes the feeling of pain, such as is produced, e.g. if one is hurt by a sword.


With gods and men the sata-vedaniya is predominant, although, also with the former at the time of the downfall from the celestial world, and with the latter through cold and heat, death and accident, pain can be produced. Animals and infernal beings experience chiefly the asata-vedaniya, although, also, at the birth of a Jina or on a similar occasion, they can experience a feeling of pleasure.



The mohaniya-k obstructs true faith and right conduct. It is therefore separated into 2 main divisions: disturbance of faith and disturbance of conduct.



The darsana-mohaniya-k causes a disturbance of the knowledge of the religious truth inherent in the jiva by natural disposition. (Here "darsana" is employed in another sense than in its application as darsanavarana, see p.7). According as to whether the disturbance is an absolute or a partial one, 3 kinds of this k are to be distinguished:

1.   mithyatva-k. This causes complete unbelief or heterodoxy. If it realize itself, the jiva does not believe in the truths as proclaimed by Mahavira; he believes false prophets to be saints and enjoins false doctrines.


2.   samyagmithyatva-(misra)k. This produces a mixed belief, i.e., If it operates the soul waves to and for betwixt true and false; it is indifferent to the religion of the Jina and has no predilection for, nor hatred against it.


3.   samyaktva-k. This induces the correct belief. This samyaktva is, however, not the correct faith in its completeness, but only in a preliminary degree; it is a so-called mithyatva, from which the mithyatva-quality has been abstracted a mithyatva free from poison (Kg. I.35a, 113a). The true belief in its perfection is only obtained, when the atoms of the samyaktva-mohaniya-k have disappeared, even as milk which is covered by quite clear water only becomes perfectly pure after the water has been poured off.



The caritra-mohaniya-k disturbs the right conduct possessed innately by the jiva; it hinders the soul from acting according to the religious prescriptions. The disturbance of the conduct is produced through the 16 passions (kasaya), the 6 non-passions (nokasaya) and the 3 sexes (veda).


A) The kasayas (passions) are:

1)   krodha, anger,

2)   maya, deceitfulness,

3)   mana, pride,

4)   lobha, greed.


Each of these is separated into 4 sub-divisions, according to the intensity of their manifestation. Each passion is, there


I.   anantanubandhin "of life-long duration". It then completely hinders belief and conduct.

II.  apratyakhyanavarana "hindering non-renunciation". It makes impossible every renunciation, but allows the existence of true belief. It lasts for one year.

III. pratyakhyanavarana "hindering renunciation". It hinders the beginning of complete self-discipline, but does not prevent the existence of true belief and partial self-discipline (desavirati). Its effect lasts for 4 months.

IV.  samjvalana "flaming up". It allows complete self-discipline, yet works against the attainment of complete right conduct (yathakhyata caritra). It lasts a fortnight.


The degrees of strength of the kasayas are illustrated by examples. The 4 species of anger are to be likened unto a line drawn in stone, in earth, in dust and in water. The first can only be removed with great effort, each following one always more easily. Likewise also, the life-long enduring anger is only combated in its effect with exceeding strength and difficulty, whist the effect of the three remaining species accordingly diminishes in power and can, therefore, also more easily be destroyed. The degrees of pride are to be likened unto a pillar of stone, a bone, a piece of wood, and the liana of a Dalbergia ougeinensis; the inflexibility correspondingly decreases. The species of deceitfulness are to be compared to a bamboo-root, the horn of a ram, the urine of a cow, and a piece of wood. The crookedness of each of these is removed more easily than in the one preceding it. (The zig-zag line of the cow's urine disappears through the influence of wind and weather.) The degrees of greed correspond to scarlet color, to greater or smaller dirt, and to a spot of turmeric, which soil a garment: the scarlet is hardly removable, the dirt with more or less trouble, and the spot of turmeric can be removed with ease.


B) The nokasayas (non-passions) are:

1)   hasya, laughing, joking. firmed prejudicial disliking.

2)   rati, improper and confirmed prejudicial liking.

3)   arati, improper and conduct

4)   soka, sorrow.

5)   bhaya, fear.

6)   jugupsa, disgust.


All these 6 emotions are caritra-mohaniyas, because the soul which is subjected to them, is hindered through them in the practice of right conduct. The mere sensation of pain and pleasure has not this retarding effect ; that is why one must distinguish between the vedaniyas and the nokasayas.


C) The vedas.

Also the sex-passion hinders the jiva from obeying the laws and from practicing self-discipline. It is of three-fold variety, according to the three species of sexes.


1)   purusa-veda, the male sex and corresponding sex-passion. Through this, in the man the desire for union with a female is produced, in the same way that through the phlegm desire for something sour is awakened. It is like a straw-fire; as with the burning go grass the fire blazes and soon becomes extinguished, so also man has at first an exceedingly strong desire, which disappears as soon as his lust is satisfied.


2)   stri-veda, the female sex and corresponding sex-passion. Through this, in a woman the desire for union with a man is excited, as through the bile the desire for something sweet. It is like the burning of dung; as the dung-hill only glimmers so long as it is covered, but through violent shaking grows into a continually greater conflagration, so also the desire in the woman is weak so long as she is untouched, but grows into immensity through the enjoyment of intercourse.


3)   napumsaka-veda, the third sex and corresponding sex-passion. To the third sex belong all those beings who have no sexual organs. The sexual desire is with them exceedingly strong., because it is directed towards men and women. The effect of the napumsaka-veda therefore corresponds to that of bile and phlegm, which together produce the desire for majjika=marjika, probably=marjita, curdled milk with sugar and spices (?) Or, it is to be compared to the burning of a town, which lasts long and finds no satisfaction.


All caritra-mohaniyas are produced through corresponding karmans. Caritra-mohaniya-karman has accordingly 25 uttara-prakrtis, the mula-prakrti mohaniya-k in all 28 uttara-prakrtis.



The ayus-k confers on a being a certain quantum of life in one of the 4 states of existence. One therefore distinguishes:


1)   deva-ayus, the celestial ayus,

2)   manusya-ayus, the human ayus,

3)   tiryag-ayus, the animal ayus,

4)   naraka-ayus, the infernal ayus.


The ayus-k bestows a certain quantity of life, but not a definite number of years of life. For, as with a sponge, the quantity of water that it absorbs is determined, but not the time it takes to leave it, so also the quantum of life is determined, but not the time occupied in its consumption. The word ayus would, therefore, be approximately interpreted by "quantity of life", "quantity of vitality" ; but it is better to leave it untranslated as a terminus techniques. The ayus of the new existence is always bound during the life immediately preceding it, especially in the 3rd, 9th, or 27th part or within the last 48 minutes of it (Lp. III, 88)



The nama-k causes the individual diversities of the jivas. It is divided into 93 uttara-prakrtis, which are mostly quoted in a definitely fixed succession in 4 groups (pinda-prakrtis, pratyeka-prakrtis, trasadasaka, sthavara-dasaka). They are the following:


The 65 pinda-prakrtis.

4 States of Existence.

1)   deva-gati-nama-k bestows the celestial state of existence,

2)   manusya-gati-n-k bestows the human state of existence,

3)   tiryag-gati-n-k bestows the animal state of existence,

4)   naraka-gati-n-k bestows the infernal state of existence.


5 Classes of Beings.

5)   ekendriya-jati-n-k causes birth as a being with 1 sense,

6)   dvindriya-jati-n-k causes birth as a being with 2 senses,

7)   trindriya-jati-n-k causes birth as a being with 3 senses,

8)   caturindriya-jati-n-k causes birth as being with 4 senses,

9)   pancendriya-jati-n-k causes birth as a being with 5 senses.


5 Bodies.

10)  audarika-sarira-n-k gives the gross physical body peculiar to animals and men.

11)  vaikriya-sarira-n-k gives the transformation body which consists of fine matter, a body that changes in form and dimension. This body exists by nature in gods, infernal beings and certain animals; men can attain it through higher perfection.

12)  aharaka-sarira-n-k gives the translocation body. This body consists of good and pure substance and is without active and passive resistance. It is created for a short time by an apramatta-samyata-ascetic, in order to seek for information concerning intricate dogmatic questions from an arhat who is in another part of the world, whilst his own physical body remains in its original place.

13)  taijasa-sarira-n-k gives the fiery body. This body consists of fire-pudgalas and serves for the digestion of swallowed food. It can also be used by ascetics to burn other beings or things.

14)  karmana-sarira-n-k gives the karman-body. This body is the receptacle for karman-matter. It changes every moment, because new karman is continually assimilated by the soul and the already existing one consumed. Accompanied by it, the jiva at death leaves his other bodies and betakes himself to the place of his new birth, where the karman-body then forms the basis of the newly produced other bodies.


Of these 5 bodies each succeeding one is finer than the one preceding it, but contains more material points than it; it is therefore denser (Tattv. II, 38, 39). Every samsarin is always connected with a fiery and a karman-body, but can, in addition, still possess one or two other bodies.


3 Chief and Secondary Parts of the Bodies.

The angopanga-n-ks cause the origin of the chief parts of the bodies (arms, legs, back, breast, belly, head) and their limbs (fingers etc.). The fiery and the karman-body have no parts; that is why there are only


3 angopanga-n-ks, namely:

15)  audarika-angopanga-n-k which produces the chief and secondary parts of the physical body,

16)  vaikriya-angopanga-n-k which produces the chief and secondary parts of the transformation body,

17)  aharaka-angopanga-n-k which produces the chief and secondary parts of the translocation body.


5 Bindings.

The bandhana-n-ks produce that the newly seized pudgalas of a body are united with those formerly assimilated ones of it into an organic entity, as wooden sticks through an adhesive substance. According to the 5 bodies there are 5 binding-ks:

18.  Audarika-bandhana-n-k procures the binding of the physical body.

19.  vaikriya-bandhana-n-k procures the binding of the transformation body.

20.  aharaka-bandhana-n-k procures the binding of the translocation body.

21.  taijasa-bandhana-n-k procures the binding of the fiery body.

22.  karmana-bandhana-n-k procures the binding of the karman body.


Instead of 5 bandhanas some adopt 15, by not only taking into consideration the binding of the single parts of the body to one another, but also the binding of the parts of one body with one or two others (e.g. audarika-taijasa-karmana-bandhana). This division plays no role in the system, and therefore needs no notice here.


5 samghatanas.

The samghatana-n-ks cause the pudgalas of the different bodies to bind one another ; they scrape them together as a rake (dantalin), gathers together grass that is scattered about. According to the 5 bodies there are 5 samghatana-n-ks.

23)  audarika-samghatana-n-k procures the flocking together of the pudgalas of the physical body.

24)  vaikriya-samghatana-n-k procures the flocking together of the pudgalas of the transformation body.

25)  aharaka-samghatana-n-k procures the flocking together of the pudgalas of the translocation body.

26)  taijasa-samghatana-n-k procures the flocking together of the pudgalas of the fiery body.

27)  karmana-samghatana-n-k procures the flocking together of the pudgalas of the karman-body.


6 Firmness of the joints.

The samhanana-n-k unites the bones of the physical body with one another. According to the firmness of the joining, 6 karmans are to be distinguished, which produce a more or less strong joining of the joints:

28)  vajra-rsabha-naraca-samhanana-n-k gives an excellent joining. The two bones are hooked into one another; through the joining a tack (vajra) is hammered; and the whole is surrounded by a bandage.

29)  rsabha-naraca-samhanana-n-k gives a joining not so firm as the preceding one, because the tack is missing.

30)  naraca-samhanan-n-k gives a joining which is still weaker, because the bandage is missing.

31)  ardha-naraca-samhanana-n-k gives a joining which is on one side like the preceding one, whilst on the other the bones are simply pressed together and nailed.

32)  kilika-samhanana-n-k gives a weak joining, by which the bones are merely pressed together and nailed.

33)  sevarta-(or chedaprstha-)samhanana-n-k gives quite a weak joining, by which the ends of the bones only touch one another.


The samhananas play a great role in Jain dogmatics. Only the first four make a meditation possible (Tattv. IX, 27); only the best i.e., the 1st joining of the joints, permits the highest kind of concentration which precedes salvation.


6 Figures.

The samsthana-n-ks determine the stature of a being, that is to say:

34)  samacaturasra-samsthana-n-k causes the entire body to be symmetrically built.

35)  nyagrodhaparimandala-samsthana-n-k causes the upper part of the body to be symmetrical, not the lower.

36)  sadi-samsthana-n-k makes the body below the navel symmetrical and above it unsymmetrical.

37)  kubja-samsthana-n-k makes the body hunchbacked, i.e. hands, feet, head and neck symmetrical, breast and belly unsymmetrical.

38)  vamana-samsthana-n-k dwarf-like, i.e. breast and belly symmetrical, hands, feet etc. unsymmetrical.

39)  hunda-samsthana-n-k makes the entire body unsymmetrical.


The conception of symmetry is explained in the following way: One imagines a man sitting in the paryanka-posture1, i.e. crossing the legs and placing the hands over the navel. If one imagines that the two knees are joined by a line, and from the right shoulder to the left knee, and from the left shoulder to the right knee, and from the forehead to the hands, a straight line is drawn, one gets four lines. If these are equal to one another, symmetry is apparent; if they are not so, one of the other 5 samsthanas results.


Gods have only the first, infernal beings and jivas who have been produced through coagulation only the 6th figure; in the case of animals and men (also of kevalins) all 6 samsthanas are to be found.


5 Colors.

40)  krsna-varna-n-k gives a color which is black, like a raja-patta-diamond.

41)  nila-varna-n-k gives a color which is dark, blue-green, like an emerald.

42)  lohita-varna-n-k gives a color which is red, like vermillion.

43)  haridra-varna-n-k gives a color which is yellow, like turmeric.

44)  sita-varna-n-k gives a color which is white, like a shell.


Other colors, such as brown etc., are produced by mixing. Black and green are considered as being pleasant(?), the others as unpleasant colors.


2 Odors.

45)  surabhi-gandha-n-k produces pleasant odors (e.g., that of camphor).

46)  durabhi-gandha-n-k produces unpleasant odors (e.g., that of garlic).


5 Tastes.

47)  tikta-rasa-n-k gives a bitter taste (like that of the nimba-fruit).

48)  katu-rasa-n-k. gives a biting taste (like that of ginger)

49)  kasaya-rasa-n-k gives an astringent taste (like that of bibhitaka).

50)  amla-rasa-n-k gives a sour taste (like that of tamarind).

51)  madhura-rasa-n-k gives a sweet taste (like that of sugar).

The salt taste is produced by a combination of the sweet taste with another. Bitter and biting tastes are considered unpleasant, the others pleasant.


8 Touches.

52)  guru-sparsa-n-k causes a thing to be heavy, like an iron ball.

53)  laghu-sparsa-n-k causes a thing to be light, like motes in a sunbeam.

54)  mrdu-sparsa-n-k causes a thing to be smooth, like a tinisa-tendril.

55)  khara-sparsa-n-k causes a thing to be rough, like stone.

56)  sita-sparsa-n-k causes a thing to be cold, like snow.

57)  usna-sparsa-n-k causes a thing to be warm, like fire.

58)  snigdha-sparsa-n-k causes a thing to be adhesive, like oil.

59)  ruksa-sparsa-n-k causes a thing to be dry like ashes.


Heavy, hard, dry, cold are considered to be unpleasant touches, the others pleasant.


4 Anupurvis

The anupurvi-n-k causes that the jiva, when one existence is finished, goes from the place of death in the proper direction to the place of his new birth. According to the 4 states of existence (celestial, human, animal, infernal) there are 4 anupurvi-ks, namely:

60)  deva-anupurvi-n-k,

61)  manusya-anupurvi-n-k,

62)  tiryag-anupurvi-n-k,

63)  naraka-anupurvi-n-k.


2 Gaits.

64)  prasasta-vihayogati-n-k causes a being to move in a pleasant manner, as e.g. oxen, elephants and geese do.

65)  aprasasta-vihayogati-n-k causes an ugly manner of motion, as, e.g. one finds with camels and asses.


The 8 pratyeka-prakrtis.

66)  paraghata-n-k gives superiority over others. It endows the capability of injuring or vanquishing others; on the other hand, it prevents one from being injured or overcome by others.

67)  ucchvasa-n-k bestows the capability of breathing.

68)  atapa-n-k causes the body of a being not in itself hot to emit a warm splendor.

69)  uddyota-n-k causes the transformation-body of the gods and ascetics, as well as moon, stars, precious stones, herbs and shining insects to emit a cold luster.

70)  agurulaghu-n-k makes a being neither heavy nor light, i.e., causes it to possess neither absolute weight nor absolute lack of it.

71)  tirthakara-n-k procures the position of a prophet of the Jain religion.

72)  nirmana-n-k causes the formation of the body, i.e., it causes the members of a being to be in their right place.

73)  upaghata-n-k causes self-annihilation. It produces that the parts of the body of a being (e.g. the uvula in the throat) cause its death.


The 10 trasa-prakrtis

74)  trasa-n-k gives a voluntarily movable body (counterpart No. 84).

75)  badara-n-k gives a gross body (counterpart No. 85).

76)  paryapta-n-k causes the complete development of the organs (karana) and capacities (labdhi) of nourishment, of the body, of the senses, of breathing, of speech, and of thought (counterpart No. 86).

77)  pratyeka-n-k causes the being to possess an individual body (counterpart No. 87).

78)  sthira-n-k causes the teeth, bones, etc., to be firm (counterpart No. 88).

79)  subha-n-k causes the parts of the body above the navel to be beautiful, so that, some one whom one touches with the head is glad (counterpart No. 89).

80)  subhaga-n-k causes some one to whom is not under an obligation to be sympathetic to one (counterpart No. 90).

81)  susvara-n-k bestows a voice which is melodious (counterpart No. 91).

82)  adeya-n-k causes that some one is suggestive, so that his speech meets with approbation and belief (counterpart No. 92).

83)  yasahkirti-n-k grants honor and glory (counterpart No. 93).


The 10 sthavara-prakrtis.

84)  sthavara-n-k causes that the body (of plants and elementary beings) cannot be moved voluntarily (counterpart No. 74).

85)  suksma-n-k gives (to elementary beings) a subtle body, imperceptible to our senses (counterpart No. 75).

86)  aparyapta-n-k causes that the organs or faculties of a being do not attain full development, but remain undeveloped (counterpart No. 76).

87)  sadharana-n-k gives (to plants etc.) a body in common with others of their species (counterpart No. 77).

88)  asthira-n-k causes that ears, brows, tongue, etc. are flexible (counterpart No. 78).

89)  asubha-n-k causes at all parts of the body, below the navel are considered to be ugly, so that somebody who is touched by the foot feels this to be unpleasant (counterpart No. 79).

90)  durbhaga-n-k makes the jiva unsympathetic (counterpart No. 80).

91)  duhsvara-n-k makes the voice ill-sounding (counterpart No. 81).

92)  anadeya-n-k makes the jiva unsuggestive (counterpart No. 82).

93)  ayasahkirti-n-k causes dishonor and shame (counterpart No. 83).



The gotra-k destines the rank occupied by a person through his birth. That is to say:

1)   uccair-gotra-k bestows high family surroundings.

2)   nicair-gotra-k bestows low family surroundings.



The antaraya-k hinders the energy (virya) of the jiva in a five-fold manner:

dana-antaraya-k hinders dispensing alms. When it operates a person who knows the merit in giving and who has something to give away, is not capable to give it, although there is someone worthy of the gift.

1)   labha-antaraya-k hinders receiving. When it operates, a person is not capable of receiving a present, although a friendly giver and a suitable present are there, and the demand for the latter has been effective

2)   bhoga-antaraya-k hinders the enjoyment of something which can only be taken once (such as eating drinking).

3)   upabhoga-antaraya-k hinders the enjoyment of something which can be repeatedly used (such as a dwelling, clothing, women.

4)   virya-antaraya-k hinders the will-power. When it operates, even a strong, full-grown man is incapable of bending a blade of grass.


The total number of the karman-species is as follows:


I      jnanavarana-ks      5

II      darsanavarana-ks      9

III      vedaniya-ks 2

IV      mohaniya-ks 28

V      ayus-ks 4

VI      nama-k-s 93

VII      gotra-ks 2

VIII      antaraya-ks 5


                                    Total 148


This is the total number of the karma-prakrtis which can exist in potential (satta).


If the realization (udaya) of the ks is taken into consideration, the entire number amounts only to 122. The 5 bandhana-n-ks and the 5 samghatana-n-ks are in that case not included as they are then thought to exist implicite in the 5 sarira-n-ks. The color, odor, taste and touch ks are only reckoned as 4 species (instead of 20), because the sub-division are not taken into consideration.


The total number of the ks which can be newly assimilated by the soul is assumed to be 120. The two mohaniya-ks "samyagmithyatva" and "samyaktva" cannot, it must be noted, be bound by the jiva, because they are, according to their nature, merely reduced mithyatva. They must be therefore subtracted from the 122 ks of the udaya, so that the total number of the ks in bandha is 120.


The karma-prakrtis can be classified into groups from different aspects. I give here only the most important of these classifications (according to Kg II, 1 et seq.), the others follow by themselves out of the mutual relation of the prakrtis in bandha, udaya, satta (see below).


Sarva-ghati-karmans are those kinds of karman which completely destroy the qualities peculiar to the soul. They are 20, namely: the veilings of omniscience and absolute undifferentiated cognition, the 5 species of sleep, the 12 first passions, and unbelief.


Desa-ghati-karmans are karma-prakrtis which do not completely, but only in a greater or less measure, destroy the qualities of the soul. There are 25 of them: the 4 first veilings of knowledge, the 3 first veilings of undifferentiated cognition, the 4 last passions, the 9 non-passions, and the 5 hindrances.


Ahgati-karmans destroy no property of the soul, either wholly or partially. These are the 75 ks which remain (120--20--25).


There are 42 good karman-species (punya-prakrtis): (3) celestial state of existence, anupurvi, ayus; (3) human state of existence, anupurvi, ayus; high family surroundings; pleasure; (4) movable, gross developed, individual body; (3) firm, beautiful, sympathetic; melodious; suggestive; fame; the five bodies; the 3 limbs; the best firmness of the joints; the best figure; annihilation of others; breathing; warm splendor; cold luster; not light-not heavy; tirthankara; formation; animal ayus; 5-sensed class being; good gait; good odor; good colors; good tastes; and good touches.


Bad karman-species (papa-prakrtis) are the 82 remaining ones.




Kg. II 122b et seq. Ps. 513 et seq. Tattv. VIII 15 et seq. Utt. 33, 21 et seq. Gandhi 71 et seq.


For the understanding of the duration of the karman communicated in the following, a few remarks on the division of time according to the Jain doctrine are advisable.


The lowest unit of time the samaya. Innumerable samayas form an avalika. 16,777,216 avalikas equal 1 muhurta (48 minutes of European time). 30 muhurtas make one day. Out of the days are formed weeks, months and years in the ordinary Indian way. The number of years can be expressed in words up to a number containing 77 cyphers. Beyond that, it is asamkhyeya (indefinable) and can only be represented by comparisons. An innumerable quantity of years is called a "palyopama", 10 kotakoti (1,000,000,000,000,000) of palyopamas are 1 sagaropama. 10 kotakoti of sagaropamas comprise 1 utsarpini (ascending period of time); the same number of sagaropamas measures 1 avasarpini (descending period of time). Infinite utsarpinis and avasarpinis form 1 pudgalaparavarta.


The following table gives the highest and the lowest sthiti of each karman. In it the following abbreviations are employed: k = koti, kk = kotakoti, po = palyopama, so = sagaropama. The Sanskrit word "antar" e.g. in antarmuhurta" a space of time within 48 minutes", i.e. less than 48 minutes, is expressed by the sign <.




                                                    |            |

                                                    | Maximum      | Minimum

 ______ _______________________|_______ __________|_______________

I Veilings of knowledge .....      | 30 kkso      | < 1 muhurta

II 4 Veilings of undifferentiated      |            |

      cognition .. .. ..            | 30 kkso      | < 1 muhurta

      5 Sleeps .. .. ..            | 30 kkso      | 3/7 so

III Sensation of pleasure..      | 15 kkso      | 12 muhurta

     Sensation of pain .. ..            | 30 kkso      | 3/7 so

IV Unbelief .. .. ..            | 70 kkso      | 1 so

     12 Passions .. .. ..            | 40 kkso      | 4/7 so

     Up-flaming anger .. ..            | 40 kkso      | 2 masa

     Up-flaming pride .. ..            | 40 kkso      | 1 masa

     Up-flaming deceitfulness ..      | 40 kkso      | 1 paksa

     UP-flaming greed .. ..            | 40 kkso      | < 1 muhurta

     joking, liking .. .. ..            | 10 kkso      | 1/7 so

     disliking, sorrow, fear, disgust      | 20 kkso      | 2/7 so

     male sex .. .. ..            | 10 kkso      | 8 years

     female sex .. .. ..            | 15 kkso      | 3/14 so

     third sex .. .. ..            | 20 kkso      | 2/7 so

V infernal ayus .. .. ..            | 33 so            | 10,000 years

     animal ayus .. .. ..            | 3 so            | 256 avalikas

     human ayus .. .. ..            | 3 so            | 256 avalikas

     celestial ayus .. .. ..            | 33 so            | 10,000 years

VI infernal state of existence      | 20 kkso      | 2000/7 po

     animal state of existence..      | 20 kkso      | 2/7 so

     human state of existence ..      | 15 kkso      | 3/14 so

______________________________|______________ ___|__________________


Comp. Prof. Jacobi's notes to Tattv. IV 15. Utsarpini is a period of time at the beginning of which the moral etc. state of the world is very bad, but gradually improves till at the end of that period the culminating point of the good state is reached. Thereupon, immediately follows the avasarpini which beings with the best state and ends with the worst. Utsarpini and avasarpini follow one another in endless succession. Palyopama, sagaropama, pudgalaparavarta are explicitly explained in Kg I 163b et seq., II 83a et seq. The entire doctrine of time is minutely treated in Lp sarga 28 et seq. See also F. O. Schrader "Uber denstand der indischen Philosophie zu zeit Mahaviras und Buddhas" (p.61) and W.Kirfel, "Die Kosmographie der Inder" p.337 et seq.


                                                          |            |

                                                          | Maximum      | Minimum

____________________________________|_________________      |________________

     celestial state of existence            | 10 kkso      | 2000/7 po 1-sensed class of beings            | 20 kkso      | 2/7 so

     2-3-4 sensed class of beings            | 18 kkso      | 9/35 so

     5-sensed class of beings            | 20 kkso      | 2/7 so

     physical, fiery, karman body            | 20 kkso      | 2/7 so

     transformation body .. ..            | 20 kkso      | 2000/7 po

     translocation body .. ..                  | < 1 kkso      | < 1 kkso

     1. firmness (of the joints)                  |            |

        and figure .. .. ..                  | 10 kkso      | 1/7 so

     2. firmness (of the joints)            |            |

        and figure .. .. ..                  | 12 kkso      | 6/35 so

     3. firmness (of the joints)            |            |

        and figure .. .. ..                  | 14 kkso      | 7/35 so

     4. firmness (of the joints)            |            |

        and figure .. .. ..                  | 16 kkso      | 8/35 so

     5. firmness (of the joints)            |            |

        and figure .. .. ..                  | 18 kkso      | 9/35 so

     6. firmness (of the joints)            |            |

        and figure .. .. ..                  | 20 kkso      | 2/7 so

     black color .. .. ..                  | 20 kkso      | 2/7 so

     green color .. .. ..                  | 17 1/2 kkso      | 2/7 so

     red color .. .. ..                  | 15 kkso      | 2/7 so

     yellow color .. .. ..                  | 12 1/2 kkso      | 2/7 so

     white color .. .. ..                  | 10 kkso      | 1/7 so

     pleasant odor .. .. ..                  | 10 kkso      | 1/7 so

     unpleasant odor .. ..                  | 20 kkso      | 2/7 so

     bitter taste .. .. ..                  | 20 kkso      | 2/7 so

     biting taste .. .. ..                  | 17 1/2 kkso      | 2/7 so

     astringent taste .. ..                  | 15 kkso      | 2/7 so

     sour taste .. .. ..                  | 12 1/2 kkso      | 2/7 so

     sweet taste .. .. ..                  | 10 kkso      | 1/7 so

     heavy, rough, cold, dry (touch)            | 20 kkso      | 2/7 so

     light, smooth, warm, adhesive            | 10 kkso      | 1/7 so

     infernal anupurvi .. ..                  | 20 kkso      | 2000/7 po

     animal anupurvi .. ..                  | 20 kkso      | 2/7 so

     human anupurvi .. .. ..                  | 15 kkso      | 3/14 so

     celestial anupurvi .. ..                  | 10 kkso      | 2000/7 po

     pleasant gait .. .. ..                  | 10 kkso      | 1/7 so

     unpleasant gait .. ..                  | 20 kkso      | 2/7 so

     annihilation of others, breath ing,            |            |

     warm splendor, cold                  |            |

     luster, "not heavy-not                  |            |

     light" .. .. .. ..                  | 20 kkso      | 2/7 so

     tirthakara .. .. ..                  | < 1 kkso      | < 1 kkso

     formation, self-annihilation            | 20 kkso      | 2/7 so

     movable, gross, developed,            |            |

     individual (body) .. ..                  | 20 kkso      | 2/7 so

     firm, beautiful, sympathetic            |            |

     melodious, suggestive ..            | 10 kkso      | 1/7 so

     fame .. .. .. ..                  | 10 kkso      | 8 muhurta

     fine, common, undeveloped            | 18 kkso      | 9/35 so

     flexible, ugly, unsympathetic,            |            |

     immovable, ill-sounding,            |            |

     unsuggestive, shame ..            | 20 kkso      | 2/7 so

VII high family surroundings ..            | 10 kkso      | 8 muhurta

     low family surroundings ..            | 20 kkso      | 2/7 so

VIII 5 hindrances .. .. ..                  | 30 kkso      | < 1 muhurta



The duration of the nama-ks viz. limbs, binding, samghatana is equivalent to that of the respective body-ks. The unequal length of the minimum durations depends upon the disappearing of the ks in the gunasthanas (see below). With most of the ks, the minimum duration is arrived at by dividing the maximum sthiti of the k in question by the maximum sthiti of unbelief. There are, however, many exceptions to this.


With the different karmans a definite abadha-kala is assumed i.e. an interval during which the k is existing, but is not practicing its molesting effect. One arrives at that if one puts 100 years instead of 1 kotakoti of sagaropamas. The maximum abadha of the veilings of knowledge amounts, therefore, to 3000 years, that of the passions, to 4000 years, etc., (and) the abadha of the minimum sthiti with all prakrtis to less than 48 minutes (Kg II 25a, 32a).


About sthiti and abadha there are still a number of other special regulations which in this connection can just as little be discussed as the differences of opinion which exist between the several teachers concerning the duration of the karmans.


The maximum-duration of all ks, even of the good ones, with the exception of the celestial, human and animal ayus is considered as bad, the minimum duration as good. Those of the 3 ayus mentioned are always considered as good. The duration of the karmans of a jiva is dependent on the tenure of his mind (adhyavasaya), and, therefore, on the strength of the kasayas. The more sinful a being is, the larger s the sthiti of the karman; the purer the being is, the smaller is the sthiti. Of the 3 ayus mentioned, however, the sinful is binding a smaller, the pure a larger sthiti.



THE INTENSITY (rasa or anubhaga) OF THE KARMAN

                          Kg. II, 52b., Ps. 564.


Just as the nimba fruit has in the different kinds of preparation a more or less bitter, a sweet dish a more or less sweet taste, so, likewise the karman practices its effect, according to circumstances, in a more or less intense manner. The intensity of the effects of the karman corresponds to the compactness or the karman-matter; it is conditional upon the weakness of strength of the kasayas. According to the 4 degrees of the passions, 4 degrees of the strength of the karman are recognized.


With the bad prakrtis the strongest, the 4th degree of the rasa is produced by the most violent passions, those of life-long duration. The 3rd degree is caused by the apratyakhyanavaranakasayas, the 2nd by the pratyakhyanavarana-kasayas, the 1st (the weakest) by the flaming-up passions. With the good karman-species the samjvalanas cause the 4th (the strongest), the pratyakhyanavarana-kasayas the 3rd, the apratyakhyanavarana-kasayas the 2nd (the weakest) degree. A rasa of the 1st degree does not exist with the good prakrtis. Of the bad prakrtis only 17 have the rasa of the 1st degree, namely the 5 hindrances, the first 4 veilings of knowledge, the first 3 veilings of undifferentiated cognition, male sex, and the flaming-up passions; the other bad prakrtis have, like the good ones, only a rasa of the 2nd, 3rd and 4th degree. The reason for the absence of the 1st degree in the case of most of the karman-species in their peculiar arrangement in the gunasthanas, of which more will be said later.


The different rasa of a karma-prakrti can be exemplified most clearly by the desaghatis. The 4 first veilings of knowledge, for instance, are working so strongly at the anubhaga of the 4th and 3rd degrees that knowledge is quite impossible, at the intensity of the 2nd degree they hinder knowledge totally or partially, at the rasa of the 1st degree only partially (Kg. II, 56b).


The most sinful a jiva is, the longer the duration of his karman, the stronger the effect of his bad, the weaker that of his good prakrtis, whilst with an increased purity the duration of the bound karman and the intensity of the bad prakrtis decrease and the rasa of the good prakrtis grows (Kg. II, 43b).



(Kg. II, 68b seq., Tattv. VIII, 25).


The atoms are, according to the number in which they are found together, divided into categories (vargana). Atoms which are found alone, from the 1st vargana, aggregates (skandha) of 2 atoms the 2nd vargana and so forth.


A vargana the aggregates of which are comprising a certain minimum of pradesas and which is according to its condition (parinama), is not too high a degree gross (sthula), can be assimilated by the jiva to the physical body. This is the minimum-audarika-vargana. If one adds an atoms to each aggregate of the vargana, one obtains the 2nd audarika-vargana, which is somewhat fine, but more compact than the preceding one. If one continues in this way, one finally obtains the maximum audarika-vargana. If one atom is added to each skandha of the latter, there results the minimum audarika-agrahana-vargana: the complex is not gross enough and contains too many atoms in order to be capable of being assimilated to the physical body. Again, to each aggregate an atoms is added till the maximum audarika-agrahana-vargana results ; still one atom more, and the complex contains enough atoms and possesses a sufficient degree of subtlety (suksma-parinama), in order to be capable of forming the minimum vargana for the transformation-body. On the maximum-vargana follow again vaikriya-agrahana-varganas, and then in constant change the grahana-and-agrahana-varganas of the translocation-body, of the fiery body, of the speech, of the breath, of the thinking organ, and finally of the karman.


From the preceding result two essential peculiarities of the karman-complexes, through which these are distinguished from the other kinds of the varganas, which the jivas assimilate. Firstly the karma-varganas are exceedingly fine, finer even than those which the jiva requires for speaking, breathing and thinking. And, secondly, a karman aggregate surpasses in regard to the quantity of atoms of which it consists, all other skandhas.


About the condition of the karman-aggregates, we further learn, that there exist with them 2 odors, 5 colors, 5 tastes, and only 4 touches, namely cold, warm, adhesive, and rough (whilst with the skandhas of the physical body all 8 sparsas are found).


The jiva assimilates karman-matter which is within his own pradesas, not matter lying outside of them, just as fire only seizes inflammable material which is lying within its reach. Every part of the soul is, therefore, filled with karma-pudgalas, which, if the necessary conditions are fulfilled, adhere to the jiva like dust to a body besmeared with oil. The jiva seizes a karman-particle simultaneously with all his parts, because an exceedingly close connection exists between all the pradesas of a jiva, as with the links of a chain.


The karman-particle absorbed by the jiva develops into the 8 species of the karman, as food consumed at a changes itself into blood and the other humors of the body (Jacobi ad. Tattv. VIII, 5). The shares which fall to the 8 mula-prakrtis differ from one another; their measure corresponds to the length of their sthiti. Ayus receives the smallest part, a greater portion goes to naman and gotra, which both obtain equal portions. More than the latter go to the two avaranas and antaraya, each of which gets an equal portion. Still a larger part than these falls to mohaniya; by far the greatest of all, however, to vedaniya.


The part falling to a mula-prakrti is then further divided among the uttara-prakrtis. Among the jnanavaranas the veiling of omniscience receives an infinitely small part (as it is sarvaghatin), the rest falls to the 4 other prakrtis. At the darsanavarana the part which has sarvaghati-rasa is divided into 6 parts (for the veiling of absolute undifferentiated cognition and the 5 kinds of sleep), the remainder, provided with desaghati-rasa is divided into 3 parts. The part falling to vedaniya becomes completely sata or asata, as only one of these two can be bound. The part of the mohaniya provided with sarvaghati-rasa is divided into 2 portions, one of which falls to darsana-mohaniya, the other to caritra-mohaniya. The former becomes entirely mithyatva, the latter is converted into the 12 kasayas. The remainder has desaghati-rasa and is divided into 2 parts, of which the first belongs to the 4 flaming-up passions, whilst the other falls to one of the 3 sexes, to joking and liking (or to disliking and sorrow, according to which was bound) and to fear and disgust. The part of the ayus belongs altogether to one of the 4 uttara-prakrtis, as only one of them can be bound. The part of the naman is separated into as many sub-divisions as uttara-prakrtis can be bound, the sub-divisions of color, odor, taste, touch, body, samghatana and binding obtain portions from the one particle falling to the mula-prakrti. The part of the gotra is attributed entirely to the high or low gotra, as both are not bound simultaneously. The part of the antaraya is equally distributed between the 5 uttara-prakrtis.


If a certain prakrti can no more be bound in a particular gunasthana, the quantity of matter that would fall to it, is attributed to the other prakrtis which belong to the same class (jati). If also those are no more bound, the karman-particle falls to the mula-prakrti, and is divided between the still remaining parts. If also the mula-prakrti is no longer bound, it falls to another mula-prakrti. For example, if nidranidra, pracalapracala and styanarddhi are no longer bound, the dravya which would fall to them becomes nidra and pracala, which both belong to their class. If also nidra and pracala are no longer capable of being bound the matter is converted into the still remaining kinds of the darsanavarana. If the binding of all the darsanavarana is no more possible (as in the 11th gunasthana), the particle becomes sata-vedaniya.


Devendasuri shows (Kg. II, 77a et seq.) in a detailed manner in what proportion the number of the pradesas of an uttara-prakrti stands in maximum and minimum towards the quantity of the pradesas of the other uttara-prakrtis belonging to the same class. I do not wish to reproduce these long explanations in extenso, and therefore content myself with an example:

"Of darsanavarana, if the maximum number of pradesas in taken into consideration, the number of pradesas of pracala is comparatively very small; in proportion to it, the number of nidra is larger (visesadhika); in proportion to it, that of pracalapracala is larger; in proportion to it, that of nidranidra is larger; in proportion to it, that of styanarddhi is larger; in proportion to it, that of kevala-darsana-avarana is larger; in proportion to it, the number of the pradesas of avadhi-darsana-avarana is infinitely larger; in proportion to it, that of acaksur-darsana-avarana is still larger; in proportion to it, that of caksur-darsana-avarana is again larger."

"Of darsanavarana, if the minimum number of pradesas is taken into consideration, the quantity of the pradesas of nidra is comparatively small; in proportion to it, the number of the pradesas of pracala is larger; in proportion to it, that of nidranidra is larger; in proportion to is that of pracalapracala is larger; in proportion to it, that of styanarddhi is larger; in proportion to it, that of kevala-darsana-avarana is larger; in proportion to it, that of avadhi-darsana-avarana is infinitely larger; in proportion to it, that of acaksur-darsana-avarana is still larger; in proportion to it, that of caksur-darsana-avarana is again larger."

The smaller the number of prakrtis between which a karman-particle must be divided, and the higher organized the being is who assimilates the karman, the larger is the number of the pradesas which fall to a prakrti (Kg. II, 89a). The height of the physical development of a jiva corresponds to the degree of his activity (yoga), through which he produces the attraction of karma-pudgalas. A completely developed thinking being assimilates, therefore, more matter than a creature only incompletely developed and with only one sense. If now this great quantity of matter is only divided between a few prakrtis, because most of the prakrtis are no more bound, then naturally arises with each of these prakrtis a greater number of pradesas than if the same matter would fall to a great number of prakrtis. This consideration shows that the greatness or smallness of the pradesa-bandha of the different prakrtis does not upon ethical factors, as with sthiti-bandha and rasa-bandha, but upon mechanical ones.