Translated by


(D.M.E., D.T.Ed.)

Manager, Materials Management Deptt.

Thermal & Nuclear Section

Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd.




Review and Editing by



M.Com., LL.B., Sahitya Ratna

Visiting Professor

Institute of Management, Devi Ahilya University







Department of Publication

Shri Todarmal Smarak Bhawan

A-4 Bapu Nagar, Jaipur 302004






Published by:

Kund-Kund Kahan Tirth Suraksha Trust


 Price Rs. 80/-




Printed By:

Jaipur Printer Pvt. Ltd.

M.I. Road, Jaipur-1











  (i) About This Book (Translator's Prelude)  (i)


 (ii) Peculiarity of Jainism


(iii) Introduction



1. Chapter 1



2. Chapter 2

   Nature of Mundane Existence


3. Chapter 3

   Miseries of Mundane Existence and Bliss of Liberation 


4. Chapter 4

   Exposition of False Belief Knowledge and Conduct      


5. Chapter 5

   Analytical study of different religions               


6. Chapter 6

   Refutation of False Deity-Preceptor-Religion         


7. Chapter 7

   X-ray of Jaina-misbelievers                           


8. Chapter 8

   Nature of Sermons                                     


9. Chapter 9

   Nature of Liberation Path                           


10. Appendix I

    Nature of Noble Peaceful Death                


11. Appendix II

    Rahasyapoorna Chitthi (Spiritual Letter)    


12. Glossary                                             













In this 20th century this Moksha Marg Prakashak has turned the eyes of thousands of people all over India and abroad towards the right path of salvation.  Whosoever curiously reads this book, surrenders his false belief before its author Acharyakalpa Pt.Todarmalji and accepts his treatise to be the gist of omniscient preaching and compendium of Jain Philosophy; and feels indebted to him.  I too knew the importance of this book in 1966 AD through Pujya Shri Kanji Swami of Songad (Saurashtra, India) and read it several times concentratedly.  I am highly indebted to both of them and pay my hearty tributes to them.


In fact, the whole of Jain Society is indebted to Pt.Todarmalji for his unique gift of "Moksha Marg Prakashak" and " Samyagjnan-Chandrika" because all this he wrote in the spoken language of his time.  Although he could not complete the work of " Moksha Marg Prakashak" in which he wanted to elaborate various other related topics.  However, in his short span of life, he contributed significantly to Jaina Philosophy and enriched Jaina literature with an enduring stamp of authenticity.  He re-established the faith in Tattvas in their true perspective sense through logically approved facts.  His vast knowledge and philosophical ability is reflected in this book, which in fact embraces the entire range of Jaina canon and philosophical intricacies.  It is because of this book he was conferred the title of 'Acharyakalpa' (a highly knowledgeable person like an Acharya monk).


The prime object of this book is to point out the true practical and scientific method of self-realization as laid down by the Jaina Tirthankaras who rose to the highest height of perfection with its aid.  No effort has been spared by Todarmalji to make this book as self-contained and complete in its subject.  The subject- matter is presented in a very effective manner through question-answer style, which explains Jainism both to a lay reader and to a learned scholar.


His philosophy is not a mere encyclopedia of logically approved facts but it is creative and synthetic too. It is this trait which distinguishes him from mere religious leadership.  His genius was so critical and subtle that he fused an enormous amount of knowledge into a unified whole and exerted immeasurable influence on scholars, philosophers, and religious leaders then around him.  His illustrated teachings through question-answer style of description had a wider and more popular appeal than any other Indian Scholar or saint. His teachings are based upon the belief that the moral questions could not find satisfactory answers without an integrated knowledge of seven Tattvas. The central theme of his preaching is to realize the self-soul by giving up false belief knowledge and conduct and this is possible through right understanding of seven Tattvas only because there are deeper stamps & impressions of misconceptions and distorted understandings upon our minds about these Tattvas.


With the view to keep myself engaged in the study of Jaina Scriptures and attain self-realization. I dared to translate this great work of Pt. Todarmalji into English, which took about three years (1984-86) to complete.


My sincere thanks are to my friend Prof. Shri Jamnalal Jain (Devi Ahilya University of Indore), himself a keen student of Jain Philosophy, for taking great pains in thoroughly checking and correcting the translation by rearranging the sentences for maintaining true sense of original book and giving fluency to language.  I very sincerely acknowledge and feel gratitude towards him for his whole-hearted co-operation without which this re-edition would have not been possible.


I am also thankful to Late Shri S. Gajapathi Jain of Tiruppanamoor (Madras) for his valuable suggestion regarding translation of this book, when I met him personally at his residence in May 1986. I also thank my friend Shri N. C. Mavani (M. Tech), Sion, Bombay for providing Photostat copies of my English manuscript for getting the translation checked. My thanks are also due to my friends Dr. Pt. U. C. Jain, M.A. , Ph.D, Seoni, Dr. Pt. D.K Jain, M.A., Ph.D (Professor Govt. College Neemuch) Pt. Rajmal Jain, Bhopal, Shri Suresh Jain, IAS, Bhopal, Shri V.C. Shripalan, Madras, for giving useful suggestions in this venture.


 Although I have tried my level best not to deviate from the original text and enough care has been taken to maintain the true meaning and sense, however to convey accurately the original sense by translation in English language is not easy, especially of longer sentences written by Panditji. I therefore, request the learned readers to forgive me for the errors still left and which may be entirely due to my own limitation and negligence. Readers are gratefully requested to send their valuable suggestions, which may be utilized in the next edition. Ignoring my errors in translation even if a single soul is inspired by this book to seek the truth in right direction, I shall consider my efforts amply rewarded.


In the end I take this opportunity to express my sincere thanks to Shri Kund-Kund Kahan Tirtha Suraksha Trust Bombay, particularly Br. Shri Dhanya Kumarji Belckar, Devlali and Shri Vasant Bhai Doshi Bombay, for their decision to publish this book in English and for keeping the price below actual cost. My thanks are also due to Shri Nemichandji Patni, and Dr. Hukamchandji Bharilla both of Todarmal Smarak Trust  Jaipur, for their keen interest and whole-hearted cooperation in the early publication of this book and to Shri Sohan Lalji Jain, Jaipur Printers, Jaipur; Shri Rajmal Jain, Jaipur (Susheel Printers, Jaipur).




 An humble disciple of Shri Kund-Kund Acharya & Pt. Todarmalji



Manager (MM) Thermal & Nuclear        MaterialsManagement

Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd.

BHOPAL462022 (India)


Bhopal, India

15 May, 1992







Jainism more than any other creed gives absolute religious independence and freedom to man. Nothing can intervene between the actions, which we do and the fruits thereof. Once done, they become our masters and must fructify. As my independence is great, so my responsibility is coextensive with it. I can live as I like, but my choice is irrevocable, and I cannot escape the consequences of it. This principle distinguishes Jainism from other religions; e.g. Christianity, Muhammadanism, Hinduism. No God or his prophet, or deputy or beloved can interfere with human life. The soul, and it alone is directly and necessarily responsible for that it does. __Jugmander Lal Jain, Outlines of Jainism, pp. 344.




The first question, which arises in connection with the idea of Creation is, why should God make the world at all ?  One system suggests, that he wanted to make the world, because it pleased him to do so; another, that he felt lonely and wanted company; a third, that he wanted to create beings who would praise his glory and worship, a fourth that he does it in sport and so on.


 Why should it please the creator to create a world where sorrow and pain are the inevitable lot of the majority of his creatures? Why should he not make happier beings to keep him company?


(It is really a most unchallengable argument. ---written by Barrister Champat Rai Jain, Key of Knowledge p. 135)




 "In conclusion let me assert my conviction, that Jainism is an original system, quite distinct and independent from all others and that, therefore, it is of great importance for the study of philosophical thought and religious life in ancient India"-- Dr Harman Jaikobi, read his paper in the 3rd International Congress of the History of Religions.




"The complete and flawless practice of Ahimsa raises the man to Godhood. It gives light, provides delight and bestows might to its faithful and honest aspirant."


Gandhi ji aspired to practice highest type of Ahimsa by becoming a nude Jain Monk (Muni). When Churchill had rebuked Gandhi ji by calling him 'A Naked Fakir', he had informed Churchill 'I would love to be a naked fakir, but I am not one yet'.--The life of M. K. Gandhi, L. Fisher, p. 473.








It is a matter of great satisfaction, that the English version of Moksha Marg Prakashak is being published by Shri Kund-Kund Kahan Digamher Jain Tirtha Suraksha Trust, Bombay.


The real credit for this English Translation belongs to my friend Hemchandji Jain, who on his own initiative worked hard day and night selflessly for more than three years to complete this stupendous task of preparing a workable literal translation of this famous book of Pandit Todarmalji, bearing in mind the great need for maintaining the sense and spirit of the author all throughout. I sincerely thank him for providing me this opportunity of associating myself with the review and editing work. We have together spent scores of hours in giving it the present shape.


 The basis of this English version is the Hindi Edition, edited by the renowned Jain scholar and author of several books on Jain philosophy and who has been awarded the title of Jain Ratna by the JAINA of USA in 1984, Ph. D. on Pandit Todarmal - life & work by University of Indore in the year 1973, Dr. Hukamchand Bharilla, (Shastri, Nyayatirtha, Sahitya-Ratna, M.A., Ph.D.), and published by Pandit Todarmal Smarak Trust, Jaipur.





In the true tradition of ancient Jain Saints and scholars,  Pandit Todarmalji, too, did not pay any attention towards writing anything about his life history. Therefore, nothing definite can be said on the dates of his birth, death and life span. However, on the basis of the available circumstantial and other evidence Dr. Hukamchand Bharilla in his research treatise " Pandit Todarmal - life and work" established his year of birth to be 1719-20 A.D. and the year of his passing away 1766 A.D. with a life-span of only 47 years. He was borne in Jaipur (India). His father was Shri Jogidasji Khandelwal of Godika Gotra (Jain subcaste) and Rambha Bai his mother. He was married and had two sons, Harishchandra and Gumaniram.  Shri Gumaniram was a great revolutionary genius.


He received ordinary education in the spiritual Tera Panthi Style of Jaipur, but his deep scholarship was mainly due to hard work and genius. He was a great intellectual having sharpness of understanding and a studious nature. He was well- versed in Prakrit, Sanskrit, Hindi and Kannad languages.


About his scholarship Pandit Raimalji wrote in his letter of invitation for the Indra-dhwaj Vidhana (Ritual), in the year l764, "It is very difficult to find a man of his intellect these days. All the doubts about religious matters are removed after meeting him".


About his knowledge and studies, he himself writes in Moksha Marg Prakashah, "I have studied Samayasara Panchastikaya, Prauachanasara, Niyamsara, Gomattasara, Labdhisara, Triloksara, Tattvarthasutra, with commentaries; Kshapanasara, Purushartha Siddhyupaya, Asthapahud, Atmanushasana and many other scriptures describing the conduct of monks and householders, and Puranas containing stories of great personalities according to my own understanding and knowledge".


In his short life- span, he wrote, in all, twelve books, big and small which is about a lac verses in measure and about five thousand pages.


Some of these are commentaries of popular sacred books while others are independent works of his own. These are found both in prose and poetry. They are as follows:


  1. Rahasyapurna Chitthi (Spiritual letter)

 2. Gomattasara Jivakanda-Hindi commentary

 3. Gomattasara Karmakand-Hindi commentary

 4. Arthasandrashthi-Adhikar.

 5. Labdhisara-Hindi commentary

 6. Kshapanasara-Hindi commentary

 7. Gomattasara puja

 8. Triloksara-Hindi commentary

 9. Samosharana Rachna Varnan

 10. Moksha Marg Prakashak (Incomplete)

11. Atmanushasan-Hindi commentary

12. Purusharthasiddhyupaya-Hindi commentary (incomplete).


The last book was completed by Pandit Daulatram Kasliwal in 1770. His prose style is pure, fully developed and comprehensible.  The most beautiful form of his style can be seen in his original work Moksha Marg Prakashak. His language originally Brij, has the stiffness of Khari-Boli and also local tinge. It is strong and fine enough, to express forcefully his ideas and feelings. Though books numbers 2 to 6 were written by the author separately, yet looking to their complementary nature the author gave them a collective name Samyagjnana Chandrika".




Moksha Marg Prakashak is one of the most important original works of Pandit Todarmalji. The basis of this treatise is not anyone Jain spiritual shastra but the whole of the available Jain literature.  This was to be, in reality, a meaningful effort of engrossing all the fundamentals of Jain philosophy and rituals; but it is regretted that this profoundly learned treatise could not be completed due to the untimely passing away of the author. In spite of being incomplete, it is acknowledged all everywhere as a unique contribution to available Jain literature. This is one of the most popular books whose several editions have been published not only in Hindi, but in several other Indian languages like Marathi, Gujarati, Urdu, etc. Till today, in all 150000 copies have been published in various languages. Besides, hundreds of handwritten copies of this book are found in the libraries of Digambar Jain Temples throughout India.  In the whole of Digambar Jain Society this is the most popular Shastra for community collective reading and as a basis of sermons in regular religious congregations. The original handwritten copy in the hand of Pandit Todarmalji is also available in the famous temple at Jaipur- "Shri Deewanji Ka Mandir"- where Pandit Todarmalji used to lecture everyday to a gathering of more than a thousand persons.


 This book, written in simple spoken language, is the result of the inner inspiration and pious desire of the author to enlighten those curious fellow-citizens who could not understand and get the real message of Jain philosophy and fundamentals available in intricate works written in Sanskrit and Prakrit by Jain Acharyas. No other worldly ambition has been the inspiring force behind writing this book.


In the present available form the book Moksha Marg Prakashak has nine chapters. The first eight chapters are complete but the ninth chapter is incomplete. By the manner the ninth chapter was started, it clearly seems that the subject of Right Belief was to be propounded and clarified in all its details. But alas, much could not be written. Only the nomenclatures of the eight qualities of Right Belief and twenty-five blemishes to be avoided could be listed. Their characteristics could not be described as desired.


In the original manuscript, indications are available to show that the author wanted to give a second thought even to the sequence and chapter headings of various chapters. At the end of the incomplete ninth chapter Panditji had a plan to write many more chapters.  At twelve places in the available nine chapters clear indications are found to show his inner desire to throw light on various issues at appropriate places. This means that had this book been completed as per the author's hidden plan, it would have run into about five thousand handwritten pages throwing detailed light on Right- Belief, Right Knowledge and Right Conduct, the basic fundamentals of the path of liberation.


This book has been written in the analytical prose- style; through the medium of question-answer the subject matter has been deeply clarified.  The subject matter of this book is highly philosophical, but whatever topic has been chosen for discussion, it has been success-fully clarified fully, keeping in view all the possible supplementaries relating to it. While studying the book whatever question is likely to crop up in the mind of the reader, the same is found raised in the next line along with its explanation, and therefore, the curiosity of the reader is very well maintained throughout.


The construction of sentences is brief and the style of clarification logical and analytical. Though unnecessary expansion is avoided, yet no topic is left incomplete due to brevity of style. Whatever topics are touched by the author, no aspect of the same is left unclarified.  The style is so charming and unique that even the totally unknown topic has become easily graspable.


For clarifying the subject matter, sufficient use of popular examples is found. The example of the patient and physician has been profusely used in the second, third, fourth and fifth chapters.  To carry home to the reader the message of the topic under discussion and to substantiate his point of view, Panditji has largely drawn quotations and examples from innumerable Jain and non-jain philosophical and religious books.


 From the viewpoint of the subject matter, the contribution of the author is no less important.  Although each sentence of the book reflects true Jain religion and philosophy, yet a lot of such new thought is available in the book which is not found in that very lucid form in earlier Jain literature. From this angle chapters seventh and eighth need special mention.  Some such examples are as under:


 1. Classification of Nishchyaabhasi, Vyavharaabhasi Ubhayaa- bhasi etc. in the form of Jain misbelievers.


2. True traits of Panchparmeshthis


3. Misconceptions about seven Tattvas


4. Real conventional viewpoint


5. The correct method of understanding the true meaning of Jain Shastras


6. The purpose of all the four Anuyogas, the constitution of discourses, style of description, imagination about existence of blemishes and their clarifications, etc.


Not only has Panditji provided new knowledge but he has also x-rayed and given valuable comments and suggestions upon the prevalent religious rituals and practices of the society of his times.  This clearly shows that besides self-realization and profound knowledge of scriptures, he possessed a keen sense of understanding and analyzing the intricacies of social behavior (Chapter seventh). As an example, the following graphic description relating to the so-called religious practices and rituals followed by the Jain society 230 years ago is truly applicable even in the present era:


" Many Jivas follow religion (rituals) either because of family tradition or by observing others or under the influence of greed passion. Such persons in no way possess the religious viewpoint.  While they are worshiping, their mind gets engrossed in other thoughts, their eyes are engaged in seeing others, chanting of sermons continues through mouth.  All this is not purposeful, because they do not know as to who they are, whose adoration is being done and for what purpose, What is the meaning of the words they are chanting, etc.


Sometimes they are found worshiping even the fallacious and imaginary gods, etc. because of the want of discriminatory knowledge between fallacious gods and true gods, etc."


For drawing attention of learned scholars and pious readers, innumerable revolutionary statements are found at several places in Moksha Marg Prakashak. A few of them are quoted hereunder:


(1) If one's belief becomes as per the true nature of the substances then all his miseries come to an end.


(2) In Tattvarthsutra, while defining Influx Tatva, Great and Small Vows also are included under Influx. How could then these be worth adopting?


 (3) But Adoration is a form of attachment and attachment causes bondage, therefore, it is not the cause of liberation.


(4) One does not make effort for renouncing attachment- aversion passions, which cause Influx and merely makes efforts for avoiding related external activities or other instrumental causes. But by their avoidance Influx cannot be avoided.


(5) No other substance defiles forcibly. When our own thoughts and feelings get defiled then only it is an instrumental cause. Moreover, one's thoughts get defiled even without an instrumental cause; therefore, it is not a regulatory instrumental cause. Thus finding faults in others, is a fallacy.


(6) And in not ascertaining the real nature of Tattvas there is no fault of any Karma, it is your own fault. But you want to remain an ostentatious person and lay your fault on Karmas. So, for one who obeys Jinas commands, such malversation is not possible.


(7) Behold the magnanimity of deliberation on Tattvas. A person devoid of deliberation on Tattvas, may have faith on Deva etc., may study many shastras, may practice vows, may observe penances, etc., even then he is not entitled to evolve right belief, and one who engrosses himself in deliberation on Tattvas is privileged to evolve right belief even without these practices.


(8) Vyauahara-Naya describes the self and nonself substances, their modifications and cause and effect relationship, etc. by intermingling one with the other; misbelief is caused by having such faith; therefore, one should abandon it. And Nishchay-Naya describes the substances, etc. exactly as they are; it does not inter mingle one with the other. So right belief is evolved by such faith. Therefore, one should possess its faith.


 (9) Therefore, so long as such state (passionless disposition) is not evolved, one should indulge in virtuous activities but his belief should be such that these activities too are causes of bondage and worth giving up. If in belief these are taken to be the path of liberation then he is assuredly a Misbeliever (Mithya Dristhi).


Pandit Todarmalji has given prime importance to the practice of passionless conduct in the path of liberation. While attempting to define and explain Right Belief, Right Knowledge and Right Conduct, after analyzing the traits of these three jewels at length, he concludes in the following words: "What to say more, in whatever way the belief of uprooting passions emerges, the same is right belief; by whatever means the knowledge of exterminating passions, etc. is evolved, the same is right knowledge and by whatever means passions are destroyed, the same is right conduct. Such alone should be believed to be the true path of liberation"


The greatest contribution of Panditji is this that he unfolded the spiritual knowledge of Tattvas available in Sanskrit and Prakrit languages through the medium of the spoken language of his times and also provided a new insight for interpretation and analysis of spiritual knowledge. He did not view the spiritual knowledge from traditional and scriptural angle only. For him Tattvajnana is a lively process of meditation, which not only contradicts the traditional ritualistic practices, but, hits hard at the contemporary so-called religious prevalent practices. His thesis has been that no spiritual thinking is original till it has been established on the foundation of logic and self- realization.  According to him religion is not a mere tradition but a self-examined system and practice.


 Though basically he is a spiritual thinker, yet in his contemplation there lies a wonderful harmony of logic and self-realization. He pays attention not only on the thought, but also examines the ability or disability of its propagator and follower on the basis of logic. He maintains that certain essential qualities are necessary for under-standing and interpretation of Tattvajnana. According to him, the path of liberation is nothing separate but it is knowledge of the self-soul only, which he calls passionless-knowledge. Whatever practices and dispositions provide impediments in the process of self-realization, all these are false. He has divided these false traits into two - those which are newly evolved or accepted and those which are found from beginningless times. By newly accepted false belief he means those conjectures and beliefs which we accept in the company of the so-called preceptors who are devoid of spiritual knowledge and which we accept to be true; be these of other sects or of our own sect.  Under these he has logically analyzed and x-rayed all those Jain practices and beliefs which were accepted as part and parcel of Jain Tattvajnana from the sixth century up to the eighteenth century and which had no relation, whatsoever, with real spiritual knowledge.  He has firmly and logically contradicted these so-called visual Jain practices and rituals full of blemishes propagated by Bhattarakas (so-called preceptors).


His style is unique being composed of questions/answers and befitting examples.  One of the chief characteristics of his style is that the question and its answer both are his only. In the answer of the earlier question germinates the latter question. In this way, the earlier question ends only when the subject matter reaches its logical end. The other original and sparkling characteristic of his prose style is  that, he avoids giving sermons to the reader and places before him such a graphic description and analysis of the situation that the reader of his own has to reach at the desired conclusion. The same style and approach which a doctor adopts in the treatment of a disease, is visible in the style of Panditji also.





The title of the book is Moksha Marg Prakashak, therefore, a discussion and interpretation of the path of liberation is expected to be found in the contents. But liberation is relative with bondage.


Therefore, in the beginning the mundane state of bondage and its causes have been considered.  This is mainly the subject matter of the first seven chapters.  In the Eighth Chapter a detailed and comprehensive discussion is found about the technique of understanding the essence of the real message of Jain literature. The Ninth Chapter which has remained incomplete, marks the beginning of a detailed consideration of the liberation path.


The First Chapter is the foundation chapter in which first of all in two verses obeisance is offered to the passionless science of knowledge by following which the Panchparmeshthis have become adorable. Thereafter, after adoration of Panchparmeshthis, their traits, the objective of adoration, authenticity of the book, and purpose of writing it have been logically and judiciously discussed.  This follows characteristics of Shastras worth reading and listening to, traits of discourses and listeners. In the end, the purposefulness of the name of the book and the object of writing it has, been established.


 The Second Chapter contains description of the mundane existence. Sufficient thought is given to the bonded state of the soul, the existence of the bonded state from beginning less times, separate identity of Karmas from the soul and division of Karmas into obscuring (Ghati) and non- obscuring (Aghati), substantive and psychic, etc. Thereafter, light is thrown on new bondage and its causes. At the end, the partially evolved dependent state of knowledge and the state of the soul in bonded state have been considered in detail.


In the Third Chapter, mundane miseries, basic causes of miseries i.e. perverse faith- knowledge- conduct, dispositions of the soul under the influence of passions and ways and means of freeing oneself from the same are described. Thereafter, the migratory states of the soul in the form of one- sensed being, etc, and the miseries suffered in these states along with the means of ending such miseries are discussed. This chapter ends with a description of the Siddha State and it has been logically established that all miseries come to an end in this state and endless total bliss is produced which should be the sole objective of every soul.


The subject matter of the Fourth Chapter is the involvement of the soul from beginningless times in false belief - knowledge and conduct. It also contains a graphic discussion of the need and logic for discriminating between purposeful and purposeless Tattvas. Light is also thrown in detail on the states and dispositions of the soul under influence of delusion and passions.


In the Fifth Chapter the newly developed and accepted false belief has been described at length. Under it all the important non-Jain schools of faith have been x-rayed.


The antiquity and truthfulness of Jaina faith has been logically established on the basis of quotations contained in the oldest shastras and scriptures of other faiths. Panditji considers the Swetamber faction of Jain faith also under other faiths and the falsehood of liberation in the state of womanhood, liberation in the low caste state, liberation in clothal state, etc. has been in logically exposed and refuted.


In the Sixth Chapter also, under the title of newly accepted false belief, the futility of worshiping false deity - preceptor and shastras has been logically established and Jivas are forbidden to worship the same. It also includes an analytical discussion of the futility of adoring Kshetrapal, Padmavati, Sun, Moon, Fire, Beasts, etc.


The subtle form of false belief (delusion) has been described in the Seventh Chapter. Such false belief is found both in the persons who are Jain by mere name and also in Jains who claim that they follow the commandments of Jain Shastras. This is so because they do not understand the inner message contained in Jain scriptures.  Panditji clarifies that although they do not keep company with non Jain preceptors, etc., yet they further foster their already existing wrong belief either due to their own ignorance and mistakes or due to the company of ignorant naked saints and preceptors or by study of scriptures written by them.


 Pandit Todarmalji has classified such misbelievers into the following four categories:


(1) Misbelievers having false conception about Real viewpoint (Nishchayaabhasi)


(2) Misbelievers having false conception about Conventional view-point. (Vyavaharabhasi)


(3) Misbelievers having false conception about both Real and Conventational viewpoints (Ubhayabhasi)


(4) Misbelievers' facing to Right belief (Samyaktva-ke- sanmukh Mithya drishties)



In the discussion of the traits of Nishchayabhasis, their tendencies have been analyzed at length and Jivas are forbidden to become reckless by treating the soul to be pure without understanding the reality about the purity of the self-soul.


While describing the misconceptions of vyavaharabhasi misbelievers, Panditji has strongly supported the viewpoint that in adopting religious practices and rituals one should not follow the same because it is traditional or because such is the commandment of shastras. One should examine its essence and purposefulness judiciously before adopting it.  Even the adoration of true - deity-preceptor and shastra blindly with passion worldly intentions has been forbidden.  A detailed analysis about the misconceptions about the seven Tattvas harbored by the Vyavaharabhasi misbelievers is worth paying attention. The injudicious practices adopted by such persons for attainment of Right Knowledge and Right Conduct have also been thoroughly x-rayed.


A clear cut and in depth analysis of Vyavahar and Nishchay points of views has been attempted while critically examining the misconceptions and practices of misbelievers having false conceptions about both Nishchay and Vyavhar Nayas.


In the description of misbelievers facing Right Belief, the steps involved in understanding the true nature of tattvas for attainment of Right Belief are explained at length and the traits and sequential processes of five labhdis which invariably precede the attainment of Right Belief have been thoroughly discussed.


At the end of this chapter it has been emphatically stressed that the aforesaid various types of blemishes and misconceptions are described here not for searching the same in others and censuring them but for giving up such blemishes and misunderstandings if found existing in one's own self.


 The Eighth Chapter considers the nature of sermons. The whole Jain literature is divided into four categories from the viewpoint of subject matter. These are Mythonomy (Prathamanuyoga), Aetiology (Karnanuyoga), Philosophy (Dravyanuyoga) and Ethology (Charnanuyoga). Though the style and subject matter of each Anuyoga is different from others, yet the objective of all the four Anuyogas is one and the same and it is to inspire Jivas to adopt religion in life. The essence of Jain literature cannot be grasped properly without the knowledge of the style of their descriptions. The subject matter of each and its style of interpretation has been described in detail. Each Anuyoga has its purpose, without understanding which many meaningless misgivings crop up. All these have been very well clarified with suitable examples and comparisons. At the end, great stress is laid on the study of Jain literature with particular emphasis on the study of shastras discussing the true nature of the soul and the seven Tattvas, etc., because therein lies the main purpose of the soul.


In the Ninth Chapter starts the discussion of the nature of the path of liberation. After judiciously proving the hollowness of worldly pleasures and pondering over the existence of real bliss in the state of liberation, it has been well established that attainment of liberation is possible only through one's own real efforts. One should, therefore, himself make right efforts in this direction without expecting any help from others. Then starts a detailed discussion of the first step in the path of liberation, viz. Right Belief and its various definitions available in the four Anuyogas. The misconceptions about the seeming difference in the approach of the four Anuyogas in defining Right Belief have been clearly removed with the help of suitable examples and a synthesis between the same has been established. The nature of the seven Tattvas whose correct knowledge is essential in the attainment of Right Belief has been discussed at length. The concluding lines of this chapter contain an attempt to lay stress on the eight qualities of Right Belief and avoidance of the twenty-five blemishes but this attempt has remained incomplete.


It is a pity that this great personality who was never attracted towards amassing physical comforts and worldly achievements, became a prey of communal hatred and consequently had to sacrifice his life prematurely.


It is extremely difficult and unbecoming for illustrious persons to tread the trodden path, but fewer are such personalities who find their own path and yet do not go astray. Acharyakalpa Pandit Todarmalji was one such person who did not adopt the trodden path and yet did not go astray.


The present work Moksha Marg Prakashak is to be read and digested from beginning to end. Its study and contemplation on issues raised herein are profoundly beneficial for all the seekers of self-realization. Panditji himself has expressed this earnest desire at the end of each chapter.  Keeping in mind those persons who are wasting this precious opportunity of human existence in amassing and enjoying objects of sensual pleasures only and not availing of the opportunity of evolving knowledge of the self-soul Panditji writes:


"As for example- if a miraculous and precious diamond is offered to an extremely pauper person for looking at it but he refuses even to look at it and if a cup of nectar is offered to a leper for drinking but he refuses to drink it, similarly, if a mundane miserable jiva gets an opportunity to listen to an easy discourse on path of liberation (and of studying such simple book written in the spoken language), but he refuses to pay attention to it, then it is not possible for us to describe the glory of his misfortune. When we ponder over his future, a compassionate feeling only arises in us."


There can be no better end to my thoughts beyond the above inspiring words of Pandit Todarmalji.


                               J. L. Jain











Obeisance to Siddhas

(Supreme Liberated Soul)




(The Illuminator of the Path of Liberation)




Acharyakalpa Pt. Todarmalji, Jaipur











Now, the sacred book titled 'Moksha Marg Prakashak'

(The illuminator of the path of liberation) is being written.






DOHA:  Mangalmey mangalkaranr, veetrag vigyan

                    Namo tahi jatai bhye, Arhantadi mhan


                    Kari mangal kari ho mha, granthkaran ko kaj

                  Jatai milai samaj sab, pavai nij ped raj     



The science of non-attachment (passionlessness) is all blissful and cause of bliss; I bow to that science by virtue of which the Arihantas and Siddhas (Omniscient Gods) have attained the supreme state. Having made obeisance; I (Todarmal) endeavor to write this sacred book which may be instrumental in the manifestation of all spiritual traits and help achieve the state of self rule.


Now begins the sacred book titled Moksha Marg Prakashak (illuminator of the path of liberation).  The hymn of adoration follows:


     Namo Arhantanam, Namo Siddhanam, NamoAairiyanam,

     Namo Uvajjhayanam, Namo Loye Savva Sahoonam.


This is Namaskar-mantra (benedictory incantation) in Prakrit language and is extremely blissful. Its sanskrit version is as follows:


 Namo Arhadbhyah, Namah Siddhebhyah, Namah Acharyebhyah, Namah Upadhyayebhyah, Namo Loke Sarva Sadhubhyah



Its meaning is thus: -Obeisance to Arihanta Gods (adorable embodied omniscients), obeisance to Siddha Gods (Liberated disembodied omniscients), obeisance to Acharyas (Chief preceptors of congregation of ascetics-monks), obeisance to Upadhyaya (teacher monks, preceptors), obeisance to all Sadhus (monks) (completely possessionless naked monks) in the universe. Thus in this mantra the obeisance (Namaskar) is offered, hence it is called Namaskar Mantra. Now we ponder over their distinguishing characteristics differentias)



Characteristics of Arhantas


First, we ponder over the characteristics of the Arihantas. He (the true believer) who having renounced the house- holder's life and accepted monk's conduct (ascetic-life) has destroyed the four Ghati Karmas (obscuring karmas) through immersion in one's own soul's intrinsic-nature and in him are manifested the highest attributes of four infinities.  Through infinite knowledge Anant-Jnan (omni-science) he knows directly clearly all substances Jiva, etc., simultaneously together with their infinite attributes and modifications; through infinite perception Anant-Darshan (omni-perception) perceives all these substances in general (undifferentiatedly); through infinite energy Anant Virya he always holds such potency (of knowing & seeing); through infinite bliss (Anant Sukha) he experiences imperturbable supreme bliss of beatitude. Further, who has attained the state of perfect serenity and peace by freeing oneself from all sorts of impure dispositions like attachment-aversion etc,  and has achieved the state of supreme God of gods by becoming free from hunger, thirst, etc., (birth, death, etc.) all sorts of physical maladies and whose body has turned into a supernatural Param-Audarika body having no weapon or clothing and is devoid of censurable signs and symptoms of sex-feeling, anger, etc, foul dispositions and emotions and by whose sermons the Dharma-Tirtha (the conduction of true religious path) prevails in the universe, by means of which the mundane beings attain welfare of the self; and who is found possessing different glories (wonders) and greatens which are the cause for worldly people to believe in his supreme lordship and who is adored by the great personages like Indras (heaven's gods) and Ganadharas (the highest rank of monks' order) etc., for their own spiritual benefit; thus adorable in all respects is Shri Arihanta Deva - to Him I (Todarmal) offer my salutation.



Characteristics of Siddhas (Liberated Souls)


Now, we meditate on the characteristics of Siddhas (liberated disembodied omniscients). He (the true believer) who having renounced the house-holder's life and by following the monk's conduct has attained the four infinites (infinite knowledge perception, bliss and energy) on destruction of four Ghati karmas (obscuring karmas), and after lapse of some time, on destruction of the four Aghati Karmas (Non-obscuring Karmas) also, quitting the supernatural body, he reached at the summit of the universe by virtue of upward-motion nature; there he attained the perfect liberated state by getting release from the association of all foreign substances and whose soul's spatial units retained the shape of human form i.e., a little less than the final body; and whose counter- effect producing karmas got destroyed, hence all spiritual attributes like right belief-knowledge-perception, etc., got fully manifested in their natural states, and whose attachment with Nokarmas, body etc.) has ended; hence the immateriality etc., all spiritual traits, got manifested and whose Bhavakarmas (psychic impure dispositions like attachment- aversion, etc.) are destroyed, hence the manifestation of imperturbable wholly-blissful form of pure self-nature is continuing incessantly and by whose meditation the capable souls (Bhavya-Jivas) attain the discriminative-knowledge of the self-substance and non-self-substances and of alien impure dispositions (evolving due to rise of Karmas) and natural pure dispositions (evolved in the absence of karmas) and by virtue of which the means of attaining Siddhahood is achieved. Therefore, for attaining one's own pure nature which is only worth attaining, they (the Siddhas) serve as images for exhibiting it and who have become kritkritya (attained the supreme attainable), hence continue to dwell in such (a perfect blissful) state infinitely; our salutations to such accomplished Siddhas.



General Characteristics of Jaina Monks:

Acharya, Upadhyaya and Sadhus


Now, we look into the characteristics of Acharya, Upadhyaya Sadhu (all possessionless naked Jaina monks):


 He (the right believer) who having become dispassionate and indifferent to worldly pleasures, relinquished all kinds of possessions and attachments and accepted Shuddhopayoga (pure passionless conduct of self-absorption) form of monk's conduct, experiences internally through that Shuddhopayoga his own self to be the self-soul only; never feels I-ness in other objects and believes one's own sentient nature only as one's own, never feels mineness in alien dispositions, and whatever other substances and their characteristics appear in knowledge, he, of course, knows them but does not have attachment-aversion feelings in them by treating them as agreeable or disagreeable; the body undergoes different changes, various instrumental causes get associated externally but (in those situations) he does not feel happy or unhappy at all, and the external (bodily) activity suitable to his (spiritual) status takes place in natural course, he does not involve himself in it forcibly, and he does not allow his Upayoga' (active consciousness) to deviate or ramble too much, he rather holds deviationless (stable) condition by becoming stoical and dispassionate. And, occasionally, due to rise of mild-passion, Shubhopayoga (auspicious thought activity) is also caused, owing to which he gets inclined towards the external means of Shuddhopayoga but knowing such inclination also to be relinquishing, wishes to uproot it.  And due to the absence of rise of intense passions there exists no Ashubhopayoga (inauspicious thought activity) of indulging in violence, etc., and having attained such an internal state of self, he has accepted the Digambar posture (totally possessionless naked state) of serenity, has become free from the acts of decorating the body, etc., lives in forest, caves etc., follows unbreachedly 28 Moolgunas (basic rites), endures 22 types of Parishahas (afflictions), adores 12 kinds of Tapas (penance's), sometimes becomes motionless like an idol by holding the meditation-posture, sometimes engages himself in external pious activities such as study of scriptures etc, sometimes attentively engages oneself in food-taking and making movement, etc., which activities are fit for him for the sake of maintaining the body, being the associating cause of Muni Dharma (monk's religion).


Such is the state of a Jaina-monk and this applies to all Jaina monks.



 Characteristics of Acharya

 Chief of Congregation of Monks)


Among them (in the group of above monks) he, who has become the leader of a congregation of monks by acquiring the chief rank by virtue of the excellence in right belief, right knowledge and right conduct and who chiefly remains engrossed in Niruikalpa Swaroopaacharan (unrambling state of pure, passionless conduct of the self), and when he has compassionate feeling due to rise of slight mild attachment, preaches sermons to only those Jivas who pray for and are curious for religion; he administers Deeksha (renunciation- vow) to those who want to accept asceticism, and purifies by the process of expiation those who admit their faults.


I bow to such an ascetic chief monk Acharya who admonishes such kind of spiritual conduct.


Characteristics of Upadhyaya (Preceptor Monk)


And (the Jaina-monk) who having obtained the knowledge of various Jain-Shastras (scriptures) has been installed as the authority of teaching and preaching in the congregation of the monks and who by knowing the purposeful meaning of all the Shastras (sacred books of Jains) meditates concentratedly upon the nature of the self (soul) and, if sometimes, due to rise of slight mild-passion, his upayoga (active-knowledge) does not remain fixed in the self, then he himself reads the Shastras and teaches other religious-minded people.


I bow to such an Upadhyaya monk' who teaches Bhavya Jivas (souls capable of attaining liberation).


Characteristics of Sadhu (Ascetic Monk)


Further, excepting the preceding above two types of rank- holders, the rest are all those who hold monk's rank and are engrossed in attaining the nature of the soul and do not ramble their Upayoga (active consciousness) in other substances by treating them agreeable or disagreeable, thus they try to tranquilize the Upayoga and externally observe religious penances, rituals, etc., as being instrumental cause and sometimes engage themselves in invocation, obeisance and such other activities.


Such are the true Jaina monks who incessantly make efforts for the realization of the self soul; I bow to all such ascetic monks.


Purpose of Adoration


 Thus is the nature of Arihantas, etc., it is full of passionlessness with perfect knowledge. By means of that only, the Arihantas, etc., are supreme and worthy of invocation and adoration.  Because from Jiva Tattva (sentient-being) point of view, all Jivas (souls) are alike but because of attachment, etc., psychic maladies and feeble knowledge, Jivas become censurable and due to lessening of attachment, etc., and increase of knowledge deserve adoration; so in Arhantas and Siddhas due to complete absence of attachment, etc., and perfectness of knowledge, the manifestation of absolute passionlessness with perfect knowledge (omniscience) is possible.  And in Acharyas, Upadhyayas and Sadhus i.e., in all real Digambar Jain monks, due to partial lessening of attachment, etc., and specialty of knowledge, the manifestation of partial passionlessness with discriminative right knowledge is possible. Hence Arihantas etc. are to be known as Supreme, worthy of invocation and adoration.


Further, it should be remembered that amongst these Arihantas etc., (five ranks) mainly Tirthankaras and generally all omniscients are termed Arhanta in Prakrit and Arhat in Sanskrit. And just after the last moment of fourteenth Gunasthana (stage of spiritual development) the Arhantas become Siddhas. Further, those monks who have been installed as Acharyas irrespective of whether they live in the congregation of monks or solitarily do self-mediation or live solivagantly or might have attained the rank of Ganadhara by getting principal-ship among the Acharyas also, all of them are called Acharyas. Further, reading & teaching work is done by other monks too but those on whom Upadhyaya rank of monk is conferred by Acharyas, they only, even besides doing the work of self-meditation etc., get the name of Upadhyaya. And all those monks who do not possess any rank are called Sadhus.


Here, there is no such rule that Acharya's rank is attained or termed by observing Panchaachara (five types of observances), Upadhyaya's rank by doing teaching-preaching and Sadhu's rank by practicing Moolgunas (basic-rites) because these observances, rites, etc., are common to all monks, but from the Shabda-Naya (verbal standpoint) their literal meaning is derived so. From Samabhirudha-Naya (conventional standpoint) the Acharya etc. names are to be known by the graduation of ranks only. As for example, by Shabda Naya, that which moves is called the 'cow', likewise the human beings, etc., also make the movement but from Samabhirudha Naya the names are so given from the Paryaya (embodied state) point of view. Similarly, one must understand here also.


Question: What is the reason of offering salutation to Arhantas prior to Siddhas?


Answer: Salutation is offered with the object of getting our purpose accomplished and because the purpose of sermons etc., chiefly gets accomplished from the Arhantas, therefore, the salutation is offered first to them.


Thus, the characteristics of Arhantas, etc., have been reflected on, because by reflecting on their characteristics the specific object gets accomplished. Further, these Arhantas, etc., are called Panch-Parmeshtis (the five utmost beneficial Supreme souls) because that which is utmost beneficial is named as Parameshta . The Panch (five) who are Parameshta are thus collectively named and called Panch Parmeshtis.


 Further, Rishabha, Ajita, Sambhava, Abhinandana, Sumati, Padmaprabha, Suparshva, Chandraprabha, Pushpadant, Sheetal, Shreyansa, Vasupujya, Vimal, Ananta, Dharma, Shanti, Kunthu, Ara, Malli, Munisuvrat, Nami, Nemi, Parshva, Wardhamana - so named 24 Tirthankaras - have been the pioneers of the presently existing Dharma Tirtha (spiritual voyage) in this Bharat-Kshetra; they are specifically adored by Indras (heavenly gods), etc., during their attaining auspicious occasions of conception, birth, asceticism, omniscience and salvation, and are now situated in Siddhalaya (the abode of liberated souls at the summit of the universe); I bow to them all.


Further, Seemandhara, Yugamandhara, Bahu, Subahu, Samjataka, Swayamprabh, Vrishabhanana, Ananta-virya, Surprabha, Vishalkirti, Vajradhara, Chandranana, Chandrabahu, Bhujangama, Ishwara, Nemiprabha, Veersena, Mahabhadra, Devayash, Ajttvirya - so named 20 Tirthankaras - who are at present situated with omniscience in Videhakshetras of Panch- merus (the five highest mounts), I bow to them all.


Although these are included in the Parameshtis rank, never the less, in the present time, knowing their significance and supremacy, salutation is offered separately.


Further, the naturally existing unartificial idols of Jinas (Arhantas) that are situated in Triloka (three worlds of the universe) and the artificial 'Jinas' idols that are installed with ritual-ceremony in the middle world, whose Darshan (sighting and invocation) etc., only, even without getting any (discernible) sermon from them, the accomplishment of our benediction takes place as is accomplished by the Darshan of Tirthankara-Kewali (embodied omniscients); I bow to all these 'Jinas' idols.


Further, the Anga-prakeernakas (the sacred scriptures containing omnicient's commandments) created by Ganadharas according to the sermons given in Divya-dhwani (omniscient's preachings) and according to those (Anga-Prakeernakas) the Granthas (sacred books) written by other Acharyas etc., all those are Jina-vachanas (omniscient's preachings) which are worth recognizing through the emblem of Syadvada (the theory of relative or conditional predication) and are non- contradictory to path of justice, therefore, are authentic and are the cause of Tattva-Jnana (true knowledge of substances) for Jivas, therefore, are beneficial; I bow to them.


 Further, the Chaityalaya (Jina's temple), Aaryika (Jaina- nun), Shravaka (the right-faith house-holder) of the highest vows and rank, etc., substances (Dravyas), the Tirthankshetras i.e., sacred pilgrim places, etc., lands (Kshetras), the Kalyanaka-Kalaas (benedictory periods) etc., periods (Kalas) and Ratnatraya (right faith-knowledge and conduct), etc., pure dispositions (Bhavas) which are worth saluting, I bow to all of them. And I pay due respect to them also who deserve some respect. Thus the invocation is done by giving due respect to our benefactors.


Now we discuss as to how these Arhantas, etc., are the benefactors. The purpose (objective) is the name of that act or deed due to which happiness is obtained and misery is ended, and that by means of which the accomplishment of the purpose takes place is our benefactor. Presently, obtaining the passionless discriminative-knowledge, is the purpose, because by means of that imperturbable real happiness is attained and all sorrows and miseries, which are full of perplexities are ended.


Accomplishment of Purpose from Arhantas, etc.


Further the accomplishment of this purpose takes place by the invocation, etc., of Arhantas, etc.; how does it take place? This is being discussed:-


The dispositions of the soul are of three types:- cruel (inauspicious), ingenuous (auspicious) and pure (passionless). The instincts in the form of intense passion are cruel, in the form of mild-passion are ingenuous and passionless are pure. The destroyer of our natural-character of the form of passionless discriminative-knowledge are the Jnanavarana, etc., Ghati Karmas (knowledge, etc., obscuring karmas); their intense bondage occurs by cruel instincts and feeble-bondage by ingenueous instincts and if the ingenuous instincts are strong then the intense-bondage that had occurred in the past also gets feebled. No bondage is caused by pure (passionless) dispositions; rather only dissociation (Nirjara of those karmas takes place. The dispositions of invocations to Arhantas, etc., are assuredly of the nature of feeble passions; those are, therefore, the ingenuous instincts.  Moreover, they are the means of destroying all sorts of passions, therefore, are the cause of pure (passionless) dispositions; so by such instincts the self- obscuring Ghati-Karmas become feeble and the passionless discriminative-knowledge gets naturally evolved. The extent to which it becomes feeble, to the same extent (degrees) this gets evolved. Thus our purpose is accomplished by Arhantas, etc.


 Or the acts like looking (sighting) at the image of Arhantas, or pondering over their nature, or listening to their preachings (revelation), or being closer to them, or following the path according to their preachings, instantly reduce the delusion, attachment, etc., by becoming instrumental causes and give rise to discriminative-knowledge of Jiva (soul), AJiva (non-soul), etc. Therefore, in this way also the purpose of passionless discriminative-knowledge gets accomplished by Arhantas, etc.


Here some one may say that 'Well, such objective (purpose) gets fulfilled by them, but "that by which the sensual pleasure evolves and misery ends" - such objective is also achieved by them or not?


Answer: The ingenuous instincts of the form of invocation etc.  towards Arhantas, etc., cause the bondage of Sata, etc., pleasure-producing type of Aghati (non-obscuring) karmas and if those instincts are powerful, then they reduce the Asata, etc., misery producing type of karmas bonded in the past, or by destroying, converts them into Punya - the pleasure producing type of karmas and on rise of that Punya (auspicious karma) the objects causing sensual pleasure become available on their own, and on removal of the rise of Papa (inauspicious Karma) the objects causing misery vanish automatically.


In this way this purpose is also attained through them.  Or Devas (celestial beings) who are devotees of Jina- Shasana (Omniscient rule), they make the objects of sensual- pleasure available to that devotee and remove the objects of misery. In this way also this purpose is attained through those Arhantas, etc., But by this purpose no good of the self (soul) takes place, because due to passion emotions the soul makes conjectures of happiness-unhappiness by considering the external objects good or bad. Without passions, the external objects do not cause any pleasure or pain. And all passions are full of misery, therefore, desiring for sensual pleasures and fearing from miseries is nothing but fallacy.


Further, for this purpose, even adoring Arhantas, etc., being intense passion, causes bondage of inauspicious karmas (Papa- Bandha); soliciting this purpose is not desirable for us. By adoration of Arhantas, etc., such purposes are automatically accomplished.


Thus Arhantas, etc., are Parameshta (the utmost beneficial) for us. Further, those Arhantas, etc., only are the supreme auspice- Mangala and having adoration (invocation) feeling in them causes great auspice. Mang means happiness, lati means bestows. Or Mam means sins Galyati means melts away; that is called Mangala (auspice). Thus, as mentioned above, both purposes are accomplished by them, therefore, supreme auspiciousness is possible in them.


Purpose of Observing Benediction

(Mangalaacharan )


 Here someone can ask "What is the purpose of benediction right in the beginning of the book?"


Answer: Completing the book happily without any disturbance due to rise of evil (Papa) karmas is the object of performing benediction Mangalaacharan in the beginning.


Question : The people of other faiths who do not make obeisance like this, in their case also, the completion of book and non-occurrence of disturbance is seen, how is it so?


Answer: The people of other faiths who write books, they, due to rise of intense delusion, keep self-contradictory words and meanings in them which nourish the erroneous faith and passion instincts; hence its completion without disturbance is possible even without such obeisance. If by such obeisance delusion becomes feeble, how would then such contradictory work be accomplished?  And I am also writing this book; by virtue of feeble-passion, I will keep (write) in it the words nourishing the passionless science of Tattvas (essential- principles); its disturbanceless completion is possible only by performing such an obeisance. If such an obeisance is not done then the intensity of delusion will persist; how would then such noble act be possible?


Further, he says "well this is acceptable but he who does not perform such obeisance, is also seen to be happy, the rise of sinfull karmas is not seen and someone who performs such obeisance in him also happiness is not seen, rather the rise of sinful karmas is found; therefore, how is the aforesaid auspiciousness possible?


The cruel (intense) and ingenuous (mild) instincts of Jivas are of many types. The karmas bounded by them in the past in different times rise at one time. Therefore, for example, one who had accumulated lot of wealth in the past is found possessing wealth without earning and is not seen in debt and the one who had taken lot of debt in the past is found indebted even while earning wealth and wealth is not seen, but on thinking one finds that earning is always the cause of wealth only and not of debt. Similarly, the one who had bounded lot of auspicious karmas in the past, he is seen possessed of happiness even without performing such obeisance and the rise of sinful karmas is not seen and the one who had bounded lot of sinful karmas in the past he is not seen possessed of happiness even after performing such obeisance and the rise of sinful karmas is seen but on thinking one finds that performing of such obeisance is assuredly the cause of happiness and not of the rise of sinful karmas. Thus the auspiciousness of aforesaid obeisance is established.


 Again he says, "this too is accepted; but why the Devas (celestial beings) who are the devotees of Jina-Shasana (omniscients-rule) did not help the one who observed the obeisance and did not punish the one who did not observe the obeisance?


Answer: The predominating factor of Jivas getting pleasure and pain is the rise of their own karmas; according to that only the external instrumental causes are met with, so the one whose sinful karmas are in rise (operative state) does not get help-rendering cause and the one whose pious (auspicious) karmas are in rise (operative state) does not get the punishment rendering cause.


How such instrumental cause is not met with, is being explained:


The Devas (celestial beings) can not know everything simultaneously due to Kshayopashama Jnan (destruction cum subsidence type of knowledge) hence knowing of the person observing obeisance and the one not observing obeisance takes place rarely to some celestial being etc; so if they do not know them, how could they help or punish? And if they know them then if their (Devas) passion be extremely feeble, then the instinct of helping or punishing does not arise and if the passion be intense then religious feeling can not arise and if the passion for involvement in such act be of average degrees and one may not have power then what can he do? In this way, the instrumental cause of rendering help or giving punishment does not materialize.


If one has capacity and due to rise of passion of average order has compassionate feeling also and in such states he should also be knowing pious-impious form of duty towards other Jiva then some celestial being etc, helps some pious fellow - or punishes some impious fellow. Thus there is no set rule for such action.


It is to be understood here that the desire of being happy, not being miserable, seeking help, creating trouble - all that is full of passion, is painful instantly as well as in future; therefore, discarding such desire and being aspirant of passionless-science only, I have observed obeisance to Arhantas etc. in the form of invocation etc.


 Authenticity of This Book and Scriptural Tradition


After such obeisance, the meaningful book named Moksha Marg Prakashak is being written. There, for proving and establishing the fact that 'this book is authentic', the old tradition is being followed and explained thus:


 'A' etc, alphabetic letters are eternal and not created by any body. Writing of their shapes is of many types as per one's will but the spoken alphabets are always found used alike everywhere.  Therefore, it is said...  The meaning of this is that the group (tradition) of alphabets is self- existent and created from those alphabets are the words which render true meaning (of the objects), the name of their group is the Shruta (scripture), so that also is eternal.  As Jiva -this is an eternal word, it indicates the Jiva (the soul substance). Thus there are various words capable of rendering their own true meanings; the group of those words is to be known as Shruta (scripture). Further, as the pearls are self-existent, out of those someone taking a few pearls, someone taking many pearls produces the ornaments by arranging them in the way he likes.  Similarly, the words are self-existent, out of those someone taking a few words, someone taking many words produces the book by arranging them in the way he likes.  Here I am also going to create a book by arranging those words conveying true meanings as per my knowledge. I am not going to keep in this book the words conveying false meaning imagined by me.  Hence, this book is authentic.


Question: How does the tradition of those words exist up to the creation of this book?


Answer: Since eternity Kevali Tirthankaras are being found; they know each and every thing; hence they know those words and their meaning also. Further through Divya Dhwani (revelation) of those omniscient Tirthankaras such discourses are found by virtue of which other Jivas (capable souls) attain the knowledge of words and their meanings; according to that Gandhara-Devas (Head Acharyas monks) create the Granthas (sacred books) in the form of Anga-Prakeernakas and according to those books other Acharyas prepare various types of books. Some people study them, some narrate them, some listen to them. Thus, the traditional path continues.


 Now in this Bharat-Kshetra presently the Auasarpini-Kala is prevailing. During this time 24 Tirthankaras were born; amongst them Shri Wardhamana Swami was the last Tirthankara. He being omniscient, preached Jivas (all living beings) through the medium of Divya-Dhwani (divine-speech). Through the instrumentality of the opportunity of listening to it, the Ganadhara Acharya named Gautam having known its subtle and intricate meaning composed the Anga-Prakeernakas (Sacred books) out of compassionate feeling.  Thereafter, Vardhamana Swami attained salvation. After some time in this fifth era, three Kevalis (omniscients) were found: (1) Gautam (2) SudharmaAcharya (3) JambuSwami. Thereafter, due to bad times, occurrence of omniscients stopped, but for some time Shruta- Kevalis (the knowers of all 12 Angas, i.e. complete scripture) were available and thereafter their-availability also came to an end.  Further for some time more the knowers of a few Angas only were found. Later on their availability too came to an end. Thereafter, the Acharyas wrote scriptures (sacred books) on the basis of scriptures written by Anga- knowers. In this tradition more scriptures were written and their prevalence continued. In them also, due to bad times, many books (Granthas) were destroyed by wicked persons and due to discontinuance of study, the important books (Granthas) were lost, but some of the great Granthas are still found; because of feeble knowledge their study became difficult. For example, in south India near Gommatta Swami (Shravanbelgola) in Moodbidri town (near Mangalore) the Dhawala, Mahadhawala, Jai Dhawala, etc.  Granthas are existing but are available for adoration (Darshan) only. However, many other Granthas which are still available, are within the reach of our knowledge for study but amongst them too only a few Granthas are being studied. Thus, in these bad times the highest Jaina religion underwent the state of downfall, but through this tradition even now in Jaina- Shastras (sacred books of Jains) the existence of words conveying true meaning is continuing.


A Word about This Book


Here in this era, I have now got human-birth. In this birth, I developed interest in study of Jain-Shastras owing to my past (religious) impressions and present good luck. Due to which after studying in general the useful books on grammar, logic, mathematical science, etc., I have been studying as per my intellect and understanding the following various Shastras (Sacred books) with their commentaries.


(1) Samayasara, Panchastikaya, Pravachansara, Niyama-sara, Tattvarth sutra, etc. (Shastras of Drauyanuyoga, the metaphysics).


(2) Gommattasara, Labdhisara, Triloksara, Kshapanasara, etc. (Shastras of Karananuyoga-aetiology) (3)Purushartha- Siddhyupaya, Ashtapahuda, Atmanushasana etc. and books describing the code of conduct laid for Shravakas (householders) and Munis (naked possessionless monks) (the Shastras of Charananuyoga, i.e. Ethology) and (4) Mythological scriptures containing stories of the brave personages leading to salvation path, etc. (Shastras of Prathamanuyoga).


By virtue of that I too have attained some knowledge of true words with their true meanings.


 Moreover, in this bad period of downfall, many people are seen possessing knowledge poorer than my feeble knowledge. They too may obtain the knowledge of these words with their meaning- keeping this point in view, I made up my mind to write this book in spoken language out of compassionate feeling. This is the reason for writing this book. In this book also the same words with their true meanings are interpreted. The only specialty is that as in the Prakrit Sanskrit books the words (sentences) are written in Prakrit- Sanskrit; similarly, here I am writing in country's spoken language either with Apbhransha or with their exact form but there is no adulteration in the meanings of the words.


Thus the tradition of those true words exists up to this book also.


Negation of Writing False Words


Someone asks here - we have known in this way the tradition, but how could we believe that in this tradition, only the right words with their exact meanings were written and were not intermingled with false words?


Answer: Composing of false words is not possible without intense passion, because due to such false composition by which many Jivas may be badly harmed traditionally and as a consequence of such a great injury, the self will have to go to hellish and Nigoda (Nigoda- inferiorest one sensed beings undergoing 18 times births and deaths in one respiration.) form of life -such a great sinful act is possible only on being empowered by the intense anger, pride, deceit and greed passions; but in Jain religion such a highly passioned person does not take birth.


The first basic preceptor Tirthankara - Kevali (the omniscient) is free from all passions due to complete annihilation of Moha (delusion and attachment, etc.). Next originators of Shastras are the Ganadharas and Acharyas who because of feeble rise of Moha -karma (attachment) have forsaken all sorts of external and internal possessions; hence are extremely dispassionate. Owing to the presence of feeble passion in them they are found possessed with somewhat proclivity of Shubhopayoga (auspicious thought activity) and no other purpose is found. And if the right-faith Shravakas (house- holders) also compose the Shastras, they too are not highly passionate; if they had intense passions how could they cultivate interest in Jina-Dharma (Jainism) which is the destroyer of all sorts of passions by all means? Or, if someone owing to the rise of perverse faith nourishes the passions by other (temporal) deeds, he may do so but by going against Jina's preaches (Maxims), if he nourishes one's passions, he loses Jain-identity.


Thus, in Jainism such a highly passionate person is not found, who shall by composing false words, spoil others as well as his own lot in this birth and the births hereafter.


Question: If someone "so-called" Jaina under the influence of intense passion mixes false words in Jain Shastras and then his tradition continues, what to do in such case?


 Answer: As someone mixes artificial pearls in the ornament of real pearls but the shine does not match, so by examining it the examiner does not get cheated also, except the ignorant one who gets cheated in the name of real pearls, and his tradition also does not continue; soon someone starts disapproving the artificial pearls.  Similarly, in the Jain- Shastras which are a collection (treatise) of true words, someone may intermix false words, but the purpose shown in the words of Jain-Shastras is of uprooting the passions and of reducing worldly affairs. And the false words, which are mixed by that sinful person, serve the purpose of nourishing the passions and accomplishing the worldly affairs. Thus the purpose does not match; therefore, after examination, the wise person is not cheated. The ignorant alone gets cheated by the name of Jain-Shastra and his tradition also does not continue, rather someone immediately contradicts the false words.


The other aspect is this that such highly-passionate, the so- called Jains, are found here in this bad time only; many good regions and periods are also there wherein such people are not found. Therefore, it should be understood that in Jaina- Shastras the tradition of false words does not continue.


Further, he asks that one may not mix false words out of passions but since the scripture-writers possess Kshayopashama Jnan, therefore, if due to miscomprehension someone mixes wrong words then his tradition may continue?


Answer: The basic scripture composers are Ganadhara Devas (Chief Acharyas); they themselves possess four kinds of knowledge and they listen to omniscient divine speech (Divya-Dhwani) directly; by virtue of its glory (divinity) the right meaning only is comprehended and accordingly they compose the Shastras; therefore how can the false words be entwined in those Shastras? And the other Acharyas, etc, who compose the Shastras they also possess the right knowledge as per their capacity and they compose the Shastras by following the tradition of the original scriptures. Moreover, they do not compose those words, which are not known to them and compose only those words, which are well- comprehended by them with the authenticity of right knowledge. So first by taking such due precautions, the false words are not intermixed and sometimes if they themselves have mis- comprehended the meaning of the words of original text (scripture) and also it may appear to be right in their knowledge, then there is no escape but this happens with someone rarely and not with all, therefore, those who have comprehended it rightly, they, by negating the same, do not allow the wrong tradition to continue.


 Further, let it be known that the right faith Jains do not have misconception about Deva-Guru-Dharma etc, and Jiva-AJiva , etc,  Tattvas by the misconception of which the Jivas become miserable; these are prominently described in the Jaina-Shastras. And there are some such deep meanings, which may even be misconceived under illusion, but because of faith in omniscients' preaches there will be no spiritual harm to Jiva.  If out of them someone draws wrong conclusion about some subtle meanings even then it is not his great mistake. The same is said in Gommattasara:


"Smathees jeevo uvitham pevyanram tu sadhadi

Sadhadi asambhavam ajanrmanro gurunriyoga"


 Meaning :- The right believer (Samyagdrishti-Jiva) believes in the preached true words and (sometimes) under the instruction of an ignorant teacher, believes also in wrong words.


Moreover, I also do not possess vast knowledge but I am very much afraid of going against the omniscients' preaches; due to the strength of this concept only, I am daring to write this book (Shastra).  So, in this book also I shall be describing the Tattvas exactly in the same way in which these are described in the old texts (Shastras). Or if at some places in the old books the description is unelaborated and deep, I shall describe the same here elaborately. In describing in this manner, I shall remain very careful but even besides taking all due precautions if at some place something deeper in meaning gets misinterpreted, it is my humble request to the intellectual savants to correct the same properly. In this way I have decided to write this Shastra.


Now, "what types of Shastras are worth reading and listening and what kind of discoursers and listeners of those Shastras should be there", the same is being described here.


Shastras worth Reading & Listening


 Only those Shastras, which illuminate the right path of liberation, are worth reading and listening. In this world all living beings are suffering from innumerable kinds of miseries; if through the lamp (light) of Shastras, they attain the right path of liberation, then by treading on that path they themselves can be free from those miseries. And that liberation-path is nothing but a passionless disposition. It is, therefore, desirable to read and listen to only those Shastras in which the sole purpose of passionlessness has been discoursed by judiciously contradicting delusion, attachment, aversion, etc, And all those Shastras wherein the purpose of cultivating attachment feeling by cherishing voluptuousness, merriment, etc., aversion feeling by fostering violent activities, wars etc, and the perverted belief by nourishing the faith in false elements has been advocated are not the Shastras but "weapons". Because attachment, aversion, etc, fallacious feelings on account of which the Jiva has suffered from miseries from eternity, the tendency of those instincts and feelings was already existing in him even without imparting any training and if through these Shastras the same -instincts and feelings are fostered, then what has been preached for the well being of Jiva, on the contrary it may amount to destruction of the very nature of the soul. Therefore, reading of and listening to such Shastras is not desirable.


As has been stated about reading and listening, similarly, one- should know about composition, learning, teaching, thinking, writing, etc., by inference.


Thus only those Shastras which promote growth of passionlessness either directly or traditionally are only worth studying.


Traits of a Discourser


Now, the traits of a (true) discourser are being described:- (1)  He must be firm in Jaina-faith; for, if he himself is a misbeliever, how can he make others true believer? The listeners by themselves possess less intellect, how would he make them true believer through some logic? And the right belief only is the basis of all religion. (2) He should have developed the ability to deliver discourses on Shastras through the study of scriptures because without attaining such ability how can he be eligible for preaching? (3) Through right knowledge, he should be able to discriminate the gist of all sorts of empirical (Vyavahara) and real (Nishchaya) etc. forms of expositions; for, if this be not there then if there be some description with some different purpose, there he might draw some other meaning and become instrumental in wrong conduct. (4) He should be very fearful of going against the omniscient commandment because if this be not so then bearing some purpose in mind he may preach against the 'Sutras' (Scripture) and create misery for Jivas. So is stated below:-


Bahugunravijyanrilyo, asutbhasee thavi mutvo

Jah varmanri juto vi hu, vighyro visehro lohai

                                         (u. si. r. mala)


 The one who possesses many virtues like forbearance, modesty, etc, and has knowledge of grammar, etc, but is a perverse discourser (wrong-interpreter) he is worth discarding. For instance, a snake though possessing costliest jewel, yet it is only a source of trouble in the world. (5) He must not have any desire of accomplishing the temporal acts like earning livelihood etc., by means of giving discourses on Shastras; for, if he has expectation then he cannot preach (the truth) correctly; he simply makes it a source of accomplishing his objective by giving lectures according to the desire of some listeners. Moreover, the preacher's rank is higher than that of listeners; but, if the preacher be greedy, then the preacher will himself become inferior and the listeners will become superior. (6) He should not have intense anger and pride, because the highly- passionate (angry & haughty) person will be criticized, the listeners will be fearful of him, then how would they be benefitted by him? (7) He should himself raise different questions and provide answers or if other people raise questions many times in different ways, then through soft (sweet) words he should clarify in such a way that their doubt is removed. In case he himself does not have the capacity to answer rightly then he should say that he himself lacks knowledge of it; for, if this be not so, the doubt of the listeners will not be removed. How will then there be good of them? And the glorification of Jaina-faith will also not be possible. (8) He should not indulge in any immoral and publicly censurable activities, for he would become a place of laughter due to indulgence in publicly censurable deeds; who would then trust his words? He will bring bad name to Jaina faith. (9) He should not be of low caste, not be a crippled fellow, not have hoarse voice, be of sweet tongue, should be influential so that he may be acceptable to the people, for, if it be not so then the orator's greatness will not be reflected in him. The above qualities are essential in the discourser.  The same is stated in Atmanushasana:-


"Pragya praptsmastshasthridya prvyaktloksthiti

Prastash pratibhaper preshmvan pragaiv drishtoter


Praya prshanseh prabhu permanoharee pranindya

Booyaduthrmkatha ganree gunree gunrnidhi prspashtmishtaksher"


The one who is brilliant, has grasped the gist of all Shastras, is graceful in public life, desire-free, lustrous, dispassionate and one who knows the answer even before the question is raised, should have great forbearance for facing several questions, be influential, could win the hearts of others because of being free from the criticism of others as well as of his own by others, be store of virtues and whose words are clear and sweet - such a leader of the congregation should deliver the discourses.


Further, the special characteristic of a discourser is such that if he knows grammar, logic, etc, and possesses deep knowledge of voluminous Jaina Shastras then his oration  will be more glorious. Moreover, in spite of all these qualities, if he has not acquired self-realization through spiritual taste, then he is not likely to know the spirit (essence) of Jina Dharma (Omniscients' religion), he is a discourser merely traditionally. How can he explain the characteristic of the true Jina Dharma which is full of spiritual taste?  Therefore, if he be an enlightened self - Atma-Jnani then only he is a true preacher. In Pravachansara also it is stated that Agama-Jnana (knowledge of scripture), Tattvartha-Sharaddhana (faith in Jiva-AJiva, etc, essential principles), Sanyama Bhava (continence) - these three if are devoid of self-knowledge (Atma-Jnana), they are ineffective. Further in Doha-Pahuda it is stated that :-


"Pandiya pandiya pandiya kanr chorhi vi tus kandiya

Pya atham tutheesi parmath nr janryi moodhosi"


 "Oh Pandey! Oh Pandey! Oh Pandey! You are leaving the grain thrashing the husk only. You are satisfied in words and their literal meanings, but do not know the reality, therefore, you are assuredly a fool".


Moreover, in fourteen types of learning's, the metaphysics (spiritual science) is described as to be the supreme of all. Therefore, the discourser who is fond of the taste of spiritual science should be known as the discourser of the mystery of Jina-Dharma. Further, the discoursers who possess extra-ordinary intellectual power and are possessed of clairvoyance, telepathy, omniscience are to be known as the  great preachers. Such should be known the distinctive traits of the discoursers.


So, if one gets the association of a discourser possessing these distinctive traits, it is highly beneficial and if not obtained then one ought to listen the Shastras from the mouth of those discoursers only who possess qualities of right belief, etc. It is desirable to listen to the Shastras from the mouth of Munis (monks) and Shravakas (house-holders) possessing such characteristics and it is not worth listening the Shastras customarily or with the greed of listening the Shastras from the mouth of sinful persons, who are not possessed of the right-belief, etc. traits. Also it is said that:-


"Tn jinr anr prainr ya dhamo soyv suguru  pasmi

Ah uchiyo seddhao, tssuv aisas kehgao // 23  ("


The one who is attentive in obeying the omniscients commandments, it is worth-while for him to listen to the sermons from (the mouth of) a Nirgrantha (naked without possessions) true preceptor monk or should listen to religious discourses from the proper true believer Shravaka (householder) who interprets the sermons of the true preceptor only.


Only such discourser, who preaches with religious attitude, can do good of the self and of other Jivas (capable souls) also, and one who preaches with passion attitude, harms himself as well as other Jivas.


Characteristics of Listeners


Now the characteristics of a listener are being described. He whose future seems to be bright, thinks "Who am I? What is my inherent nature? How is this all happening to me? What will be the fruit of the thoughts and feelings arising in me? Jiva (the self) is suffering from miseries, so what is the mean of ending the miseries?  I have to find out the solution of all these questions and should do that which is beneficial to me"- with such thoughts he has become active. Believing that this object can be achieved by listening to Shastras listens to Shastras enthusiastically, asks whatever is to be asked, ponders repeatedly in his inner self over the meaning explained by the preceptors and after determining the true meaning by his own thoughts makes efforts to achieve the desirable such is the differentia of a new listener.


Further, those who are the firm believers of Jina-Dharma and whose intellect has been sharpened by listening to different Shastras and having known thoroughly well the differentia of Vyavahar (conventional) and Nishchay (realistic) stand points, etc, whatever sermon they listen to grasp it correctly by knowing what it really means; and whenever a question arises they most humbly raise the question or by mutual discussion on different questions and answers take decision about the things, keep deeply engrossed in the study of scripture, have discarded censurable acts with religious attitude. - Such ought to be the listeners of Shastras.


Special Characteristics of the Listeners (of Jaina-Shastras)


If a listener possesses some knowledge of grammar, logic and of voluminous Jaina Shastras, then the listener is praiseworthy.  And even if there be such a listener but be devoid of Atma-Jnana (self-knowledge) he can not understand the gist of the sermons.  Therefore, the one who has tasted (the blissful nature of) the self-soul through self- realisation, he is the real listener of the mystery of Jina- Dharma. Further, the one who possesses extra ordinary intellectual power or the clairvoyance, telepathy knowledge, then he is to be known as an excellent listener. Such are the special qualities of the listeners. Such should be the listeners of the Jina-Shatras.


Moreover, those who listen to Shastras believing that listening to Shastras will be beneficial to them but due to weakness of knowledge do not understand much, to them Punya- Bandha (bondage of auspicious karmas) occurs, but the specific purpose can not be achieved. And those who listen to Shastras either by family tradition or customarily or incidentally or simply listen but do not retain any thing, so according to their thoughts and feelings, sometimes Punya- Bandha (inauspicious bondage) or sometimes Papa Bandha (inauspicious bondage) is caused to them. And those who listen to Shastras with pride or jealousy or whose intention is only of arguing and those who listen to Shastras simply for being called the great person or for the sake of fulfilling some greed, etc. or those who listen to Shastras but do not like it - to such listeners the Papa- Bandha alone is caused. Such are the various traits of listeners.  Similarly. it should be inferred about the persons indulging in learning, teaching activities, etc.


   Thus the characteristics of discoursers and listeners of the Shastras have-been described. Hence, the right Shastra, should be read and listened to by becoming a right discourser and a right listener.


 Meaningfullness of Moksha Marg Prakasha Shastra


Now, starts the composition of the Shastra, named Moksha Marg Prakashak. Its meaningfulness is being discussed.


In this world-forest all Jivas (mundane beings) are suffering from different kinds of miseries caused due to karmic bondage and darkness of delusion is pervading every- where because of which the Jivas are not able to find the path of liberation, rather continue suffering from the miseries torment.


As an instrumental cause of benefaction of all such Jivas dawned the sun in the form of Tirthankar Kewali Bhagawan (omniscient Lord) and through the rays of his Divya- Dhwani (divine speech) the path of liberation got illuminated. As the sun has no intention to illuminate the path but automatically its rays are spread out and the path - gets illuminated.  Similarly, the Kewali (Omniscient Lord;) is devoid of attachment, so He has no intention to show the path of liberation, but automatically due to rise of Aghati- Karmas (non-obscuring karmas) the matter particles of his body turn into Divya-Dhwani (divine speech) through which the path of liberation is illuminated.


Further, the Ganadhara Devas thought that after the setting of the omniscient-sun how could Jivas obtain the liberation- path (Moksha Marg) and without treading on liberation-path, the Jivas will continue suffering from miseries; this- compassionate feeling encouraged them to compose the Shastras in the forms of Anga-Prakeernaka etc. These served as great lamps, which spread the light.


Further, as the transition of lamps continues by lighting the lamp from the (other) lamp, similarly some Acharyas. (Chief saints) composed other Shastras from those Shastras. Thus through the creation of Shastras the tradition of Shastras continues. This Shastra is also being composed on the basis of previous Shastras.


Further, as the sun and all lamps illuminate the path in the same manner, similarly, Divya-Dhwani and all Shastras illuminate the liberation-path (Moksha-Marg) in the same way. So, this Shastra too illuminates the liberation-path.  And as even on illuminating the path, the persons, who are either without eyes or have diseased eyes, are not able to see the path but the lamp has not lost the power of illuminating the path, similarly, on illuminating (the liberation-path) the Jivas who are either without mind (irrational beings) or are over-powered by delusion, etc, are not able to see the path of liberation, thereby it can not be said that the Shastra has lost the power of illuminating the liberation-path. In this way, the meaningful name of Moksha Marga Prakashak Shastra be known.


Question: There already existed Shastras illuminating liberation-path, why then you are composing this new Shastra ?


Answer: As the illumination of big lamps is possible by means of much quantity of oil, etc. but those who do not have much quantity of oil, for them if a small lamp is lighted then they, by maintaining its means, can do their work in its illumination. Similarly, understanding of big Shastras is possible through the means of vast knowledge, etc. but those who do not have vast knowledge, for them if a small Shastra (treatise) is composed, then by means of it, they may achieve their objective. This is the aim of composing this small and easy Shastra.


Further, this Shastra is being composed neither for self- exaltation under passion nor for fulfilling some greed, or for earning name and fame or for establishing my own tradition. Those who do not possess the knowledge of grammar, logic, Naya-Pramana and distinctive meaning of the words, due to which they cannot study big Shastras and even if they study some small Shastras then they can not comprehend the true meaning, as such in the present time most of the Jivas have feeble knowledge; for their benefaction, this Shastra is being composed with pious instinct in the spoken language.


Further, as if a Chintamani - a miraculous & precious diamond, is offered to an extremely pauper for looking at it but he refuses to even look at it and as if a cup of nectar is offered to a leper for drinking, but he refuses to drink it, similarly if a mundane miserable Jiva gets an opportunity to listen to an easy discourse on path of liberation but he refuses to pay attention to it, then it is not possible for us to describe the glory of his misfortune.  When we ponder over his future a compassionate feeling arises in us. Also it is said that:-


"Saheenrai gurujogai jainr sunrantih dhmvynryi

Tai dhithduth chit ah suhdha bhavbhey vihnra

                                                 93 (u. si. r.)


The Jivas who even on getting the company of self-dependent discourser Guru (preceptor) do not listen to religious sermons, are haughty and possess cruel heart or they are devoid of fear of transmigration from which great personages like Tirthankaras, etc, were afraid; they seem to be very brave warriors.


In Pravachanasara also there is a chapter on Moksha Marge wherein the knowledge of scripture has been advocated as worth adopting (Upadeya) firstly. So, the prime duty of this Jiva is to attain knowledge of scripture. By its attainment the true belief of Tattvas (Jiva, Ajiva etc, realities) gets evolved and on attainment of right belief of Tattvas continence-disposition (Sanyama-Bhava) gets evolved. And on the basis of this knowledge of scriptures even self- realization materializes; then on its own, the attainment of liberation takes place.


 Further there are various components of religion; in them, excepting Dhyana (meditation) there is no other components of religion higher than study of scriptures. Therefore, one should study scriptures by making all possible efforts.


Further, reading, listening and pondering over this Shastra is very easy, even knowledge of grammar, etc. is not necessary. Therefore, all should essentially study this book. The readers are bound to achieve spiritual welfare.


Thus ends the 1st Chapter dealing with introductory part of Shri Moksha Marg Prakashak Shastra.











Doha: Mithyabhav abhavtay, jo prgatai nijbhav

           So Jeywant rho sada, yih hee moksh upav


Let the intrinsic nature of self (soul) remain victorious always which gets manifested due to termination of false belief, etc. This alone is the means of Liberation.


Now, in this Shastra light is thrown on the path of liberation.  Liberation is the `Release from bondage'. This soul is having bondage of Karmas (Subtle matter particles or atoms of Karman-Vargana, which are characterized with bonding power with soul.) and due to that bondage the soul is suffering from miseries.  Although Jiva is continuously trying also to ward off the misery but without attaining the right means misery does not end and misery is also unbearable; therefore, this Jiva is becoming restless.


Thus the root cause of all miseries to this Jiva is the karmic bondage. Its destruction (separation) is Emancipation (liberation) and same is the supreme welfare and the prime duty is to make true effort for the same; therefore, all preaching is for the same.


Just as a physician first tells the patient about the diagnosis of disease as to how he got diseased, thereafter he tells him about the different conditions resulting from the disease. Thereby the patient infers that he assuredly has this disease. Then the physician further tells him about the means of curing the disease in various ways and makes him believe about the appropriateness of the treatment.  Giving such advice is the duty of physician. And if that patient adopts that means then he can enjoy his natural state after freeing himself from the disease. This is the duty of the patient.


 Similarly, here the Jiva (mundane being) having karmic bondage is first being told the reason for the karmic bondage as to how he got entangled with the Karmas. Then he is told about the various conditions, which he undergoes. Thereby the Jiva concludes that he assuredly has such karmic bondage and then he is further told in various ways about the means of release from that karmic bondage and the physician makes him believe about the efficacy of the means.  So much is the sermon of the scriptures.  If this Jiva makes efforts accordingly then by freeing himself from karmic bondage he can enjoy his natural bliss.  This is the duty of Jiva.


Diagnosis of Karmic Bondage


Now the diagnosis of karmic bondage is described. Due to karmic bondage transmigration of soul in various alien dispositions is found. One fixed state is not possible. Therefore, the state with karmic bondage is called `Mundane- existence (Sansara). In this mundane-existence there are infinite times infinite Jiva Dravyas (Soul-substances); they all are having karmic-bondage from eternity. It is not so that earlier the soul (Jiva) was separate and the karmic matter was separate and later on these got intermingled.  How is it then? As in the Merugiri (Meru mountain), naturally existing molecules, there are infinite atoms existing from eternity in a single-bonded form. From them many atoms get separated, many new atoms get united and thus their union and separation continues.  Similarly, in this universe the one soul substance and infinite matter-particles (atoms) in the form of Karmas are found inbred form since eternity; afterwards many get separated, many get united and thus their union and separation continues.


Establishing Eternity of Karmic Bondage


Here arises the question as to how Karmas are eternal because matter-particles (atoms) turn into karmic matter owing to the instrumental cause (Nimitta) of attachment (Raag) etc.?


 Answer: Attributing instrumentality is possible only when there is a new modification; there is no role of Nimitta in beginningless state. As the bondage of fresh matter-particles (atoms) occurs only due to (difference in) the degrees of smoothness- roughness. But in the molecules of Mountain Merugiri, etc, the bondage of matter-particles (atoms) is from beginningless time. So what is the purpose (function) of Nimitta there? Similarly, changing of fresh matter-particles (atoms) into karmic matter results only due to attachment etc, (impure) dispositions of the soul. But the matter particles which are (already existing) in the form of karmic matter from beginningless time, what is the purpose (function) of Nimitta there? Moreover, if in the beginningless state also Nimitta is accepted then `beginninglessness' is not established. Hence, the bondage of karmic matter is to be accepted from beginningless time. In Tattava-Pradeepika commentary of Prauachansara Shastra, there is a Samanya Jneyaadhikar; therein it is stated that `The associating (instrumental) cause of attachment (Raag) etc, is karmic matter (Dravya- Karma) and the associating cause of karmic matter is attachment (Raag) etc. There, a question is raised that in believing so the inter-dependence-fault (Itaretarashraya Dosha) arises, i.e., that depends on it and it depends on that; there is no stoppage anywhere.  There the following reply is given:-


"Neivam anadi prsidh drvyakrm smbandhsya tetr haitutvainopadanat"


Meaning: In this way there is no fault of interdependence because the association of karmic matter is axiomatic from beginningless time, there it has been accepted as an instrumental cause.


This is what is stated in scripture and logically also this alone is possible that if without the instrumental cause of Karmas abinitio Jiva gets entangled in attachment, etc. then attachment etc. would become the nature of Jiva, because that which is found without any other associating cause, same is called the nature (Swabhava). Hence, the association with the karmic matter is established from eternity.


Here again the question arises: `When the two substances are distinctly separate, how could such relationship between them be possible from eternity?'


Explanation: As from the origin itself, the bondage of water and milk, gold and stone, husk and seed and oil and sesame is found, these are not intermingled newly. Similarly, the bondage of soul and karmic matter be known from begnningless time. They are not intermingled newly. As from beginningless time many substances are quite separate and in the same way many substances are in bolded form (intermingled state); thus in the possibility of being so, there appears to be no contradiction.


Question: Asserting the state of bondage or association is possible then only when the (two distinct): things are firstly separate and then get intermingled. How is here the bondage of soul and karmic matter asserted to be existing from beginningless time?


Answer: These were in intermingled state from eternity but later on got separated then it was known that they were separate, so got separated. Therefore, formerly also they were separate; thus by inference as well as by omniscience these clearly appear separate.  On account of this, their separateness exits in spite of their being in bonded state. And from that separateness point of view only their bondage or association is asserted because in intermingled state of different substances, irrespective of their intermingling afresh or already being in intermingled state, asserting in this way only is possible. Thus, the bondage of this soul and Karmas is from beginningless time.


Distinctiveness of Soul and Karmas


 Jiva-Dravya (soul substance) possesses sentience attribute (Chetana Guna) as its distinctive characteristic in the form of knowing and seeing and it being imperceptible by senses has immaterial form, a substance having innumerable spatial units (Pradeshas) with the power of contraction-expansion. And the Karma is an insentient matter devoid of sentience attribute and has material form, is a mass of infinite matter-articles (atoms), hence it is not a single substance. Thus are these Jivas (souls) and Karmas (karmic matter) having relationship since eternity. Nevertheless, none of the space-points of Jiva changes into karmic matter form and none of the atoms of karmic matter change into Jiva form, both, by retaining their own distinctive characteristics, exist distinctly separate. For example, if there be a compound molecule of gold and silver, even then the gold by retaining its yellowness, etc. attributes remains distinctly different and silver by retaining its whiteness, etc, attributes remains distinctly different. Similarly, the soul and Karmas should be known as distinct and separate.


Question: The matter to matter bondage is possible but how can the bondage of matter (material particles) with the immaterial soul substance be possible?


Answer: As the bondage of subtle matter particles (atoms) which are not perceptible to senses and the gross matter- particles (molecules) which are perceptible to senses is accepted, similarly the bondage of immaterial soul which is not perceptible to senses and material Karmas worthy of being perceptible to senses should be accepted. Moreover, in this process of bondage none acts as the doer of other; so long as the bondage continues till then these remain united, do not get separated and the relationship of cause and effect continues in them. This much alone be known as the bondage here.  So, there is no contradiction in being this type of bondage between the material Karmas and the immaterial soul.


Thus as is explained the eternal karmic bondage to one Jiva, similarly it should be understood about each of the infinite Jivas (souls).


Obscuring (Ghati) & Non-obscuring (Aghati) Karmas and their Function


 Further those Karmas are of eight types classified into Jnanavaranr, etc. Owing to the instrumental cause of four Ghati Karmas, the intrinsic nature of soul gets obscured. Owing to the instrumentality of Jnanavarana (knowledge obscuring) -Darshanavarana (perception obscuring) type of Karmas, the knowledge and perception nature of soul does not get manifested; only according to the Kshayopashama (destruction cum subsidence) state of these Karmas, the knowledge and perception remain partially manifested. And owing to the instrumentality of Mohaniya (deluding) Karma, the dispositions which are not the true nature of the Jiva (soul), such as misbelieve, anger, pride, deceit, greed, etc., passions get manifested.  And owing to the instrumentality of Antaraya (obstructive) Karma, the nature of the soul, Virya (spiritual power) of the order of accepting asceticism does not get manifested; according to its Kshayopashama only partial spiritual power (Virya) remains manifested.


 Thus owing to the instrumentality of Ghati Karmas, the intrinsic nature of the soul is being obscured from eternity. It is not so that originally the soul was intrinsically in pure state and afterwards became impure due to the instrumentality of Karmas, resulting in the destruction of pure nature.


Question: Destruction is the name of annihilation, so, that which existed earlier, could be stated to have been annihilated. Here, when there is no existence of intrinsic nature, what has been then destroyed?


Answer: The soul possesses eternally such an intrinsic power that if the instrumental cause of Karmas be not there then the Jiva (soul) would be found with the manifestation of omniscience, etc., form of his intrinsic nature but since eternity the bondage of Karmas is found, therefore, the manifestation of that capacity has never been there.  Hence, from inherent capacity point of view, the intrinsic nature does exist; only from the standpoint of not letting it to manifest, it is said to have been destroyed.


And there are four kinds of Aghati Karmas owing to the instrumental cause of which the soul comes in contact with external things.  There, due to Vedniya Karma (feeling producing Karma) various other (non-self) things acting as instrumental cause of happiness and misery get associated either in the body or outside the body; due to Ayu (life) Karma, the bondage with the present body does not get released till the expiry of its duration; due to Nama-Karma (physique making Karma) the Gati (state of embodied form of existence), Jati (the class of beings), the body, etc. are produced and due to Gotra-Karma (status determining Karma) one attains high or low status.


Thus by Aghati Karmas the external things get assembled. In their presence, due to the association of the rise of Moha (deluding Karma), Jiva becomes happy and miserable. And due to bondage with the body, etc., the immaterial intrinsic characteristic, etc., of the soul do not function as per their nature. For example, if someone catches the body then the soul also gets caught. Moreover, so long as the rise of Karmas continues, till then the association of external things remains as it is; does not become otherwise.  Such should be known the instrumentality of these Aghati Karmas.


Destruction of Jiva's Natural Functioning and

Assembling of External Things by Strengthless Material Karma


Question: Karmas are inanimate and are not strong; how is then the destruction of Jiva's natural functioning and assembling of external things possible through them?


Answer: If karma by acting itself as a doer destroys the nature of the soul and causes association of external things effortful, then karma should possess sentience and strength. But it is not so; just cause and effect relationship (Nimitta-Naimittika Sambandha) (between them) is a natural occurrence. When the operative stage of those Karmas arises, at that time the soul of its own does not function in his natural state, rather functions alienly and the other things too are found functioning in a related manner.


For Example: Mohandhool (an enchanting type of dust) is found lying on the head of some person due to which that person has become mad; there that Mohandhool was neither having knowledge nor strength but madness appears to have been caused by that Mohandhool only. There the Mohandhool is only a Nimitta and the person of his own becomes mad. Such only exists Nimitta-Naimittika (cause and effect) relation-ship.


Further, just as at the time of sunrise Chakwa-Chakwi (the male & female birds of duck family) meet together, (but) there in the night nobody has separated them forcedly out of jealousy and in the day time nobody has brought them together out of compassion; rather they meet on their own due to Nimitta of sun-rise. Such only is the functioning of Nimitta-Naimittika. In the same way the Nimitta-Naimittika functioning of Karmas should be known. Such is the state of soul owing to the rise of Karmas.


Process of New Bondage


 `How is new bondage caused' is being clarified. The portion of light of the sun which is not perceptible due to the layers of clouds, that much is absent (unmanifested) in that time. And owing to the rarefaction of the layers of clouds, the light which is manifesting, is the part of sun's nature, is not produced by clouds. Similarly, Jnan (knowledge), Darshan (perception) and Virya (power) is the nature of soul; the portion of it which owing to the instrumentality of Jnanavarana, Darshanavarana and Antaraya Karmas is not manifesting, that much is absent (unmanifested) in that time. And owing to the Kshayopashams (destruction cum subsidence) state of those Karmas that part of Jnan, Darshan, Virya which is manifesting, all that is the part of soul's nature and is not a contrary (alien) disposition produced by Karmas. So, right from eternity, such a manifested portion of soul's intrinsic nature never comes to an end.  Only through this (inherent faculty) the consciousness of the soul is ascertained that the substance possessing the power of knowing and seeing is the soul only.


 And the bondage of new Karmas does not take place due to this nature (of soul); for, if the soul's nature itself be the cause of bondage, how could then the release from bondage be possible? Moreover, owing to the rise of those Karmas, the part of Jnan, Darshan, Virya attributes which is not manifesting, that also is not the cause of bondage, for that which itself is not existing how can it be the cause for others (bondage)? Therefore, the dispositions produced due to Nimitta of Jnanavarana, Darshanavarana and Antaraya-Karmas are not the cause of new bondage of Karmas.


Further, owing to the rise of Mohaniya Karma, the perverse belief in the form of untrue faith and passions, anger, pride, deceit, greed, etc, are evolved in the soul.  All those dispositions are although found existing in the state of soul, are not separate from soul, Jiva himself is the doer of them, those are assuredly the functional deeds of Jiva, nevertheless, their manifestation is only due to Nimitta of Moha- Karma.  These (alien dispositions) come to an end on elimination of instrumentality of karma.  Therefore, these are not Jiva's own nature but are the contrary dispositions. And due to those (alien) disposition new bondage of Karmas takes place; hence the dispositions manifesting due to rise of Moha-Karma are the cause of karmic bondage.


And owing to rise of Aghati Karmas, external things are met with; among them the physique, etc., get bonded in one (intermingled) form with Jiva-Pradeshas (spatial units of soul) by occupying the same one region (as that of the soul); and wealth, family etc., are totally separate from soul, therefore, all those are not the cause of bondage; for, the other (non-self) substances do not cause bondage, but in those objects the soul develops the feeling of mineness and perverse belief, etc.  This alone is to be known as the cause of bondage.


Yoga (Vibratory Activity) the Cause of Prakriti Bandh (Type-Bondage) and Pradesh Bandh (Space - Bondage)


 Further, it should be known that owing to rise of Nama-Karma (physique-making Karma), body, organ of speech and mind are created; due to Nimitta (instrumentality) of their movement, the space-points (Pradeshas) of soul vibrate and by virtue of it soul attains the power of getting into one bonded form with the species of karmic matter. This is termed as yoga (vibratory activity).  Due to its Nimitta at each moment, the inflow of infinite atoms transformable into karmic form, takes place.  If Yoga is feeble then inflow of atoms is less and if Yoga is intense then inflow of atoms is more. Further, the atoms of matter that are absorbed in one Samaya (an unit of time) get divided into Jnanavarana, etc., main- types and their subtypes (species) of Karmas as are stated in scripture.  According to that division atoms get transformed into those types (species) of Karmas of their own.


Further, Yoga is of two types: Auspicious Activity (Shubha Yoga) and Inauspicious Activity (Ashubha Yoga).  Inclination through mind, speech and body in pious acts is called Shubha-Yoga and inclination in impious acts is called Ashubha Yoga. Whether there be Shubha Yoga or Ashubha Yoga, without attaining right belief (Samyaktva) bondage of all sorts of species of Ghati Karmas continues incessantly. Even for a single moment bondage of any species of Karmas does not stop.  However, the specific point is that in the pair of Hasya-Shoka (laughter and lamentation), Rati-Arati (liking and disliking) and three types of sex-passions of Mohaniya (deluding) Karma in one time only in each group gets bonded.


Further, in the species of Aghati Karmas, during Shubha Yoga, Sata Vedniya (pleasure producing Karma) etc., auspicious species of Karmas, get bonded and during Ashubha Yoga Asata Vedniya (pain producing Karmas) etc., inauspicious species of Karmas get bonded and during Mishra Yoga (mixed auspicious- inauspicious activity) some auspicious and some inauspicious species of Aghati Karmas get bonded.


Thus, the inflow of Karmas takes place due to instrumentality of Yoga (Vibratory activity).  Hence, Yoga is Asrava (influx).  And the (quantity of) atoms of karmic matter so attracted through that Yoga is called Pradesha; thus, the atoms so bonded get divided into main types and sub-types of Karmas, therefore it should be known that space-bondage and type-bondage are caused by Yoga.


Duration & Fruition Bondage caused by Passions                       


 Further, wrong belief (mithyatv) and anger, etc., dispositions are evolved due to the rise of Moha (deluding karma); all these (dispositions) are collectively termed as Kasha (passions).  Due to that (passion) the duration bondage (sthiti-Bandh) of those karmic species takes place. Out of the total duration so bonded, leaving aside the Abadhakal (the period of Karmas lying bonded in inoperative state), afterwards, till the bonded duration ends, every moment the rise (Udaya) of that Prakriti (particular species of Karma) continues.  Excepting the Ayu Karma of celestial beings, human beings and subhuman beings (animals, etc.), all the other species of Ghatia and Aghatia Karmas get bonded with more duration in the state of intense passion.  And these three types of Ayu Karmas get bonded with more duration in the state of feeble passion and with less duration in the state of intense passion.  And these three types of Ayu Karmas get bonded with more duration in the state of feeble passion and with less duration in the state of intense passion.


And the passion (kashaya) is also the instrumental cause for the fruition power in those species of Karmas.  At the time of their rise, the Karmic-species produce more or less effect according to their fruition bondage.  In all the species of Ghati Karmas, and in the inauspicious (Papa) species of Aghati Karmas the fruition bondage is caused more in the state of high-passion and in the auspicious species (of Aghati Karmas) intense fruition bondage takes place in the state of low-passion and less fruition bondage in the state of high-passion.


In this way, duration and fruition bondage is governed by passions.  Therefore, it should be known that passions are instrumental cause of duration bondage and fruition bondage.


As, even if wine is more in quantity and it has less intoxicating power for lesser period then that wine is of poor quality and even if wine is less in quantity and it has more intoxicating power for larger period then that wine is of strong quality; similarly, even if the atoms of species of Karmas are more in quantity and those have less fruition power for lesser period then those species of Karmas are less effcetive; and even if the atoms of species of Karmas are less in quantity and those have more fruition power for longer period then those species of Karmas are more effective.


Hence, the type-bondage and space-bondage resulting from Yogas are not strong.  Only duration bondage and fruition bondage caused by passions are strong.  Therefore, passions should be known as the prime cause of bondage.  Those who do not want to get bound, should not indulge in passions.


Transformation of Insentient Matter-particles

 (Atoms) into Appropriate Species of Karmas


Now, here some raises a question that the matter-particles are inanimate and are devoid of knowledge; how do they then undergo transformation into appropriate species of Karmas?


 Answer: As on getting hungry, the mass of matter-particles of food swallowed through mouth gets transformed into bodily constitutes like blood, flesh, semen, etc., and the atoms (particles) of that food (morsel) get appropriately distributed in the form of some bodily constituents in a lesser measure and in the form of some bodily constituents in a greater measure.  And in them, many atoms remain bonded for quite long duration and many for a short duration.  Further, in those atoms many (atoms) possess greater power of producing their effect and many have less power.  In this process none of the mass of matter-particles of food know that it should get transformed in this particular way. Moreover, there is no one to motivate them in this transformation; such type of Nimitta-Naimittika (cause and effect) relationship is existing and owing to which such transformation takes place.


Similarly, on the rise of passions the mass  of matter in Karma-varganas (karmic matter) so absorbed through the channel of Yoga gets transformed into Jnanavarana, etc., type of Karmas (species) and the atoms of  those Karma-varganas (Karmic-matter) get appropriately distributed into some types of Karmas (species) having less atoms and into some types of Karmas (species) having more atoms.  And in them many atoms (of some species) remain in bonded state for a longer period and many for a shorter period. And in those atoms some (atoms) possess greater potency of producing their effect and some (atoms) possess lesser potency. In this process, none of the mass of matter-particles of Karma-Varganas knows that it should get transformed in this particular way. And there is no one to motivate them in this transformation; such type of Nimitta-Naimittika (cause and effect) relationship is existing and owing to which such transformation takes place.


Like this, many Nimitta-Naimittika relations are taking place in this universe. As owing to Nimitta of Mantras (incantations) water, etc., attains the potency of curing disease and pebbles, etc, attain the potency of stopping snakes.  Similarly, owing to Nimitta of Jiva-Bhavas (dispositions of the soul) the Pudgala, i.e., the matter- particles (atoms) attain the potency of Jnanavarana, etc., types of Karmas.  Here if Karmas produce the effect after deliberation effortful then it ought to possess knowledge, but on meeting with an appropriate Nimitta the corresponding transformation takes place automatically, and so there is no need of knowledge.


Such is the set process of new bondage.


State of Existence of Bonded Karmas


 Now, the atoms which have transformed into Karmas form remain in bonded form intermingled with space-points of Jiva till they do not acquire the operative state. There, owing to Nimitta of dispositions of soul (Jiva-Bhavas) the condition of many species of Karmas also gets changed. The atoms of many different types of species of Karmas get transformed into atoms of other types of species of Karmas. And many species (of Karmas) which were bonded for longer duration with intense fruition become scant by getting decreased and many other species (of Karmas) bonded for lesser duration with the potency of feeble fruition become more by getting increased.  Thus, even the condition of atoms bonded in the past change due to Nimitta of Jiva Bhavas and if Nimitta is absent then there is no change but they remain as they were.


In this way, the bonded Karmas remain in existence.


The Ripening (Operative State) of Bonded Karmas                           


And when the time of rise (ripening) of species of Karmas natures then automatically according to the fruition of those species of Karmas the effect gets produced; the Karmas do not produce those effects. At the time of their ripening state, the specific effect (disposition) gets evolved; only so much is to be known the cause and effect relationship (Nimitta- Naimittika Samband). And simultaneously with their fructification the karmic form ends due to the end of fruition-power of those Karmas; these (dissociated) matter- particles get changed into other forms; this is called Sauipaka-Nirjara  (Shedding-off of Karmas on their ripening in usual course of time).


In this way, the Karmas shed off every moment on rise (ripening) of the same.


After the end of karmic power, these matter-particles, irrespective of being present in the same species of molecules or getting separated from them, become ineffective. It should be known that at each moment infinite atoms (karmic matter-particles) get  bonded with soul; the atoms so bonded in one moment (in one unit of time), leaving the period of Aabadha-kal (prior to ripening), continue coming serially into operative state (Udaya) in all the moments of their duration period. And the atoms so bonded in several moments which are capable of ripening together, come into Udaya state collectively.  The collective fruition of all those atoms (species of Karmas) gets produced at one time accordingly to their combined fruition-power.  And the atoms so bonded in several moments holding the identity as karma remain in intermingled relationship with Jiva (soul) from the time of bondage till the time of their Udaya, (rise or ripening state).


Thus should be known the bondage, the rise or ripening and the existence states of Karmas. Every moment the atoms (karmic species) equal to one Samaya-Prabaddha only get bonded and equal to one Samaya-Prabaddha only get dissociated (shed off). There the Karmas remain always in existence equal to one and a half Gunahani times Samaya-Prabaddha only. The details of all these will be written in the forthcoming chapter on Karmas.


Characteristics of Dravya-Karmas & Bhava- Karmas                     


 Thus, Karma is a product of infinite matter-particles in atomic form; therefore its' name is Dravya- Karma (material Karma). Due to the instrumentality of rise of Moha, impure dispositions like perverse belief, anger, etc., are caused. These are the product of Jiva's own impure dispositions; therefore, its name is Bhava-Karma.  Bhava-Karma is caused due to instrumentality of Dravya-Karma and Dravya-Karma's bondage is caused due to instrumentality of Bhava-Karma. Bhava-Karma from Dravya-Karma and Dravya-Karma from Bhava- Karma; thus due to mutual cause and effect relationship Jiva transmigrates in the world.


The specific point to be known is that due to bondage being intense or feeble or due to internal transformation, etc., or due to rise in different moments of Karmas bonded in one moment or due to rise in one moment of Karmas bonded in different moments, if in some particular moment the rise be intense then  the passions would be intense and the resulting fresh bondage would also be intense; and if in some particular moment rise be feeble then the passions would also be feeble and the fresh bondage would also be feeble. And exactly according to those intense or feeble passions the internal transformation etc., of Karmas bonded formerly in the past moments may also take place.


In this way, the automatic process of Dravya-Karma and Bhava- Karma has been taking place continuously from eternity.


Characteristics and Tendency of Nokarmas  (Quasi-Passions)


Owing to rise of Nama-Karma (physique-making Karma) body is produced. It is somewhat instrumental cause of happiness and misery similar to Dravya-Karma. Therefore, the body is called Nokarma. Here the word `No' is to be known as denoting lesser measure. The body is a mass of matter-particles (atoms) and Dravya Indriyas (sense organs), Dravya-Mana (material mind), respiration and vocal organs all these are also the parts of body; therefore, these also are to be known as mass of matter-particles (atoms).


 In this way, Jiva with Dravya-Karma and body is found bonded occupying same space points ((Eka-Kshetraavagaha (Eka' means one or the same, `Kshetra' means region, `Avagah' means to occupy or occupying.) form of bond-age)).  The relation of body remains with Jiva from the moment of birth till the duration of Ayu (life) Karma; and at the end of (the period of) Ayu- karma, death takes place, then the relation with that body comes to an end; body and soul get separated and either in the same very moment or in second, third, fourth moment (Samaya), Jiva acquires new body owing to the Nimitta of rise of Karmas; there also similar relation  continues up to the end of one's Ayu (life Karma) and again death occurs, then relation ends with that body. Like this, leaving of former body and acquiring new body continues successively.


Further, this soul, although possesses innumerable space- points (Pradeshas) but by virtue of the quality of contraction and expansion it remains equal to the extent of the size of the body occupied; however, the specific point is this that at the time of Samudghat (emanation of soul's space-points) the Pradeshas of soul emanate even outside the body and thereafter (on end of emanation period) remain equal  in size of the last body left (before emanation).


Further, the functioning of knowing activity takes place to this Jiva through the instrumentality of Dravya-lndriya and Mana, which are the parts (organs) of the body. And according to the condition of the body, Jiva experiences happiness and sorrow owing to the rise of Mohakarma. And sometimes body functions as per the will of Jiva, sometimes Jiva acts as per the condition of the body; sometimes Jiva acts in a different way according to its will and body (mass of matter-particles) functions in a different way.


Thus, the tendency of Nokarmas is to be understood.



Nitya (Eternal) Nigoda and Itara (Non-eternal)

                Nigoda State of Jiva


Originally since eternity Jiva is found bonded in Nitya-Nigoda form of body.  There, the Jiva occupying Nitya (eternal) Nigoda form of body dies on completion of Ayu-karma and again acquires Nitya (eternal) Nigoda form of body only and then again dies after the expiry of Ayu karma and again acquires Nitya Nigoda body only. In this way, there are infinite times infinite Jivas which are continuously dying and taking birth from eternity there only. Further, from (Nitya Nigoda) state 608 Jivas get out in six months and eight Samayas. They assume other forms of bodies after getting out from there. They continue transmigration in earth, water, fire, air and single plant-life forms of one-sensed beings, in the forms of two-sensed, three-sensed and four-sensed beings or in infernal, animal, human and celestial forms of five-sensed beings.  After undergoing transmigration for a long time if Jiva again attains the Nigoda form of existence then it is termed as Itara (non-eternal) Nigoda.


 And after having stayed there for long time and getting out from there, Jivas continue transmigration in other forms of existence.  There, the maximum period of transmigration in earth, etc., immobile forms of beings (Sthavara Jivas) is innumerable Kalpas only and in mobile forms of two to five sensed beings (Trasa-Jivas) it is somewhat more than two thousand Sagaras. In Itara Nigoda it is two and a half Pudgal-Paravartanas (wandering in matter-cycle of time) which is infinite period. Some Jivas after getting out from Itara-Nigoda and getting Sthavara (immobile) form of existence again go back to Nigoda.


Thus, in one-sensed forms of existence the maximum period of transmigration is innumerable Pudgal-Paravartanas only and the minimum period is of one Antar-Muhurta in all states of existence.

 In this way, the maximum embodied forms occupied (by this Jiva) are of one-sensed beings only and acquiring other (higher) forms of existence is just like Kaktaliya Nyaya- a flying crow catching falling down fruit by chance.


Thus, this Jiva is having the disease of karmic bondage from beginningless time. Thus ends the diagnosis of karmic bondage.


 States of Jiva Caused Due to the Disease of Karmic Bondage


Now, the states of Jiva caused by instrumentality of disease of karmic bondage are being described:


Inherently the nature of this Jiva is Chaitanya (sentience); it possesses the power of cognizing general and specific nature of all existing substances. Chaitanya is the name of (soul's) that attribute in which the real nature of substances is reflected as they are.  Cognition of general (common) nature (of substances) is called perception (Darshan) and cognition of specific (uncommon) nature (of substances) is called knowledge (Jnan). Due to such nature the soul always possesses the power of perceiving and knowing all substances directly and simultaneously with their all attributes and modifications of the past, present and future without any help or means; but from eternity, knowledge- obscuring and perception-obscuring Karmas are found bonded with Jiva, due to its Nimitta the manifestation of this power does not take place. Owing to Kshayopashama (destruction-cum- subsidence) of these Karmas somewhat (a little) manifestation of Mati- Jnan (sensory knowledge) and Shruta-Jnan (scriptural knowledge) is found and very rarely Avadhi- Jnan (clairvoyance) is also found; Achakshu-Darshan (non-ocular perception) is found and rarely Chakshu-Darshan (ocular perception) and Avadhi-Darshan (clairvoyant perception) are also found.


Now, the tendency of these is explained below:


Dependent Functioning of Mati-Jnan


 Mati-Jnana knows with the help of Dravya-Indriyas- the bodily organs namely tongue, nose, eyes, ears, touch and Dravya- Mana- the material mind situated in heart in the shape of an eight-petal open lotus. For example, he whose eye- sight is weak though sees through his eyes only but sees only after putting on eye- glass and can not see without eye- glass. Similarly, soul's knowing power is feeble, he knows by his knowledge only but knows only with the instrumentality of dravya-Indriyas & Mana; can not know without them. And even when the eyes are alright but if some defect develops in the eye-glass then he can not see or sees unclearly or sees differently; similarly, one's Kshayopashama-Jnan is as it is but if the matter-particles (atoms) of Dravya-Indriya and Mana turn otherwise then he can not know or knows unclearly or knows differently; because, there exists cause and effect relationship between the modification of atoms of Dravya Indriya & Mana and Mati-Jnana. Therefore, according to their modifications the modification of knowledge also takes place. As for example, in childhood and oldage of human beings, Dravya-Indriyas and Mana, etc, are feeble, then knowing power is also found feeble; and further as owing to the instrumentality of cold atmosphere, etc. the particles of senses of touch etc, and mind act differently, then either nothing is known or a very little is known.


Further, Nimitta-Naimittika (cause and effect) relationship is found also in-between knowledge and external objects. For instance, if the particles (atoms) of darkness or the particles, forming cataract, etc., or the opaque particles of stone, etc., come before eyes then eyes can not see. And if a red glass comes before eyes then all appears red.  If green glass comes before eyes then all appears green. Thus, erroneous knowing takes place.


Further, if telescope, eye- glass, etc., come before eyes then the things appear in magnified form. If particles of light, water, plain glass come before eyes then also things appear as they are. Similarly, one should know about other senses and mind also appropriately.  Owing to the use of incantation, etc. or owing to the drunkenness, etc. or owing to the Nimitta of ghost, etc. either no knowing or a very little knowing or knowing differently takes place. In this way, this knowledge is dependent on external things also.


Moreover, whatever is known through this knowledge is known unclearly; from remote position knows in one way, from vicinity knows in other way, instantly knows in a different way, if there be delay in knowing then knows differently, knows some objects with suspicion, knows some objects erroneously, knows some objects a little only - in all these ways clear knowing is not possible.


 In this way, Mati Jnana (sensory knowledge) functions depending upon the medium of senses and mind. It knows through the medium of those senses only such molecules of matter which lie in the area within the reach of senses, are present in gross form and are knowable by self. Even in those molecules, the modes of touch, etc. of some molecules only are known through different-different senses in different- different moments of time. And through the mind it knows quite unclearly a little bit about the material and immaterial substances and their modifications of past, present and future knowable to oneself of the remote areas or of the nearer areas. That too, it knows only that thing which has been deduced through deductive-reasoning. And some times it knows about the non-existing things through his own conjecture. For example, as in dream or in conscious state also it contemplates about such things, forms, etc. which are perhaps found nowhere and believes them contrary to their nature. In this way, knowing takes place through mind. So the knowledge which functions through senses and mind is called Mati-Jnana (sensory knowledge).


Further, the one-sensed beings viz. earth, water, fire, air and vegetables (plants) have the knowledge of touch only; earth worm, conch, etc., two-sensed beings have the knowledge of touch and taste; ant, bug, etc. three-sensed beings have the knowledge of touch, taste and smell; large-black-bee, fly, moths, etc. four-sensed beings have the knowledge of touch, taste, smell and colour; crocodile, cow, pigeon, etc. animals (sub-human beings) and human beings, celestial beings, infernal beings - these are five-sensed beings; they have the knowledge of touch, taste, smell, colour and words (sound). In animals (Tiryanchas) many are rational, i.e., with mind and many are irrational, i.e., without mind. There, the rational beings have the knowledge arising through mind; the irrational beings do not have the same. And the human beings, celestial beings, infernal beings are only rational beings; all of them are found possessed with the knowledge arising through the medium of mind.


Thus is to be known the functioning of Mati-Jnana.


Dependent Functioning of Shrut-Jnana (Scriptural Knowledge)


 Now, whatever object has been known by Mati Jnana, through its reference the knowledge by which another object is known is called Shrut-Jnana (scriptural knowledge). It is of two kinds:- 1.  Aksharatmaka (lettered or verbal) and 2.Anaksharatmaka (letterless or non-verbal). For example, someone listens to or sees the word `JAR' - that knowledge (produced in the person) is Mati-Jnana (sensory knowledge) and the knowledge of the object `JAR' arising with its reference is called Shrut-Jnana (scriptural knowledge). Likewise other examples also are to be known. This is `Aksharatmaka Shrut-Jnana'. Further, knowledge of cold arising through sense of touch is Mati- Jnana, with its reference the knowledge evolved that `this is not beneficial, hence better to run away (from here)' - is Shrut-Jnana. Similarly, other examples can also be given. This is Anaksharatmaka Shrut-Jnana.


The one-sensed etc., irrational beings (Jivas without mind) possess `Anaksharatmaka-Shrut-Jnana' only and rational beings (Jivas with mind) possess both types of Shrut- Jnana.  So this Shrut-Jnana is thus dependent even on Mati-Jnana- which itself is dependent in many ways and it (shrut-Jnana) is dependent on various other factors also; hence, it is to be known as extremely dependent.


 Functioning of Clairvoyance, Telepathy & Omniscience               


Now, that (knowledge) by which the material objects are known distinctly and clearly according to its limitations of the extent of area (region) and time is called Avadhi Jnana (clairvoyance). It is found manifested in all celestial and infernal beings and is also found rarely in any of the rational five-second animals and human beings.  This is not found in irrational beings. ((Irrational Beings-Jivas without `mind', (Asanji-Jivas)). So this knowledge is also dependent on body, etc.  Pudgalas (matter-particles).  The clairvoyance is of three kinds- 1.  Deshaavadhi (partial clairvoyance), 2.  Parmaavadhi (excellent clairvoyance) and 3. Sarvaavadhi (full clairvoyance). In these Deshaavadhi knows material objects with somewhat clarity and limitation of limited area and time, that too is found in some Jiva only.


And Parmaavadhi, Sarvaavadhi and Manah-Paryaya Jnana (telepathy) these (three types of direct) knowledge get manifested in Moksh Marg (path to liberation) only. Kewal - Jnana (omniscience) is itself the form of liberation (Moksha); hence in this beginningless mundane existence these are not found existing. Thus is found the functioning of knowledge.


Functioning of Ocular, Non-ocular, Clairvoyant and Omni-perception


Now, on getting association of objects of touch, etc. with senses and mind, the perception that occurs in the form of appearance of mere existence (of something) in the first moment just before the occurrence of sensory knowledge is called Chakshu-Darshan and Achakshu-Darshan. The perception that occurs through the eye-sense is known Chakshu-Darshan (ocular perception); it is found in the four-sensed and five-sensed beings only. And the perception that occurs through the touch, tongue, nose, ears - these four senses and mind is called Achakshu-Darshan (non-ocular perception); it is found in the one-sensed, etc.  beings as per their capacities.


 Now on getting association of objects of clairvoyance the perception that occurs in the form of appearance of mere existence just before the occurrence of clairvoyance- knowledge is called Avadhi-Darshan (clairvoyance-perception). This is found only in them who possess Avadhi Jnana, the clairvoyance- knowledge.


These Chakshu-Achakshu- Avadhi Darshan are to be known dependent similar to Mati-Jnana and Avadhi-Jnana. And Kewal- Darshan (omni perception) is itself the form of liberation; its existence is not found here.


Thus is found the existence (functioning) of Darshan (perception-attribute).


Functioning of Knowledge & Perception


In this way, the existence (manifestation) of Jnan and Darshan is found according to the Kshayopashama (destruction cum subsidence) of Jnana Varana (knowledge- obscuring) and Darshan-Varana (perception obscuring) Karmas. When the Kshayopashama is less, the power of Jnana and Darshan is also less and when it is more, the power (of Jnana & Darshan) is also more.  Further, due to Kshayopashama the power (of knowing and perceiving) remains as such but in the process of utilization only one object is known or seen in one unit of time (Samaya) by a Jiva. The name of this activity is Upayoga (active  consciousness). There, in one Samaya (in one unit of time) only one Upayoga either Jnan-Upayoga or Darshan- Upayoga is found in action to a Jiva. And even in one Upayoga only one of its kind is found functioning. For example, when Mati-Jnana is functioning, the other kinds of Jnanas are not found functioning. Even in its one kind only one object is visualized. For instance, when it knows touch then it does not know taste, etc. Moreover, in one object also it is found engaged in any one part of it only. For instance, when it knows about hot touch then it does not know about roughness, etc.


Thus, in one moment of time (in one Samaya) a Jiva knows only one knowledge or perceivable object through active knowledge or perception. And it appears to be so only. When Upayoga is busy in hearing then even the object situated very near to the eyes is not seen. In the same way other tendency is found.


 Moreover, rambling of Upayoga is very fast. Due to this in some particular moment it appears that knowing and seeing of many objects takes place simultaneously, but it does not happen simultaneously, rather happens serially. Due to instinctive force their instrumentality (of knowing & seeing) continues. For example, there are two sockets in the crow's eye but the pupil is only one, it moves very swiftly owing to which it serves the purpose of both the sockets.  Similarly, for this Jiva, there are several doors but Upayoga is one; it moves very swiftly due to which the instrumentality (of knowing) through all doors remains existing.


Question: Since in one moment of time only one object is known or seen, then it should be asserted that the Kshayopashama is only so much, why is it stated to be more? It is further stated that owing to the Kshayopashama such power is found existing but the power of omniscience and omniperception is also found in the soul.


Answer: As a person has power of going to many villages but someone stops him and tells visit five villages but visit only one village in one day. Now this person possesses the power of visiting several villages from substance (inherent potentiality) point of view, however, that (power) may get manifested at some other time; but it is not found manifested in the present time, because he can not visit more than five villages at present, and also the power of going to five villages exits in him at present from the manifestation power point of view, because he can go to these five villages but the instantaneous manifestation of that power is of visiting only one village in one day.


Similarly, this Jiva has the power of knowing and seeing all the substances but the Karmas obstructed it, and only so much Kshayopashama resulted (manifested) that the objects of touch sense, etc. only can be known or seen but only one object in one Samaya (moment of time) can be known or perceived. The Jiva has the power of knowing and seeing all objects from substance (inherent potentiality) point view which may get manifested at some other time but does not exist manifested at present because he cannot know or see the objects more than the objects of one's own manifested capability of knowing and seeing. And also the power of knowing and seeing the objects as per his capability in the present manifestation form exists from the modification point of view, because he can know and see those objects but the instantaneous manifested capacity is found of knowing or seeing only one object in one Samaya (unit of time).


Question: This is understood, but the Kshayopashama (of Karmas) is found (manifested) and on there being contrary instrumental cause of external sense etc. knowing and seeing (of the objects) does not materialize or materializes less or otherwise, so in such instance how can the instrumentality (Nimitta) of Karma alone be established ?


 Answer: As (in the above example) the man obstructing (the going person) says- `Out of five villages go to one village in one day but go along with these servants'. There, if those servants act contrarily then going may not be possible or may be possible to some extent or in opposite direction. Similarly, the Kshayopashama of Karmas is of such type that out of so many objects only one object can be known or seen in one `Samaya', but that too on being the Nimitta (presence) of so many external objects.  There, if those external objects modify contrarily then knowing and seeing may not be possible or may be possible to some extent or otherwise. All this is the peculiarity of Karmas Kshayopashama only. Hence, the Nimitta of Karmas only is to be known, for example, someone is not able to see due to the obstruction by the atoms of darkness but the owl, cat, etc. are able to see even in the presence of obstruction created by them.  All this is the peculiarity of Kshayopashama only. Thus, knowing and seeing materializes in accordance with the degrees of Kshayopashama only.


In this way is found the functioning of Kshayopashama Jnana (knowledge) to this Jiva.


The clairvoyance and telepathy knowledge's found in the path of liberation are also the (types of) Kshayopashama- Jnana only. (Hence) similarly, these also know and see only one object in one Samaya (moment) and are dependent on other objects. And whatever are their details (specialties) should be known in detail.


Thus, owing to the instrumentality of the rise of Jnanavarana and Darshanavarana Karmas, most of the degrees of Jnana and Darshan are non-existent and owing to their Kshayopashama a few degrees (of Jnana & Darshan) are found existing.


Jiva's State Due to Rise of Mohaniya-Karma


Due to rise of Mohaniya-Karma the perverse-belief (mithyatv) and passionate dispositions (Kashaya Bhavas) are caused to this Jiva.


Jiva's Condition Due to the Rise of Darshan- Moha (Faith-deluding) Karma


Owing to the rise of Darshan-Moha the disposition of perverse-belief (Mithyatva-Bhava) is caused, due to which this Jiva believes the Tattvas (substance) contrary to their nature in the form of erroneous ascertainment. He does not believe as they are but believes as they are not.


 "A mass of immaterial Pradeshas (spatial units), possessor of the celebrated knowledge, etc., attributes and an eternal substance is the self (soul); and the mass of material-matter substances, devoid of celebrated knowledge, etc., attributes, which are newly associated-such bodies, etc., Pudgala are the non-self (non-soul)". And in their association the Jiva assumes various types of bodily modifications like that of human beings, animals etc. In those bodily modifications the Jiva holds the feelings of I-ness (or oneness), can not discriminate between the self and non-self. Whatever (bodily form of) modification he obtains, the same modification he treats as to be the self.


Further, in that modification the knowledge, etc., are his own attributes and the attachments, etc., are the impure (alien) dispositions produced due to the instrumentality of Karmas and complexion, etc., are the attributes of the bodies, etc., Pudgalas and the various changes that take place of atomic particles and complexion, etc., in the body, etc., are the modifications of matter (Pudgalas); he identifies all these modifications as to be his own nature; the discrimination between the nature of the self and non-self can not be possible.


And in the human, etc., embodied modifications, the association of family, wealth, etc., is met with; these are clearly different from the self and they do not act or modify under one's control; even then he feels mineness in them that these are mine. They in no way become his own. He himself considers them as his own by his own belief.  Further, on acquiring human, etc., embodied modifications, he sometimes believes the self-imagined false nature of the deity, etc., or of the Tattvas (substances), etc., but does not believe in their true nature as they really are.


Thus, owing to the rise of Darshan Moha (faith- deluding Karma) the disposition of perverse belief in the form of non- substantial faith is caused in this Jiva. Where its rise is found intense, a more perverse faith contrary to true faith is caused, when its rise is feeble then less perverse faith contrary to true faith is caused.


Jiva's Condition Due to the Rise of Charitra Moha


When Jiva indulges in passions due to the rise of Charitra- Moha (conduct-deluding Karma), then even knowingly and seemingly involves himself in anger, etc., believing the other objects beneficial and harmful.


Due to the rise of anger passion, believing other objects to be harmful, the Jiva wishes ill (evil) of them. When some temple, etc., inanimate objects appear to be disagreeable then he wants to damage them by way of breaking and destroying, etc., and when the foes etc., animate objects appear to be bad then he wishes evil of them by inflicting pain through killing, chaining or beating, etc. And if he himself or the other living and non-living objects get modified in some form which he does not like then he wishes ill of that modification by turning it into other form.


Thus the desire of wishing ill of others is caused due to (the rise of) anger-passion but its harm depends on destiny.


 And on rise of pride-passion, believing other object to be harmful, he desires to undermine it and desires to extol himself. Due to the feeling of dislike and disrespect in excreta-dust, etc., inanimate objects, he desires these to remain inferior and self to remain superior.  And by bending and keeping under his control, he wishes other people, etc., animate substances, to remain inferior and self to remain superior.  And for establishing one's own superiority in the world by decorating the body and spending money and other such acts, he desires others to remain inferior and himself to become superior. And if someone performs more commendable act in comparison to his own act then he tries to prove it inferior through some means and wants to show his inferior act as superior.


Thus owing to pride-passion, the desire to establish one's own superiority arises, but achieving superiority depends on destiny.


And on rise of deceit-passion, believing other object to be beneficial, he desires to achieve it through various fraudulent ways. He indulges in various types of frauds for obtaining jewels, gold, etc., inanimate things and for acquiring women, male-female servants, etc., animate objects. For the purpose of cheating, he assumes different poses and changes the conditions of other animate and inanimate objects. Through such forms of deception he wants to accomplish his goal.


Thus owing to the deceit-passion, one commits fraud for the accomplishment of one's goal but accomplishment of cherished goal depends on destiny.


And on rise of greed-passion, believing other objects to be beneficial, he desires to obtain them. The avarice of cloths, ornaments, wealth & grains, etc., inanimate objects, is induced and avarice of wife, sons, etc. animate objects is induced.  Further, believing some particular modification to be beneficial to self or to other animate-inanimate objects, he wants to change them into that form or modification.


Thus owing to greed-passion, the desire of obtaining beneficial objects is induced but obtaining beneficial objects depends on destiny.


Thus due to rise of anger, etc., passions, the soul undergoes (alien) modifications.


These passions (Kasha's) are of four kinds:


1. Anantanubandhi- (Intense type of anger, pride, deceit & greed-passions).


2. Apratyakhyanavarana-(Intense type of passions).


 3. Pratyakhyanavarana- (intense type of passions).


4. Samjwalana- (mild-gleaming passion).


The passions on rise of which Samyaktva (right belief) and Swaroopacharana Charitra (self-absorption conduct) can not be evolved in the soul, are called Anantanubandhi Kasha's. Those passions, on rise of which the partial right conduct (Desha-Charitra) is not evolved, and even partial abstinence can not be observed, are called Apratyakhyanavarana Kasha's. And those passions on rise of which complete right conduct (sakal-charitra) is not evolved and complete abstinence can not be observed, are called Pratyakhyanavarana Kasha's. And those passions on rise of which transgressions continue evolving in Sakal-charitra and hence perfect conduct (Yathakhyata-charitra) can not be evolved, are called Samjwalana Kashas.


In beginningless mundane existence (of Jivas), continuous rise of all these four passions is found. There, when the passion is intense in the form of Krishna-Leshya (black thought-coloration) and when the passion is feeble in the form of Shukla-Leshya (white thought-coloration) an incessant rise of all those four passions is found existing in both the conditions.  Because the divisions of Anantanubandhi, etc. passions are not from the viewpoint of their being intense or feeble but are from the viewpoint of obliterating Samyaktva (right belief), etc. On intense rise of fruition of those Karmic species, intense anger, etc (alien dispositions) are caused and on feeble rise of fruition (of these species of Karmas) feeble anger etc. are caused.


Further, on attaining the right path of liberation, the rise of last three, two and one species out of these four kinds (of conduct-deluding Karma) is found and afterwards all the four get destroyed in the end.


Further, out of anger, etc., four passions, the rise of only one passion is found in one unit of time. Also these passions have mutual cause and effect relationship. Anger turns into pride, etc., pride turns into anger, etc; that is why sometimes the difference is recognized and sometimes it is not recognized. This is to be known as the passionate form of modification.


 Further, owing to the rise of Charitra-Moha only the quasi- passions (No-kasha's) are caused; there, due to rise of laughter (Hasya) passion, believing some object beneficial, one becomes cheerful and feels happy. And due to rise of `Liking' (Rati) passion, believing something good, one makes love with it & gets attached therein. And due to rise of `disliking' (Arati) passion, believing something harmful, one feels aversion & becomes desperate. And due to rise of `sorrow' (shoka) passion, believing something harmful, one feels dejected, feels sorry.  And due to rise of fear (Bhaya) passion, believing some object harmful, one feels afraid of it & does not like its association. And due to rise of `disgust' (Jugupsa) passion, believing some object harmful, one hates it & wants to get rid of it.


Thus, one should know these laughter (Hasya), etc., six quasi- passions. And due to rise of sex-passions, the feeling or desire of co-habitation is caused. There, due to rise of `female' sex-passion, the desire of cohabiting with man is caused and due to rise of `male sex' passion, the desire of cohabiting with woman is caused, and due to rise of neuter sex-passion the desire of cohabiting with both man and woman is caused.


Thus, these are the nine types of NoKashayas (quasi- passions).  These are not so strong as anger, etc; that is why these are termed as Ishat (quasi). Here the word 'No' is to be known synonym of Ishat.  The rise of these quasi- passions is found along with the anger, etc. passions as per their rise.


In this way, due to rise of Moha (deluding karma) perverse belief and passions (alien dispositions) are caused and these (alien-dispositions) alone are the root cause of Samsara (transmigration). Because of these passions only the Jiva is unhappy at present and these only are the causes of future Karmic bondage also. The name of these very passions is also Raga (attachment)- Dwesha (aversion), Moha delusion).


There, the name of mithyatv (perverse belief) is Moha because there is absence of adversity (about the self-soul). Further the name of deceit, greed passions and laughter, liking and three kinds of sex-passions is Raga                                           (attachment), because love (affinity) is found there with agreeable feeling And the name of anger, pride passions and disliking, sorrow, fear, disgust is `oweIsha' (aversion), because hatred (ill- will) is found there with disagreeable feeling. And in general the name of all kinds of passions and quasi-passions is Moha (delusion), because in all these passions inadvertence is found all everywhere.


Jiva's Condition Due to Rise of Antaraya-Karma

(Obstructive Karma


Further, due to rise of Antaraya-Karma whatever Jiva wishes does not happen. If he wishes to give donation he can not give, wishes to obtain a thing but cannot obtain, wishes to enjoy but cannot enjoy, wishes to enjoy again and again but can not do so, wishes to exert for manifesting his power of knowledge, etc., but can not get manifested.  In this way, whatever one wishes does not happen due to the rise of Antaraya-Karma (obstructive-Karma); And due to its Kshayopashama the desired thing materializes to some extent. One's desire is great but he can donate only a little; some profit is achieved and only some power of knowledge, etc., is manifested; there too several outward instrumental causes are required.


Thus Jiva's state is caused due to rise of Ghati-Karmas.



   Jiva's Condition Due to Rise of Vedniya-Karma

             (Feeling-producing Karma)


Further, in `Aghati-Karmas' (non-destructive Karmas), due to rise of Vedniya-Karma (feeling-producing Karma), the causes of external happiness-unhappiness are produced in the body. Healthiness, powerfulness, etc., and hunger, thirst, disease, sorrow, pain, etc., the causes of happiness-unhappiness are developed in the body.  Externally pleasant season (weather), wind, etc., favorite wife, son, etc., and friend, wealth, etc., unpleasant season (weather), wind, etc., unfavorable wife, son, etc., and foe, poverty, assassination, bondage (imprisonment) become the cause of happiness-unhappiness.


In these external causes as mentioned above, many causes are of such type due to instrumentality of which the condition of body becomes the cause of happiness-unhappiness and those very causes become the cause of happiness-unhappiness. And many causes are of such type which themselves become the causes of happiness-unhappiness. The association of such cause takes place due to rise of Veniya Karma. There, the causes of happiness are met with due to rise of Sata-Veniya (pleasant feeling-producing) Karma and the cause of misery are met with due to rise of Asata Vedniya (unpleasant feeling-producing) Karma.


Here it should be known that those causes themselves do not produce happiness or misery, (but) owing to the rise of Mohakarma (deluding Karma) the soul of his own believes & feels happiness-unhappiness. Such is the relationship between the rise of Vedniya Karma and the rise of Moha-karma. When the external cause produced by Sata Vedniya is met with, then the rise of Moha-karma of the type of believing happiness is found and when the external cause produced by Asata Vedniya is met with then the rise of Moha karma of the type of believing unhappiness is found.


 And the same cause becomes the cause of happiness to someone and of unhappiness to other. For example, the type of cloth which becomes the cause of happiness to someone due to rise of Sata Vedniya, the same cloth becomes the cause of misery to someone else due to rise of Asata Vedniya. Hence, the external object is simply an instrumental cause of happiness and unhappiness. Whatever happiness-unhappiness is caused is due to Nimitta (rise) of Moha only. The disillusion monks possess many supernatural powers (Riddhis) and face afflictions (Parishahas), but the feeling of happiness-unhappiness is not caused in them. The illusion Jiva, on meeting external cause or even without meeting any cause, is assuredly found feeling happiness-unhappiness due to his own conjecture only.  There too, on meeting with that particular cause by which a highly- illusion Jiva becomes more happy- unhappy, by meeting with the same cause a less-illusion Jiva becomes less happy-unhappy.


 Therefore, the principal strong cause of happiness- unhappiness is the rise of Moha (deluding) Karma; the other external things are not strong cause; but the prime cause and effect relationship between other (non- self) objects and the dispositions of the illusion Jiva is found, due to which the illusion Jiva believes other external objects only as to be the cause of happiness-unhappiness.

In this way, the cause of happiness-unhappiness is produced due to (rise of) Vedniya-Karma.


       Jiva's Condition Due to Rise of Ayu (Life) Karma


And due to rise of Ayu-karma, the duration of human, etc., embodied forms is found existing. So long as the rise of Ayu- karma continues, till then even on meeting with several diseases, etc.  (external) causes, the bondage with the body does not end. And when the rise of (species of) Ayu-karma ends, then even on making several efforts there remains no bondage with body; at the same very instant soul and body become separate.


In this world (of transmigratory existence) the cause of birth, life and death is Ayu-karma only. When rise of new Ayu-karma starts, then birth in new embodied form takes place.  And so long as the rise of Ayu-karma continues, till then life remains by existence of vitality's in that embodied form. And when the rise of Ayu-karma ends then death is caused by dissociation of vitality's in that embodied form.


One should know that such is the natural instrumentality of Ayu-karma; none else is the creator, destroyer or protector.


Further, as someone wears new dress (cloth), he keeps on wearing it for some period, then quits it and puts on other dress; similarly, Jiva occupies new body, he keeps on occupying that body for some period, then quits it and (again) occupies another body.  Therefore, birth, etc., are from bodily association point of view.


Jiva (soul) is assuredly eternal and devoid of birth, etc., never-the less, the illusion Jiva does not think of past and future, therefore, he keeps himself continuously busy in the activities concerning to the present embodied form only, believing his own existence to be only till the duration of the present embodied form.


 In this way, the duration of embodied existence due to rise of Ayu-karma is to be known.


        Jiva's Condition Due to Rise of Nama-Karma

               (Physique-making Karma)


Further, due to rise of Nama-karma, Jiva attains human body, etc., (different) forms of existence and accordingly he is found in that state of existence. There, the different kinds of Trasa (mobile beings), Sthavara (immobile beings) are born. And there the soul holds Jati (class) of one-sensed beings, etc. It should be known that there exists cause and effect relationship between the rise of Jati Nama-karma and Kshayopashama of Mati-Jnanauarana Karma. The soul acquires the Jati (class of embodied form) in accordance with his Kshayopashama.


And the association of bodies takes place; the atoms of body and Pradeshas (spatial units) of the soul get bonded in one form and the soul by getting contracted or expanded becomes equal to the extent of the body. And in Nokarma from of body, the appropriate positions of different limbs and sub-limbs are found proportionately. From this only the touch, taste, etc. material senses (Dravya-Indriyas) are formed and in the heart place a material mind (Dravya-Mana) of the shape of a lotus-flowered into eight petals is found. And in the same body it self particular shape etc., particular color or complexion, etc. and grossness or subtleties, etc. are produced; thus, the atoms transformed into body form undergo such type of modifications.


Further, respiration and voice are produced; they too are the mass of Pudgala (atoms) and remain in one bonded form with the body. The Pradeshas of soul are found co-extensive in the Pudgala also. There, the respiration is (nothing but) the air. As one takes the food and discharges the excreta then only he remains alive; similarly, when one inhales external air and exhales internal air, then only the life exits. Hence, respiration is the cause of life. As bones, flesh, etc. are found in the body, similarly air is also found in the body. And as one does the work by hands, etc., similarly, he does the work by air (respiration). The morsel of food which is put in the mouth is swallowed by air, the excreta, etc., is also discharged by air.  Similarly, other things should be known. And the pulse, gastric disease etc. are also to be known as the parts of the body in air form.


 The voice is sound. As on vibrating the string of guitar, the matter molecules (Skandhas) capable of transforming into speech species get modified into lettered or non-lettered form of sound; similarly, on vibrating the palate, lip, etc., parts (of the mouth), the Pudgal-skandhas (matter-particles) taken in during Bhasha-Paryapti (accomplishment of speech- species) get modified into lettered or non-lettered form of sound.


 Further, graceful and awkward movement, etc., in embodied beings occur. Here it should be known that among the two persons chained by a common fetter, if one person wants to move and the other person also moves then movement can take place, but if one of the two remains sitting then movement can not take place and if one out of the two be strong then he might carry away the other person also.  Similarly, the soul and the body form of Pudgala (matter-particles) have one common region occupying form of bondage (eka- kshetravagaha form of bondage). There, if soul desires to make movement and Pudgala (matter of body) being devoid of the power of movement do not make movement, or if Pudgala are having power (of making movement) but the soul does not have desire (to move) then movement can not occur. And if among them, the Pudgala by acquiring power, make movement then along with it the soul, even without having any desire, makes movement. Thus happens the activity of movement, etc. And this Jiva meets with external Nimitta of defamation, etc. In this way, these acts are produced. And due to these external causes in accordance with the rise of Moha, the soul becomes happy and miserable also.


Thus, due to rise of Nama-karma, various types of formations take place of their own; none else is the creator. And the Tirthankara, etc., types (species) of Nama-karma are not found here.


Jiva's Condition Due to Rise of Gotra-Karma

(Status-determining Karma)


Due to rise of Gotra-Karma, birth in high or low caste is caused; there one gets high or low status. Owing to rise of Moha, the soul becomes happy and miserable.


In this way, the state of Jiva is found due to the instrumentality of Aghati-Karmas .


In this way, in this eternal world, the states of soul are caused due to rise of Ghati and Aghati Karmas.


“Oh Bhavya Jiva! (oh capable soul!) you should think your inner heart and see whether it is so only or not. On contemplation it would appear to be so only. If it is so then do accept that you are being afflicted since eternity by transmigration form of disease. You should make efforts to destroy it. Such meditation will bring true happiness to you".


Thus ends the 2nd Chapter describing the mundane state of existence of Jivas in this Moksha Marg Prakashak named Shastra.













Doha: So Nijbhav sada sukhad, apnai karo prakash

           Jo Bahuvidhi bhavdukhniko  karihai Sata nash


(Since) the nature of self soul is always blissful, thou ought to emit the light of self which will destroy the existence of the different the forms of miseries of mundane existence.


Many types of miseries are found in this Sansara (mundane existence); these are being narrated here, for if there be happiness in Sansara also, why should then we make effort for liberation from Sansara? Since there are several kinds of miseries in this Sansara so efforts are to be made for liberation.


As a physician, by making diagnosis of disease and describing its condition, convinces the patient about his disease and thereafter creates interest in him for its treatment; similarly, here also by making diagnosis of Sansara and describing its condition, (Acharya) convinces the mundane being of his Sansara - disease and creates interest in him for making efforts to get rid of it.


For example, the patient is suffering from the disease but does not know its root cause, does not know the right treatment and also cannot bear the pain. Then, whatever appears to be the right treatment he takes it; therefore, the misery does not come to an end, then tormented, being helpless, he bears those pains; when the physician tells him the root cause of pain, tells the nature of the pain, proves all his efforts wrong, then he gets interested in making the right effort. Similarly, the mundane being is suffering from Sansara (transmigratory existence) but does not know its root cause, does not know the right means and also cannot bear the miseries. Then, whatever appears the right effort he makes it; therefore, the misery does not come to an end, then tormented, being helpless, he bears those miseries. He is shown here the root cause of miseries; the nature of the misery is explained and all his efforts are proved to be wrong; then he gets interested in making the right efforts. For this purpose this description is being made here:


 Root Cause of Miseries


(A) From Karm's Bondage Point of View


The root cause of all miseries is wrong faith, wrong knowledge and wrong conduct. The misbelief in Tattvas (realities) due to rise of Darshan-Moha (faith-deluding Karma) is wrong faith (Mithya Darshan) because of it the true-realization of the nature of substances is not possible, rather false-realization is caused. And due to the instrumentality (Nimitta) of that wrong faith only whatever knowledge of Kshayopashama form exists, it is all perverse- knowledge; owing to that, right knowledge of the nature of substances does not evolve; rather contrary knowing is caused.  And the passionate dispositions caused due to the rise of Charitra Moha (conduct-deluding Karma) is Asanyama (wrong conduct) because of which the Jiva does not act in accordance with the nature of the substances, rather acts contrarily.


Thus, these false belief etc. only are the root cause of all miseries; why is it so is being explained:


Misery caused by Kshayopashama of Jnanavarana and Darshanavarana and Release from it.


Because of wrong faith etc. Jiva can not attain discriminative knowledge of self and non-self. The self is a soul (living substance) and the body is the mass of infinite matter particles (Pudgala-Parvenus); by their union human, etc. embodied forms (Paryaya) are produced, Jiva believes that Paryaya (embodied form) to be self.  The nature of soul is knowledge, perception etc., through it a little knowing and seeing takes place and anger etc. dispositions are evolved owing to Karmic bondage; and touch, taste, smell, colour (complexion) is the nature of the body which is obvious and it undergoes various modifications like becoming obese, lean etc. and changing of touch (complexion) etc. - he knows all these as his own nature.


The functioning of knowledge and perception takes place through senses and mind; therefore, he believes that skin, tongue, nose, eyes, ears and mind are his organs. "I know and see through these organs"; because of this belief, the feeling of belonging's & affection is found in the senses.


Further, due to force of Moha (delusion) the desire of knowing and enjoying the objects through those senses is produced and on enjoying those objects he feels satisfied on fulfilling of that desire and feels delighted. Just as a dog masticates the bone, due to that its own blood starts coming out. By its taste it believes that this is the taste of the bones; similarly, this Jiva knows the objects due to which his knowledge gets entangled in them; taking its taste he believes that this is the taste of objects, but the taste is not in the objects. He himself created the desire, by knowing it himself, believed himself to be happy; but "I am an eternal soul characterized by knowledge (sentience)" such realization of "self being an embodiment of knowledge only" is not there. And "I saw dance, heard melody, smelt the flowers, tasted and touched the objects, knew the Shastra (scripture), I should know this" - like this he possesses the realization of knowledge mixed with the objects known; because of this the pre-dominance of objects alone is perceived. In this way, owing to Nimitta of Moha the desire of objects is found to this Jiva.


He has the desire of knowing and enjoying all the objects of past, present and future. "I should touch all, taste all, smell all, see all, hear all and know all" - so much is the desire, but power is limited to touch, taste, smell, seeing and hearing only such objects which come into contact with the senses; out of them only a few are partly known and enjoyed and a few are known partly through remembrance by mind, etc. Even this much materializes on meeting several external causes. Hence, the desire never gets fulfilled. Such desire can only be fulfilled on attainment of (Kevala Jnana) omniscience.


The desire does not get fulfilled through the senses because of the state of Kshayopashama. So, owing to Nimitta of Moha continuous desire of knowing and enjoying concerned objects through senses persists; due to which, getting perturbed, the Jiva is suffering from misery. So much is the misery that even for knowing and enjoying a single object he is not even afraid of death. As an elephant has vehement desire of embracing the artificial female elephant, the fish of tasting of meat attached with the fisherman's stick, the bee of enjoying the smell of lotus flower, the moths of seeing the color of lighted lamp and the deer of hearing the melody (of music) due to which even if instant death be sensed yet they are not afraid of it.  On one hand death was sure if the objects were enjoyed and on the other hand misery of senses was felt to be greater if the objects were not enjoyed. Being afflicted from the agony of these senses, all Jivas irrationally plunge into the objects of senses just as some miserable person jumps from the top of the mountain.  Jivas earn wealth by undergoing several types of pains, spend it for - obtaining the objects of senses and for the acquisition of those objects they knowingly go even to such places where death is sure to occur. They also indulge into the acts of injury, etc. and involve into passions of anger, etc.


 What can they do? The pang of the senses becomes unbearable; hence no other idea comes to their mind. The Indras (celestial beings) etc. are also afflicted from this pang. They too are found very much engrossed in the objects of the senses. Just as a person afflicted from eczema rubs the affected part engrossingly; if there be no pain why would he rub; similarly, the (celestial beings) etc. afflicted from the sensual disease, indulge engrossingly in the objects of senses. If there be no pain why would they indulge in sensual objects?  Such is the sensual knowledge produced by Kshayopashama of Jnanavarana-Darshanavarana Karmas. It acts as a cause of misery owing to Nimitta (association) of Mithya Darshan (wrong belief), etc. in association with desire.


 Now, the means that this Jiva adopts for getting rid of miseries, is being explained: With the understanding that "My desire will be fulfilled by enjoying the objects through senses", he firstly strengthens the senses by taking different types of meals, etc. and knows thus only that if the senses are strong he will have more power of enjoying the objects. Moreover, various external causes are required there; he tries to acquire them.


Further, the senses enjoy the objects on coming in contact with them. Hence, he tries to bring about the contact of the objects with the senses through different external resources. Thus, for the sake of gathering together different types of garments, foods, flowers, temple ornaments, etc. and songs, musical instruments, etc. he undergoes severe stress and strain.


Further, so long as the object remains in contact with the senses, till then somewhat knowledge of that object continues, later on only its remembrance in the mind remains. By the lapse of time the remembrance also fades out. So, he makes effort to keep those objects under his control and frequently-frequently indulges in them. And the senses can enjoy only one object in one time, but he wants to enjoy many objects and rushes towards the other object, and leaves it also, rushes towards the other object - thus behaves ravenously.


In this way whatever means come to his mind, he adopts them but all those means are false. Because, firstly availability of the desired objects is not under one's control, it is extremely difficult, and if by chance according to the rise of Karmas the desired situation is also met with then by strengthening the senses the power of enjoying the objects does not increase; that power increases only by increasing the power of knowledge and perception but this depends on the Kshayopashama of Karmas. Someone whose body is strong he is seen possessing such power in a lesser measure; Someone whose body is lean and thin, he is found possessing such power in greater measure. Therefore, by strengthening the senses through the meals, etc. nothing is accomplished. By decrease in passions & on getting Kshayopashama of Karmas if the power of knowledge and perception increases then accordingly the power of enjoying the objects increases.


 Further, he tries to gather the sensual objects, (but) it either does not remain associated for long time or mostly the company of all the desired objects is never met with. So this anxiety continues.  And by keeping those objects under his control, he very frequently indulges in them, but they do not remain under his control. Those separate substances change, independently on their own, or depend on the rise of Karmas. Such bondage of Karmas takes place on the evolution of suitable auspicious disposition (pious thoughts) and later on they come to rise state which is clearly seen. Even on making several efforts, without the Nimitta of Karmas, the external objects are not met with.


Further, leaving one object he indulges in other object, thus behaves ravenously; what can be achieved from it? As a voracious person requiring a quintal food gets a particle of food; can his hunger be quenched? Similarly, can the desire of the one who is desirous of obtaining all the objects, be satisfied by obtaining only one object?  Happiness is not possible without the end of desire; hence this effort is false.


Question: Many Jivas are seen becoming happy by adopting such means (efforts); how do you say it to be totally false?


Answer: The Jivas do not become happy, but fallaciously consider themselves to be happy. If they have become happy, how will there remain the desire for other objects? As on getting the disease cured, why one would like to take other medicine? Similarly, on the end of misery, why one would like to have other objects? Therefore, if by enjoying the object, the desire ends then we may treat it to be happiness. But so long as the particular objects is not enjoyed, till then its desire persists, and the moment that object is enjoyed, at the same moment the desire of enjoying the other object is seen developing; how can this be treated as happiness? For example, some voracious poor person got a particle of food and feels happiness by eating it, similarly this great greedy person got one desired object and he feels happy to obtain it, (but) in real sense there is no happiness.


Question: What is wrong if one satisfies his desire by enjoying the objects one after the other similar to the person who satisfies his hunger by eating the corn bit by bit?


 Answer: This may be accepted provided those corn-bits get accumulated, but when the next bit is eaten, by then the earlier bit gets driven out, how will then the appetite be quenched ? Similarly, (if) in the knowing process the knowledge of objects gets accumulated then the desire may get fulfilled, consummated, but when he starts knowing the next object by then the knowledge of the object known earlier vanishes; how will then the desire get fulfilled?  Without consummation of desire the commotion does not end and without end of commotion how can it be called happiness?


Further, the enjoyment of even one object takes place under the influence of wrong-faith etc., therefore, the bondage of Karmas being the cause of forthcoming many miseries takes place. Hence, in the present moment also it is not happiness, nor is the cause of happiness in future; so it is assuredly misery.


The same is stated in Pravachanasara as below:


Sapram badhasahim, vichinram bandhkaranmm vismam

Jam idiahin ladha tan, sokukham dukhmaiv tha


Meaning: Happiness derived through sense organs is dependent, amenable to disturbances, terminable, cause of bondage and fluctuating, hence, it is assuredly misery in disguise.


In this way the efforts made by this mandane being should be known as false.


What is the right effort then? When the desire comes to an end and the enjoyment of all objects continues simultaneously then this misery ends, but the desire comes to an end only when Moha (delusion) perishes, and simultaneous enjoyment of all the objects is possible only on attainment of Kevala Jnana (Omniscience). The means of these is the attainment of Samyag-darshan (right belief) etc. and the same should be known as the right means.


In this way the Kshayopashama of Jnanavarana and Darshanavarana also becomes cause of misery owing to Nimitta (association) of Moha (delusion).


Question: Knowing (of the objects) does not materialize owing to rise of Jnanavarana and Darshanavarana Karmas hence regard them to be the cause of misery; why do you say the Kshayopashama as to be the cause of misery?


Answer: If 'not knowing' be the cause of misery then the Pudgalas (matter) should also suffer from misery; but the root cause of misery is the desire and the desire is evolved owing to the Kshayopashama only, therefore, Kashayopashama is said to be the cause of misery but in reality Kashayopashama also is not the cause of misery. The desire of sensual objects which evolves due to Moha (delusion), that (desire) alone is to be known as the cause of misery.


Misery caused by Rise of 'Mohaniya Karma' and Release from it


Firstly, owing to rise of darshan Moha wrong belief is caused due to which the substance is not found as per one's belief and his belief is not according to as the substance is; therefore, he always remains agitated.


 For example, someone puts on a cloth on a mad man. That mad man knowing that cloth as his own limb believes the self and the cloth as one entity. That cloth being under the control of dresser, he (the dresser) sometimes tears it, sometimes joins it, sometimes snatches it, sometimes puts on new cloth, thus behaves in many ways. That mad man believes it under his control, whereas its functioning is under other's control, due to which he feels very much dejected. Similarly, the rise of Karmas produced the association of body to this Jiva. This Jiva, knowing that body as one's own limb, believes the self and the body as one entity (mass). That body being dependent on Karmas, sometimes becomes thin, sometimes becomes obese, sometimes gets destroyed, sometimes gets newly created -thus different conditions are produced. This Jiva believes it to be under his control, whereas its functioning is under other's control, due to which he feels very much dejected.


Further, where that mad man was staying, there came from somewhere some persons, horses, wealth, etc. and halted there. That mad man knows them as his own but they being under their own control, some come, some depart and some modify into different forms; that mad person believes all those (objects) under his control and their actions take place under other's control due to which he feels very much dejected.  Similarly, wherever this Jiva obtains (new) embodied form, there come from somewhere, son, horse, wealth, etc. on their own. This Jiva knows them to be his own. But they being under their own control, some arrive, some depart and some modify into different forms.  This Jiva believes all those (objects) under his control and their actions take place under other's control, due to that he feels very much dejected.


Question: Sometimes the functioning or actions of body and son, etc. also appear to be under the control of this Jiva; then at least at that time, this Jiva feels happy?


Answer: Coincidently, on meeting of the tendency of the desire of Jiva and of the destined change of the body, etc., some object modifies in a particular way as per his desire, therefore, at some moment, while thinking about the same event, one feels it to be happiness, but all the objects do not modify in all respects according to his desire, hence, in his thought-process, various forms of agitation continue incessantly.


Further, sometime, seeing the objects modifying in someway according to his desire, this Jiva feels oneness and mineness in the body, son, etc. So owing to this understanding, he always remains agitated from the anxiety of producing, nourishing and protecting them. Even by bearing several types of pains he wishes good of them.


 And the desire of enjoying the objects, occurrence of passions, agreeable-disagreeable feeling in external objects, adoption of contrary means, disbelief in right means and misconjecturing - the single root cause of all these is wrong faith (misbelief).  On its destruction, all (perversities) get destroyed; therefore, the root of all miseries is this wrong faith only.


 Further, he does not make effort to destroy that wrong faith also since he has accepted the wrong faith as to be the right faith; why would then he make effort?


Further, if by chance the five-sensed rational being contemplates about the means of ascertaining the Tattvas (realities), there upon, if due to misfortune, he comes into contact with the false deity, false preceptor, false scripture, then the misbelief in Tattvas gets fostered. His understanding was that he will be benefited by these but they provide such a means due to which he may become unconscious. He was making efforts for ascertaining the true nature of substances (reality) but contrarily becomes firm in false-belief and consequently due to increase of passions and sensual desires, becomes more miserable.


Further, if by chance the Nimitta of true deity-preceptor- scripture is also met with, even then he does not develop belief in the real sense of their preaches, (but) remains a misbeliever of Tattvas (realities) owing to faith in conventional preaching. There, if passions become feeble and the desire for objects is reduced then he becomes less miserable, but afterwards reverts to same condition. Therefore, whatever efforts this mundane being makes, they, too, are false.


Moreover, the other effort that this mundane being adopts is that he wishes to modify the substances according to his belief. If those objects get modified (accordingly) then his belief may be true; but the substances are eternal, separate from each other and modify within their respective limits. None is dependent on other, none modifies by any other causing it to modify.  Desiring to modify them is no remedy; it is assuredly wrong faith.


 What is the right means then? If one's belief becomes as per the nature of the substances then all miseries come to an end.  Just as someone deludingly believes the corpse to be alive or tries to make it alive, then he himself becomes miserable.  And believing it to be dead and having the faith that this will not become alive by trying to make it alive, is the only means to get rid of that misery. Similarly, if someone holding wrong faith misbelieves the substances, tries to change them otherwise, then he himself becomes miserable. And believing them correctly and having the faith that these will not change otherwise by trying to get them changed, is the only means to get rid of that misery.  The remedy of the misery caused by delusion is to remove the delusion only. So on removal of delusion right belief originates and that alone is to be known as the real remedy.


Misery due to Charitra Moha and Release from it                           


Owing to rise of Charitra Moha (conduct-deluding Karma) (impure) dispositions of Jiva in the form of anger, etc. passions and laughter, etc. quasi-passions are caused, then this Jiva sorrowfully feeling much afflicted indulges in several types of evil-deeds anxiously. The same is being explained: When a person is overpowered by anger passion then he desires to harm others and for that purpose he thinks about various means, utters heart-breaking words by using abusive language. He starts killing by his own limbs (hands, etc.), and by arms, stones, etc. He tries to harm others even by harming the self through undergoing lot of pains by spending money and by committing suicide or if he knows that the one can be harmed through others, then he tries to get him harmed through others or, if one gets harmed on his own then he approbates it. Even if by other's harm none of his purpose gets fulfilled yet he harms him, and on rise of anger if some venerable or well-wishers, also intervene in the matter then he abuses them also, starts beating (them) and becomes irrational. And if no harm be caused to other person then he feels very sorry in his heart of his own and cuts his own limbs and even dies by swallowing poison, etc.; such condition happens on rise of anger-passion.


And when a person is over-powered by pride-passion then he desires to humiliate others and exalts himself and for this purpose he plans many schemes. He censures others and exalts himself and undermines other's image (prestige) through various ways and means and magnifies his own image. The wealth which he has collected with great pains, spends in marriages, etc. and spends even by taking loans thinking that his name and fame will remain even after his death; he tries to magnify his self-esteem even by committing suicide. If someone does not pay respect then he tries to earn respect even by giving threats and creating trouble for others. Moreover, under the pressure of pride, he does not pay respect even to honorable and elderly persons and becomes irrational. If he does not find others in the let-down position and himself in the higher position then he inwardly feels very sorry and cuts his own limbs and even dies by taking poison, etc. Such condition happens on rise of pride- passion.


 And when a person is overpowered by deceit passion then he desires to accomplish his objective deceptively. For the purpose of accomplishing it he plans many schemes, utters deceitful words in different ways, poses his body deceitfully, tries to show external things otherwise, even indulges in such deceitful actions which may end his life. On exposure of his deception he may get badly harmed, even death may occur, yet he remains undaunted. Under the influence of deception even if some venerable and adorable persons come in his contact, he acts deceitfully with them also and becomes irrational. If his objective does not get accomplished by deception then he feels extremely sorry and cuts his own limbs and commits suicide by taking poison, etc. Such condition happens on rise of deceit passion.


And when a person is overpowered by greed-passion, then the desire of obtaining the favorite objects arises and for the purpose of accomplishing it he plans in various ways. He utters words in support of his objective, poses his body in different ways, tolerates lot of miseries, serves others, visits foreign countries, even he indulges in that work which may lead to his death and starts such activities which may cause great sufferings to him. And on the rise of greed- passion, even if there be some work related to the venerable and adorable persons, then also he tries to achieve his goal and becomes irrational. And whatever desired thing he has obtained, he tries to protect it by various means. If the desired object is not obtained or the favorite thing is lost then he himself feels very much distressed, cuts his limbs and dies by taking poison, etc.; such condition happens when one is overpowered by greed-passion.


Thus, the person afflicted by passions indulges in these various activities.


And along with these passions the quasi-passions (No- Kashayas) are also found; there, when laughter-passion is evolved then one himself feels elated and joyful. This is to be known as the laughing of a hysteric patient; (although) he is suffering from several types of diseases even then he starts laughing by making some conjecture.  Similarly, this Jiva (mundane being) is suffering from different maladies even then by making some conjecture he feels happy considering it to be pleasing to one-self but in reality he is miserable.  He will become happy only after the eradication of the disease of passion.


When the 'liking-passion' arises then one feels excessive doting in the favorite thing. Just as a cat gets engrossed fondingly on catching a rat, does not leave it even if someone beats it; likewise, here also one feels excessive fondness (in one's favorite object) considering that it is obtained with a great difficulty and may get separated; therefore, it is assuredly misery.


 When the disliking passion arises, then on getting the association of repugnant thing one feels highly dejected. The association of repugnant thing is not liked by him and the resulting agony becomes unbearable; so, he feels highly distressed for its desertion. This itself is misery.


When the sorrow (grief) passion is evolved, then on dissociation of favorite thing and association of unfavorable thing, getting highly upset, he feels very much afflicted, weeps, cries, becomes unmindful and dies by cutting his limbs; nothing is achieved by all this, even then he makes himself miserable.


When the fear-passion arises, then knowing someone to be the cause of dissociation of favorite thing and association of unfavorable thing he feels fearful, feels highly dismayed, runs away, hides, becomes nervous, reaches the place of misery and dies; hence all this is nothing but misery.


When the disgust passion arises, then he hates the unfavorable thing. That thing got associated on its own and he tries to escape disdainfully or wants to remove it away and getting dejected he experiences great pain.


When the carnal desire arises due to rise of three types of sex-passions, then the desire of cohabiting with female sex due to rise of male sex passion, the desire of cohabiting with male sex, due to rise of female sex-passion and the desire of cohabiting with both male and female sex due to rise of neuter sex-passion gets evolved. On account of that one feels very much distressed, sex-fever develops, becomes shameless, spends money, does not bother about defame, does not care for the consequential miseries and punishment, etc. One becomes mad owing to the vehemence of carnal desire and dies.  In the books on sex-passion ten states of carnal desire are described.  Becoming mad and losing life are also included there in those ten states. In medical books under the types of fevers sex-fever is also stated to be the cause of death. Even occurrence of death due to sex-passion is seen apparently. The sex-blind person becomes irrational.  The father with one's own daughter, the man with female animal, etc. starts copulating. Such is the pain of carnal desire which itself is great misery.


Thus are found the conditions owing to the rise of passions and quasi-passions.


Here a thought comes to the mind that if one does not indulge in these conditions then anger, etc. passions produce pain and if one indulges in these conditions then miseries continue till the end of life. There, the Jivas accept the miseries till the end of life but are not prepared to bear the agony of anger, etc. passions. From this discussion it is ascertained that the pain of passions is more than even the agony of death.


And when the rise of passion-causing Karma takes place then he cannot resist the temptation of indulging in passion. If the external causes of passions are met with then one indulges in passions entangling in them. If no causes are met with then he himself creates the causes.  For example, if the cause of involving in business, etc. passions be not there, then he himself creates the causes, e.g. gambling and playing various other games that are the causes of anger, etc. and narrating and hearing to the wicked tales, etc. Moreover, if the carnal desire, anger passion, etc. produce agony and the body does not possess the power of acting according to those passions then he prepares and takes the medicines and adopts various other means. And if no cause is met with then he himself indulges in passions on his own by thinking in his Upayoga (active consciousness) about the objects, which cause passions. In this way, this Jiva being afflicted from passion dispositions becomes extremely miserable.


And "If the purpose for which the passion disposition has occurred gets accomplished then my this misery may end and I may become happy" - thinking so, he arranges various means for getting that purpose accomplished and treats it to be the means of ending that misery.


Now, here the misery which is caused due to passion dispositions, is really true and one obviously himself suffers from such misery, but the means which he adopts are false, Why so? This is being explained below:


In anger to harm other, in pride to exalt self by humiliating others, in deceit to accomplish one's object through deceptive means, in greed to acquire the favorite thing, in laughter the continuation of cause of laughing, in liking the continuance of the association of favorite thing, in disliking the dissociation of unfavorite thing, in grief the elimination of the cause of sorrow, in fear the elimination of the cause of fear, in disgust vanishing the cause of disgust, in male sex-passion uniting sexually with female sex, in female-sex-passion uniting sexually with male sex, in neuter-sex-passion uniting sexually with both (male and female) sex - such purposes are found.


If these are fulfilled then by mitigation of passions misery may come to an end and one may become happy, but the accomplishment of those purposes is not under the control of efforts made by him; it depends on destiny. Because one is seen making various efforts but the object is not fulfilled. Moreover, making of efforts is also not under one's own control, it depends on destiny. Because, one thinks of making various efforts but not a single effort is seen materializing.


And if by Kakataleeya-Nyaya the destiny be in accordance with one's objective and the effort made be also in congruence with it and by it even if the objective be achieved then some passion related to that objective may get mitigated but there is no end to it. So long as the objective was not accomplished till then only the passion related to that objective was persisting and the moment the particular objective got fulfilled at the same time passion related to another objective gets generated; even for a moment he does not become free from anxiety. Just as someone was thinking ill of other and the other got harmed then by becoming angry on some other person he started wishing ill of him or when his power was less then he used to wish ill of younger persons and when his power increased then he started wishing ill of elderly persons. Similarly, when the objective which he wanted to accomplish through pride, deceit, greed, etc. gets accomplished then he wishes to accomplish another objective by creating the feeling of pride, etc. in the other persons.  When his power was less he wanted to accomplish the smaller objective, when his power increased then the desire to accomplish bigger objective got originated. If there be any limitation of the objectives in his passions then he may become happy by the accomplishment of that objective, but there is no limitation, desire goes on increasing. The same is stated in Atmanushasana:


Ashagrt pratipranree, yasmin vishvmnrupmam

Ksya ki kiydayati, vritha vo vishyaishiya


Meaning: The pit of desires exists in each and every being. The beings (Jivas) are infinite times infinite in number. All of them are found having desires and the magnitude of that well of desires is such that in that single pit the whole universe appears to be just like an atom. Further, the universe is only one; then tell here in this instant how much (portion) would fall in whose share? Hence, whatever desire of objects one has it is all worthless.


The desire never gets accomplished; hence, even on fulfillment of an objective the misery does not come to an end. Or if one passion disappears then immediately another passion crops up.  For example, there be many persons to beat one person, if one stops beating then some other starts beating. Similarly, there are various types of passions to create misery to this Jiva and when anger is not there then pride crops up; when pride is not there then anger etc. crop up.  In this way the existence of passion is always there; none is found without passion even for a moment.  Hence, even on meeting any purpose of any passion how can the misery come to an end?  And one's intention is to accomplish all purposes of all passions. If this happens then he can be happy but it can never happen; therefore, psychically he always remains miserable. In this way, by fulfilling the objective of passions and ending the misery he wants to be happy; but this means is also false.


 Then what is the real remedy? When through right belief and knowledge correct faith & knowledge are acquired then good and bad feelings get removed and by their strength only the fruition of Charitra Moha gets reduced. When this happens then passions are destroyed and the misery caused by them may end and there after no objective remains. Thus on being free from anxiety one can be extremely happy. Therefore, right belief, etc. only are the true means of getting rid of this misery.


Misery caused by the rise of Antaraya Karma

Obstructive Karma) and Release from it


And owing to the rise of Moha (deluding Karma) the zeal of donating, gaining, enjoying, re-enjoying and increasing energy arises in this Jiva but due to the rise of Antaraya Karma (obstructive Karma) all this cannot materialize; then extreme agitation is caused.  Hence, this itself is obviously misery.


The means that he adopts to get rid of this (misery) is that whatever external causes of obstruction come to his mind, he makes effort to remove the same but this means is false. Even on making efforts, the obstruction takes place owing to the rise of Antaraya Karma. And due to Kshayopashama of Antaraya Karma no obstruction is caused even in the absence of effort. Therefore, the root cause of obstruction is Antaraya Karma.


For example, a man beats a dog by a stick; the dog in vain develops envy towards the stick; similarly, obstructions are caused to this Jiva by external living and non-living objects due to the instrumental cause of Antaraya Karma. This Jiva in vain develops envy towards those external objects. The other (external) objects may like to create obstruction to him but obstruction may not be caused and other objects may not like to create obstruction to him but obstruction may be caused. Therefore, it is deduced that the other substances are not the controlling factors; why should one fight with those which have no effect? Therefore, adopting this means is also false.


What then is the real means? The prompter which was caused by desires owing to misbelief ends on attainment of right belief, etc. and by attainment of right belief, etc. only the fruition of Unitary Karma decreases, then the desire vanishes and the power of soul increases; in consequence, that misery ends and imperturbable bliss is evolved. Hence, right belief etc. is only the right means.


Misery caused by rise of Vedaniya Karma and Release from it


Further, owing to rise of Vedaniya Karma (feeling-producing Karma) association of causes of happiness and misery take place.  There, various conditions are produced in the body itself, various types of external associations acting as instrumental cause to the conditions of the body are met with and many associations of external things only are found. There, due to rise of Asata Vedaniya Karma (unpleasant- feeling-producing Karma) hunger, thirst, respiration, ache disease, etc. are caused and the association of external - objects viz. extreme-cold and hot weathers, wind, bonds, etc. acting as instrumental cause of disagreeable conditions of body are met with and the associations of foes, bad sons etc. and molecules with bad complexions, etc. are met with externally; so, due to Moha (delusion) the feeling of disliking is caused in these objects. When these (Asata Prakritis) are in operative state then the rise of Moha is invariably of such order that due to which the Jiva, becoming highly perturbed, wants to remove them, and so long as those objects are not removed till then he remains miserable. All beings feel miserable in their association.


Further, owing to rise of Sata Vedaniya Karma (pleasant-feeling-producing Karma) wholesomeness and vigorousness, etc. are found in the body and associations of external objects viz.  Eatables drinks and pleasant wheather, etc. acting as instrumental cause of agreeable conditions of the body are met with; and the external associations of friends, obedient son, wife, servant, elephant, horse, wealth, grains, house, clothes, etc. are met with and through Moha (delusion) the feeling of liking in these objects is caused. When these (Sata Prakritis) are in operative state then the rise of Moha (deluding Karma) is invariably of such order that due to which the Jiva feels happiness and wants their security; so long as those remain associated till then he feels happy. This feeling of happiness is just like a person who was suffering from many diseases and by taking some treatment he got one of his diseases subsided to some extent for sometime. Then he believes himself to be happy in comparison to earlier condition but in reality it is not happiness. Similarly, this Jiva was suffering too much from his miseries; by some means he got one of his miseries subsided to some extent for some period only.  Then he believes himself to be happy in comparison to earlier condition but in spiritual sense this is not happiness.


Further, from whatever happens to him due to rise of Asata, he feels unhappiness; so he makes efforts to remove it; and from whatever happens to him due to rise of Sata, he feels happiness; so, he makes efforts of retaining it, but this effort is false.


 Firstly, nothing is under his control; it depends on the rise of Vedaniya Karma. All make efforts for removing Asata and for retaining Sata; but someone gets his purpose served either by making some effort or without any effort; someone may not get his purpose served even after great efforts; therefore, it is deduced that the means are not in his control.


And if by chance he makes effort also and rise (of Vedaniya Karma) is also in congruence to it, then for sometime the cause of some particular type of Asata subsides and the cause of Sata may arise; there also due to existence of Moha he becomes agitated by the desire of enjoying them. The desire of enjoying an object of enjoyment arises; so long as that object is not obtained till then he becomes agitated by its desire and as soon as it is obtained the desire of enjoying another object arises; then he becomes unhappy due to that. For example, someone had the desire of tasting something; the moment he tasted it the desire to taste and touch some other object arises.


Or, earlier, there may be the desire of enjoying only one object in a particular manner; so long as it is not obtained till then its anxiety persists and as soon as that enjoyment is over, the desire of enjoying it in another way arises. For example, someone wanted to see a woman, the moment he saw her, at the same moment the desire of coition arises. And also while enjoying such kind of sensual pleasure the anxiety of adopting other means is created. Then leaving those means he starts adopting other means; there also many types of anxieties are experienced.


Is it not a fact that in making effort for obtaining wealth a great degree of restlessness is experienced in doing business and observing precautions for keeping it safe? Moreover, the rise of Asata Vedaniya continues in the form of hunger, thirst, cold and hot states of body and secretion of excreta & phlegm, etc. from the body; Jiva feels happy by their removal; is this happiness? It is simply a remedial measure of the disease. So long as hunger, etc. persist till then the anxiety of removing them persists. As soon as one desire is fulfilled some other desire crops up and that creates agitation and again hunger, etc. may arise, then these create agitation.


In this way while making efforts, by chance, Asata may turn into Sata; there also anxiety persist; hence only misery continues.


Further, even the above mentioned state may not continue; while making efforts one may have such rise of Asata that none of his efforts may succeed and it may cause severe agony which may be unbearable; then due to its agitation one may become distracted, there he feels extreme sorrow.


 So, in this world, the rise of Sata Vedaniya is very rarely found to someone due to the rise of some Punya Karma (auspicious Karma); most of the Jivas are found having the rise of Asata Vedaniya for a long time. Therefore, whatever efforts one makes are false.


Or, believing happiness and unhappiness by association of external things, is nothing but fallacy. It is obviously seen that happiness and unhappiness are caused due to the rise of Sata and Asata Vedniya Karma through the instrumentality of  Mohaniya (deluding) Karma. The person possessing one lakh rupees feels unhappy by an expenditure of one thousand rupees and the person possessing one hundred rupees feels happy by gaining one thousand rupees. The external wealth of the former is ninety nine times more than that of the latter one. Or if the possessor of one lakh Rupees is desirous of gaining more wealth then he is unhappy and if the possessor of one hundred rupees has contentment then he is happy.  And on getting similar things one feels happy and other feels unhappy. For example, on getting a coarse cloth someone feels unhappy and some one feels happy. And on rise of pain of hunger, etc. in body, dissociation of external favorite thing, association of unfavorable thing, someone feels more miserable. Hence, happiness- unhappiness do not depend on external things; rather on rise of Sata-Asata Karma, due to association of disposition of Moha, happiness- unhappiness are caused.


Question: About external objects your above statement is accepted but on getting pain in body one assuredly feels unhappy and on not having pain one feels happy - this happiness unhappiness appear to be dependent on the condition of the body only?


 Answer: The functioning of the knowledge of the soul is dependent on senses and senses are the parts of body; so whatever condition is produced in this (body) the knowledge gets engrossed in knowing it; if Moha Bhava (deluded feeling) be also associated with it, then the happiness- unhappiness is specifically known through the condition of the body. And when there be great attachment towards son, wealth, etc. then one bears bodily pain and considers it to be less misery and on their becoming unhappy or on their association being lost, feels more miserable. Whereas the monks (naked possessionless saints) do not feel any unhappiness even on having physical pain; therefore, the feeling and believing of happiness- unhappiness is dependent on the rise of Moha (deluding Karma) only. Mohaniya and Vedaniya Karmas have cause and effect relationship, that is why the feeling of happiness- unhappiness appear to be caused by the rise of Sata-Asata. And mostly the association of various external things is found due to the rise of Sata and many others due to the rise of Asata. Therefore, happiness-unhappiness appear to be caused by the external things. But on ascertaining thoughtfully, happiness-unhappiness is believed to be caused by Moha (deluding Karma) only, there is no rule about happiness - unhappiness being caused by others. The rise of Sata-Asata and the association of external objects which are the cause of happiness-unhappiness is found to an omniscient lord also; but due to absence of Moha (deluding Karma), he does not have even the slightest feeling of happiness- unhappiness.  Hence, the feeling of happiness-unhappiness should be believed to be caused by Moha (deluding Karma) only.  Therefore, if one wants to end misery and wants to become happy by means of removing or keeping the associated external objects then this means is false.


What is the right means? When delusion is destroyed by attainment of right belief, etc., then happiness-unhappiness do not appear to be arising due to the external associated objects, rather it appears to be arising due to one's own disposition only. And through the practice of real thinking one should adopt such means by which in his dispositions he would not feel happiness-unhappiness being caused by external things and by the spirit of right belief etc. only, Moha (delusion) may become feeble then such a condition develops that even on meeting with several external causes, one does not feel happy-unhappy; then he experiences the real bliss by holding the state of serenity and imperturance and then by end of all miseries he becomes happy; this is the right means.


 Misery caused by rise of Ayu Karma and release from it


Holding life in the form of a particular embodied state owing to rise of Ayu Karma (life-Karma) is aliveness and end of that embodied state is death. Due to perverse faith, etc. this Jiva experiences & believes the embodied form of existence (Paryaya) only as to be the Self; therefore, he believes his existence on being in embodied form and believes his non- existence on death. Only due to this reason he always remains fearful of death, and due to that fear the anxiety persists. He is very much afraid of those causes, which he knows to be the cause of death. He becomes highly upset if by chance he comes in their contact. In this way, he remains very much unhappy.


 The means that he adopts is that he keeps the causes of death away from him or, himself runs away from them. And he takes medicines, etc., builds fort, boundary wall, adopts such various means. So, all these means are false because on exhaustion of Ayu-Karma, although he makes various efforts and many others may be helpful, never the less, death is certain; he does not survive even for a moment. And as long as Ayu (Life Karma) is not exhausted, till then even if various causes are met with, death does not occur. Therefore, death cannot be avoided by any means. The duration of Ayu (Life) ends without fail, therefore, death also is bound to occur. Hence, making efforts for this is totally false.


What is then the right means? When the belief of I-ness in the embodied state (Paryaya) is uprooted on attainment of right belief, etc. and by believing himself to be an eternal sentient substance (Chaitanya-Dravya) he developes I-ness feeling in self soul and knows present embodied state to be merely a disguise, then the fear of death disappears.  Moreover, when through right belief etc., one attains the highest stage of Siddha (disembodied omniscient) then the death ends for ever. Hence, the right belief etc., are only the right means.


Misery caused by rise of Name-Karma and release from it


Due to the rise of Name-Karma (Physique-making Karma), Gati (State of existence), Jati (class or group of a like beings) and body, etc. are created. Out of them those which are created owing to rise of Punya (virtue) act as the cause of pleasure and those which are created owing to rise of Papa (vice) act as the cause of misery; so, it is a fallacy to believe happiness in these conditions. And this mundane being tries to make effort of removing the cause of misery and getting the cause of happiness; so, this effort is false. The real means is right belief, etc. In this context, for details, one should refer to the description given earlier under Vedaniya Karma.  Because of similarity of causation of happiness and misery between Vedaniya and Name Karmas the description of their effectiveness should be known to be similar.


 Misery caused by rise of Gotra-Karma and release from it


Owing to the rise of Gotra Karma (high and low status determining Karma) one gets birth in high or low family.  There, on getting birth in family of high status, one considers himself to be high and on getting birth in a family of low status considers himself to be low.  Since he does not know the means of change of birth in high or low family, he feels oneness with the family status obtained by him. But to consider oneself high or low with regard to the family status is fallacy. If someone of high family status indulges in mean activity then he becomes low and if someone belonging to low family status indulges in commendable activity then he becomes high. Owing to greed-passion, etc., many people belonging to high family status start doing the service of the people belonging to low family status.


After all, how long does the family status exist?


 On termination of embodied form, the family status also changes; hence considering oneself high or low by birth in family of high-low status, the person of high status family is afraid of becoming low and one belonging to low status family is unhappy due to the lowness of the status obtained by him.


By attainment of right belief etc., not believing happiness- unhappiness to arise due to high or low status, is the right means; and by the same means he attains such a supreme and the highest state of Siddha which never changes; then all miseries end and he becomes perfectly blissful.


Thus, from the point of view of the rise of Karmas, owing to the instrumentality of wrong belief etc., only miseries and miseries alone are found in the world.


(B) Miseries from embodied modifications point of view


Now the same miseries are further described from the embodied modification point of view:


The Miseries of One-sensed beings


In this universe most of the time is spent in one-sensed embodied modifications only.  Therefore, assuredly from the beginningless time Jivas are found living in the Nitya Nigoda state and getting out from there is liking jumping out of a gram (grain) from the baking cauldron.  Thus, after coming out from there the Jiva attains other embodied modification.  There in Trasa-Paryaya (Mobile beings having two or more sense) the Jiva lives for a very short duration.  Most of the time is spent in one-sensed embodied form.


There, in Itar- Nigoda, he lives for a very long period and for quite sometime he lives in earth, water, fire, air and gross vegetables-bodies.  After getting out from Nitya-Nigoda the maximum period of living in Trasa (Mobile beings) bodies is two thousand and a little more Sagars only and maximum period of living in one-sensed beings is innumerable Pudgala Paravartans only, and the period of one Pudgala Paravartan itself is such that in infinitesimal part of it inifinite Sagars are found.  So, mainly the period of this mundane being is passed in one-sensed bodies only.


There, in one-sensed beings the manifestation of power of knowledge and perception is found in extremely poor measure.  Those (one-sensed) beings know and see only a little bit of cold and heat, etc. through Mati-Jnan (sensory knowledge) produced by the instrumentality of touch sense and through Shruta Jnan (the knowledge derived through Mati Jnan) and through non-ocular perception pertaining to touch sense.  Owing to the intense rise of knowledge-obscuring and perception is not found more than this but the desire of (enjoying the) objects is found due to which they are extremely miserable.  And owing to the rise of Darshan Moha (faith-deluding Karma) perverse belief is found, due to which they believe the embodied modification only to be the self; they possess no other thinking power.


Further, due to rise of Charitra Moha (conduct-deluding Karma) they are found imbued with intense anger passion, etc; for, the omniscient Lord has revealed that they only possess black, blue and gray type of three inauspicious Leshya (thought-complexion) and those are found only during the rise of intense passions. There (in that state of existence) the passions are more but the manifested power is extremely poor in all respects; therefore, they are experiencing extreme misery but there is no go.


Question: Since their knowledge is extremely poor (rather negligible) how do they indulge in passions?


Answer: There is no such rule that the degree of passions should be in accordance with the knowledge. The power of knowledge is found in accordance with Kashayopa- sham. For example, a blind and deaf person possessing less power of knowledge, is found having more passion; similarly, it is agreed to that the one-sensed beings having very less power of knowledge, can have high degree of passion.


Further, the external passion gets exhibited then only when one exerts according to one's internal passion but they are without strength; therefore, they can not make any effort; due to this, their passion is not visible. For example, some person is weak and due to some reason he has intense passion but cannot do anything, so his passion is not visible outwardly but he feels very unhappy. Similarly, the one- sensed beings are powerless; due to some reason they have passion but cannot do any thing. So, their passion is not visible outwardly and they themselves become miserable.


It is to be known that wherever the passion is more and the strength is less, the anguish is more, and gradually as the passion diminishes and strength increases then accordingly the anguish goes on lessening by and by. But the one-sensed beings have more passion and less strength; therefore, one-sensed beings are extremely miserable. They alone experience their misery and the omniscient knows it. For instance, the knowledge of a hysteric Patient gets lessened and due to external physical weakness may also not be able to express his sufferings, but he is extremely distressed. Similarly, the knowledge possessed by one-sensed beings is less and due to weak external strength they cannot express their anguish but experience extreme anguish.


And due to intense rise of Antaraya-Karma the desired objectives do not materialize much; on account of this also, they are extremely distressed.


Further, in Aghati Karmas the rise of Papa-prakriti (vice-Karmas) is predominant; there, on getting the rise of Asata Vedaniya they feel extremely miserable owing to its instrumentality. The vegetables are broken by wind-pressure, get dried by cold and heat, are also dried in want of water, are burnt by fire, some-one pierces them, cuts them, crushes them, eats them, breaks them; such various conditions are found. Similarly, the one-sensed earth beings, etc. undergo all such possible conditions. Because of persistence of all those conditions they feel extremely distressed.


As pain is caused in human body on facing above-stated conditions, similarly, one-sensed beings also experience pain. Since knowledge of these conditions is caused through touch-sense and they do possess touch-sense, knowing them through it they feel extremely distressed being overpowered by delusion; but they do not have strength of feeling, fighting or of crying, that is why the ignorant people do not know their miseries. And by chance a little rise of Sata may be found, but it is not strong.


Further, owing to Ayu Karma in these one-sensed beings, those who are Aparyaptas(Those who have not attained completion of the molecules forming the body and the development of the body, sense organs, respiratory organ.)

 the duration of their life (Paryaya) is only one-eighteenth part of the time of one respiration and that of Periapts (Those who have attained completion of the body, sense organs, etc.) the life duration is found varying from one Antarmuhurta to many years. There being very short span of age Karma, the birth and death continue incessantly and owing to this, they always remain miserable.


In Name-Karma, the rise of Tiryanchgati etc. inauspicious Prakritis only is particularly found. Even if some weak auspicious prakriti may come to rise, it is not strong; therefore, in their existence also they remain miserable due to the influence of Moha.


In Gotra Karma, only the rise of low status determining Karma exists; therefore, they do not get respectability and as such they are unhappy only.


In this way, the one-sensed beings are extremely miserable. As in this world the stone having some base remains resting for a long time, but in the baseless space (sky) it rarely remains for a very short duration, similarly, Jiva remains in the state of one-sensed being for a very long duration but in other forms of existence he sometimes remains for a very short duration. Therefore, the Jiva is extremely miserable in this world.


Miseries of Mobile (Incomplete-sensed souls) and irrational Five-sensed beings


In the two-sensed, three-sensed, four-sensed and irrational five-sensed forms of bodies also, this Jiva experiences miseries similar to those experienced by one-sensed beings. The only difference is that here the Jiva obtains successively increased knowledge, perception and energy related to each sense and attains the power of speaking

and moving. Here also the Jivas who are Aparyaptas and even those who are paryaptas possessing weak strength and are smaller beings, all these do not possess much power. And there are many paryaptas Jivas also possessing lot of strength & are big in size; they possess some power; therefore, they try for getting the objects of senses and

try for getting rid of miseries. Out of anger, etc., they indulge in the acts of biting, killing, fighting, deceiving, hoarding grains, etc., fleeing etc., they wriggle and cry out of pain; so, their sorrow is somewhat visible also. Thus, the worms, ants, etc. Jivas are seen extremely miserable due to cold, heat, severing, piercing, etc. and hunger, thirst, etc. One should think over their miseries which are clearly seen; what more to describe here? Thus, the two-sensed beings, etc. also should be known as extremely miserable.


Miseries of Rational Five-sensed beings


(1) Miseries of Infernal State of Existence: In the rational five-sensed beings the inhabitants of hell are extremely distressed in all respects.  They have somewhat power of knowledge, but the desire of the objects of senses is too much and they do not get even a little bit material of favorite objects.  Therefore, the possession of that power (of knowledge, etc.) is also a cause of great misery.  Extreme severity of anger, etc. passion is found in them, because they possess black Leshya, etc. (inauspicious thought coloration) only.


The act of causing misery to one another is found there continuously due to wrath and pride.  If they establish friendship with one another then the sufferings may end.  Moreover, by causing pain to others none of their purpose is served, but vehemence of anger and pride found more in them, because of which they have tendency of causing only misery to one another by means of Vaikriya (transformation, ability to change appearance at will.); they make limbs in the body for causing pain to others and others cause affliction to them.  The passion never subsides.  And the vehemence of deceit and greed passion is also more in them, but no act of those passions; because of those passions they are extremely afflicted internally.  And sometimes, by chance, some object of those passions is also materialized due to some reason.


Further indulgence in laughter and liking (Quasi) passions is also there but in the absence of external causes, their action is not visible; rarely on account of some reason, those become visible.  And the external causes of disliking, sorrow, fear, disgust (Quasi-passions) are found; therefore, those passions are intensely manifested.  And in sex-passions, only neuter sex-passion is found in them; so, the sex desire is great and the facility of copulation with women and men is not available there, therefore, they are extremely anguished.  In this way, they are extremely miserable because of passions.


Moreover, in Vedaniya Karma there exists only the rise of Asata (unpleasant feeling producing) Karma, due to which there exists the causes of various types of agonies.  In the body, different diseases like leprosy, cough, asthma, etc. are found together and hunger, thirst are so intense that they want to eat and drink everything and the food available is only of clay of that region.  And that clay also is of such kind that if it comes here (on this earth) then due to its bad smell the human beings of many miles will die.  And cold and heat is such that if there be a round of iron having a diameter of 1 lakh yojana (approx. 8 lakhs miles) it will also turn into ashes.  At some places there is cold and at some places there is heat.  Further, the land there is full of thorns sharper than even the weapons.  The forests in that land are full of leaves like the edge of weapons.  The forests in that land are full of leaves like the edge of weapons.  The river is full of such kind of water that on getting its touch the body will split into pieces.  The wind is so strong that due to it the body gets scorched.  And the infernal beings cause agony in different ways to one another, viz. crush in the oil press, cut into pieces, parch in the big pots (in the ovens), beat with whips, touch read hot iron bars, etc. and thus in many ways, they torment one another.  The Asura Kumar Devas (malevolent celestial beings) go up to third infernal region.  They themselves cause pain and make them to fight with each other.  In spite of such agony severance of body is not possible; even on getting cut into pieces it rejoins just like mercury.  Such extreme agony is there.


Further, no object of Sata is there.  By chance, in some measure, to someone as per his belief, from some point of view, the rise of Sata is found but it is not powerful.  There Ayu (life) is very long.  The minimum life time is ten thousand years and the maximum life-time is thirty-three Saguaros.  For such a long period, one has to bear such kinds of sufferings.  The rise of only all inauspicious (papa) prakriti of Name-karma is found there; not a single auspicious (Punya) Prakriti is found in the operative state; due to those (papa-prakriti) they are extremely distressed.  And in Gotra-karma there exists the rise of Neecha Gotra (Low status karma) only due to that they do not get respectability; so also they are extremely miserable only.  In this way, one should know that in the infernal state of existence there are extreme agonies only.


Miseries of Tiryanch Gati (Animals)


In Tiryanch Gati many Jivas are Labdhi Aparyaptas (undeveloped beings).  Their Ayu (life-time) is only 1/18th part of the time of one respiration.  And many Paryaptas (developed beings) also are of very small size, but their power is not visibly seen manifested.  Their miseries are to be known like that of one-sensed beings; knowledge, etc. are somewhat more. And many big-sized Paryaptas beings are spontaneously born beings; many are of uterus birth. In them knowledge, etc. are found manifested, but they are found agitated by the desire of objects. Among them, many Jivas do not get favorite objects; someone rarely gets a few objects.


Owing to perverse faith, they are assuredly having fallacy in Tattvas and passion is chiefly found of intense type. Due to anger & pride, they fight, eat and cause pain to one another; due to deceit &  greed, they indulge in deceitful acts and desired objects. They indulge in the acts of those passions through laughter, etc. Rarely someone is found having feeble passion; but this happens to only a

few Jivas; hence, its predominance is not there.


In Vedaniya Karma there is chiefly the rise of Asata; due to which disease, anguish, hunger, thirst, piercing, severing, carrying too much load, cold, heat, maiming etc. conditions are caused. Because of that they are clearly seen afflicted; therefore, much is not described here. Rarely someone meets with the rise of somewhat Sata also but it is limited to a few Jivas only; it is not predominant. And the Ayu (life-time) is found from one Antar Muhurta (less than 48 minutes) up to crores of years. There, most of the Jivas possess only a very short span of life (age) and hence, they suffer from the pangs of birth and death. And the Jivas of enjoyment-land (Bhoga-Bhumi) have a greater span of life (age) and they have the rise of Sata (Karma causing pleasure) also, but those Jivas are limited in number. Moreover, mostly there is found the rise of Tiryanch Gati etc. inauspicious (Papa) prakritis of Name-Karma. Rarely someone meets with the rise of a few auspicious (Punya) prakritis also, but it is found in lesser measure to some Jivas; it is not predominant. And in Gotra-Karma only, the rise of low status determining Karma is found, so they are suffering from lowness. Thus, there is extreme misery in Tiryanch Gati (animals).


Miseries of Human State of Existence


In the human state of existence, innumerable Jivas are Labdhi-Aparyaptas (undeveloped souls), those all are Sammoorchchhanas (spontaneously generated); their span of life (age) is just 1/18th part of the time of one respiration. And many of the Jivas after coming into mother's womb die in a very short period; their potentiality does not get manifested, their miseries are to be known similar to those of one-sensed beings and other specialties are also found which are to be known accordingly.


The beings of uterine birth are born after living for some period in the womb; their miseries have been described earlier from the karmic bondage point of view. All that description is possible for human beings of uterine birth. Or it should be known similar to that of the Tiryanchas as described earlier.


The special point is this that here in human beings some particular power is found. The kings, etc. have more rise of Sata Karma and the Ksatriyas (militants) have the rise of high family status determining Karmas also. And the association of wealth, relatives (kith and kin) etc. is found particularly.


Or, the distresses of womb state, etc. are known clearly. As a worm is generated in feces, similarly, this Jiva is born in the womb, forming his body out of the union of sperm and ovum. There the growth of knowledge, etc. and of body takes place gradually. The pain of staying in womb is extreme. There, one completes the period in the

contract form and procumbent state with hunger and thirst feeling, etc. When he comes out of the womb then he suffers from great misery in childhood. Some people say that in childhood misery is less; it is not so, but due to weak power it is not manifested. Afterwards the miseries of indulging in business, etc. and satisfying the passion desires, etc. get manifested. The perturbation caused due to agreeable and disagreeable feelings continues persisting and in old age he becomes languid and then he becomes extremely unhappy. These miseries are evidently seen happening. What more should be stated? One who does not recognize the evidently happening miseries of human life, how would he like to listen to their description? Someone, by chance, meets with the rise of somewhat Sata (auspicious prakritis) that too is full of perturbation. And the ranks of the personages like Tirthankaras, etc. are not attained without attaining the path of liberation. Thus, in the human life, miseries alone exist.


In human life, if someone wishes to make effort for self-benefaction then he can do so.  For example, the root and the top insipid portions of a worm-eaten sugarcane are not at all worth sucking and the middle pieces being worm-eaten are also not worth sucking.  If someone greedy to taste spoils them he is free to do so, but if those are sown then many sugarcanes will be produced out of them and their taste will also be very sweet.  Similarly, the childhood and the old age of human life are not worth enjoying and the middle age is full of diseases and distresses; happiness cannot be there.  If someone greedy of carnal pleasures spoils it he is free to do so, but if it is used in the observance of religious conduct then he will attain a very high spiritual status.  There, high degree of imperturbable happiness is found.  Hence, here (in this human birth) one should make effort for self-benefaction and should not lose it in vain under the delusion of happiness.


Miseries of Celestial beings


In the celestial state of existence, the power of knowledge etc. is somewhat more than the others.  They have false-belief about the Tattvas due to perverse faith.  Their passions are some what feeble.  The passions of the Residential (Bhavanavasi), the peripatetic (Ventura) and the Stellar (Jyotiska) orders of celestial beings are not very feeble and tehir Upayoga (active consciousness) is very fickle; they possess some power is increasingly more.  Hence, due to decrease in restlessness anguish also decreases.


Here in the celestial beings, the anger and pride passions are found but the motivating cause is less; so, the acts of those passions are not predominant.  The lower classes of Devas (celestial beings) are found indulging in causing harm and humiliating others due to forlicsomenss, etc. But this type of behavior is found in lesser measure in the higher class of Devas (Vaimanika).  It is not predominant.  And the causes of deceit and greed passions are found there; that is why the acts of those passions are predominant.  As such the acts of deceiving, desiring the objects of sensual pleasures, etc. are chiefly found in them.  These acts too are found in lesser measure in higher and higher Devas.


Further, the motivating causes of laughter, liking quasi-passions are found in greater measure; hence, the acts of these passions are predominant.  And the causes of disliking, sorrow, fear, disgust, quasi-passions are less; hence, the acts of these passions are not predominant.  And the rise of female sex-passion and male sex-passion is also found and the cause of dalliance is also present, so they enjoy copulation; these passions are too feeble in the higher and higher Devas.  The sexual desire is absent in the Ahmindras (Self-Gods) due to feebleness of sex-passion.


In this way, the celestial beings too have passions and anguish is caused by the passions only.


And as the degree of passions in Devas is of lesser measure; accordingly, the degree of misery is also less.  That is why they are said to be happy in comparison to others.  In spiritual sense the passions are alive; hence, they are only unhappy.


In Vedaniya Karma the rise of Sata Vedaniya is more.  There also it is less in the three (residential, peripatetic and stellar) classes of Devas and is found in increasingly greater measure in higher & higher Vaimanika (heavenly Gods).  The association of favorite state of body, goddesses (wives), palaces, etc. is found there.  And rarely due to some reason somewhat rise of Asta Vedaniya is also found.  It is found somewhat manifested also in the lower classes of Devas, but it is not found manifested more apparently in the higher class of Devas.  And Ayu (life-time) is very long.  The minimum life-time is ten thousand years and maximum is thirty-one Saguaros.  Without attaining the right path of liberation no one can have more Ayu (life-time) than this.  So, for such a long period they (the Devas) remain engrossed in the carnal pleasures.  And the rise of all (Punya) auspicious prakritis of Name-Karma like Devagati etc. is found there; hence, are the causes, of happiness.  And in Gotra Karma, there exists the rise of Uchcha Gotra only, hence, they hold respectable position.


Thus, owing to the specialty of the rise of Punya Karmas they possess the association of agreeable things and due to rise of passions the carnal desire is found.  Therefore, they are found engrossed in enjoying them. But the desire is excessively more; therefore, they do not become happy. The higher class of Devas possess the rise of highest degree of Punya (auspicious Karmas) and the passion is extremely feeble, nevertheless the absence of desire is not found in them also; therefore, in spiritual sense, they are assuredly unhappy.


In this way, everywhere in the world only miseries and miseries are found. Here ends the description of miseries from the modifications (Paryaya) point of view.



General Characteristics of Miseries


Now, the general characteristics of all sorts of miseries are being described. The differentia of misery is perturbation and the perturbation is caused by desire.


Four kinds of desires


Many kinds of desires are found in this mundane being:


(1) One type of desire is of enjoying the objects of senses, due to which one wants to know and see; for example, the desire of seeing color, listening to melody, knowing the unknown, etc. arises. No other pain is there but so long as one does not know and see, he feels extremely perturbed. This type of desire is called Carnal Desire (Vishaya Ichchha).


(2) The Second type of desire is of acting according to one's passionate emotions, due to which one wants to indulge in actions like that of harming others, humiliating others, etc. Here, no other pain is there but so long as that work is not completed he remains highly perturbed. This type of desire is called Passionate desire (Kashaya- Ichchha).


(3) The third type of desire is of removing those harmful causes which are met with either in the body, or are external to the body owing to the rise of Papa-Karmas. For example, on association of disease, ache, hunger, etc., the desire of removing these arises. So, here one believes this only as to be the anguish. So long as it is not removed he remains highly perturbed. This type of desire is called the rise of Vice (Papa).


In this way, all Jivas feel unhappy on the rise of these three types of desires. This is assuredly misery.


(4) The fourth type of desire is produced due to some external cause because of which one desires to act according to above three types of desires.  In these three types of desires each type of desire has many varieties. The causes of satisfaction of many varieties of desires are met with due to the rise of Punya-Karma but their means are not met with simultaneously; that is why leaving indulgence in one desire he engages himself in other desire and afterwards leaves this also and involves himself in another one. As someone has got different kinds of things, out of them he sees any one thing, leaving it starts listening to melody; again leaves it only; after seeing one object starts seeing some other object. Similarly, the desire of indulging in various types of activities arises. So, this desire is called the rise of Punya-Karmas (Virtue).


The world believes this to be happiness, but this is not happiness; this is misery only. Because, firstly nobody gets the means of satisfying all sorts of desires. And if in someway, the resources of fulfilling the desire are met with then their availability is not simultaneous. So long as the means of (satisfying) one desire is not obtained, the perturbation due to the same continues. And after getting its means, at the same time the desire of getting the means of another desire arises; then it causes perturbation. He does not remain unperturbed even for a single moment. Therefore, it is nothing but misery. Or he tries somewhat to eradicate the disease in the form of three kinds of desires; so the anguish gets somewhat reduced. But the misery is not fully removed.  Therefore, it is nothing but misery. In this way, the mundane beings suffer from miseries in every respect.


Further, it should be known here that the whole world is afflicted by these three types of desires and the fourth type of desire, is evolved on the rise of Punya and the bondage of Punya is caused by engrossment in religious acts; but the Jiva engages himself in religious acts only sometimes. Mostly Jiva indulges in sinful acts.  Therefore, the fourth type of desire is found in some Jivas at sometime only.


It is to be remembered that from the point of view of Jivas having similar desires the Jiva having the fourth type of desire is said to be happy owing to the partial decrease in three types of desires. And in comparison to the Jiva having fourth type of desire the Jiva having very intense desire, though found with fourth type of desire, is more miserable. Someone possesses lot of wealth and desires it too much, then he is very much perturbed; and one who has got less wealth and his desire is also less, then he is less perturbed. Or someone has got the (association of) disagreeable thing but has less desire of removing it, then he is less agitated. And someone has the association of agreeable things but he has more desire of enjoying them and of collecting various other things, then that Jiva is more agitated. Therefore, it is to be known that happiness or misery are not dependent on external causes but are governed by desire.


It is stated that the infernal (hellish) beings are unhappy and celestial beings are happy; this also is stated from the desire point of view. Because the infernal beings have too much desire due to vehement passions and the celestial beings have less desire due to feeble passions. Also human beings and sub-human beings (animals, birds, etc.) are happy or unhappy on account of desires only. Owing to intense passions, one who has excessive desire is said to be unhappy and owing to mild passion, one who has less desire is said to be happy. Spiritually, the anguish only is either more or less but there is no happiness. The celestial beings, etc. are also believed to be happy; this too is only fallacy. In them, the fourth desire predominates, so they are perturbed.


Thus, the desire is caused due to wrong faith, wrong knowledge and wrong conduct (incontinence). The desire is full of perturbation and perturbation is nothing but misery. In this way all mundane beings are assuredly suffering from different types of miseries.


Bliss of Liberation and the Means of its Attainment


Now, those Jivas who want to get rid of misery should make effort to root out desire. And the desire gets rooted out only then, when wrong faith, wrong knowledge and wrong conduct (incontinence) are destroyed and the right faith, right knowledge and right conduct are attained. It is, therefore, worthwhile to make effort for achieving this only. By making such effort, the misery gets destroyed in the same measure in which the desire gets rooted out.


And when due to total extermination of Moha (delusion) all desires are destroyed then all sorts of miseries get destroyed, and real bliss is evolved. And when Jnanavarana, Darshanavarana and Antaraya Karmas are destroyed then the desire causing Kshayopashamik Jnan darshan & Virya also comes to an end; and the infinite knowledge, perception and energy are attained. And after lapse of sometime, the Aghati Karmas also get destroyed; then the external causes of desire also get destroyed. Because, after eradication of Moha (delusion) these (Aghati-Karmas) are not capable of producing any desire at any time. These become causes only in existence of Moha. Therefore, these (Aghati-Karmas are said to be the causes; on their destruction the Jiva attains Siddhahood (liberated state of the soul). There being the total absence of sorrow and causes of sorrow, the emancipated souls always remain situated in the state of peerless, irrevocable supreme bliss (beatitude) for infinite time. The same is being explained:


 Absence of Miseries in Liberated State


In the state of Kshayopashama and Udaya (rise of Jnanavarana and Darshanavarana Karmas) being over-powered by Moha (deluding Karma) and due to the desire of seeing and knowing each and every item, this Jiva used to remain extremely perturbed, now (in Siddha state) due to absence for Moha, the desire also ends; consequently, misery also ends. And due to kashaya (destruction) of Jnanavarana and Darshanavarana Karmas all objects of all senses are being known together; hence, the cause of misery is also removed. For example, one wanted to see every object one after the other through eyes, now he sees all color soft the whole universe and of all times (past, present and future) simultaneously, none remains unseen for which the desire of seeing may arise. Similarly, he (mundane being) wanted to know every object one by one through the touch and other senses, now, he (Siddha) knows all sorts of touch, taste, odor and words of the whole universe and of all times (present, past and future) simultaneously; nothing remains unattained for which the desire of attaining may arise.


Question:  How would it be feasible to know without the body, etc.?


Answer:  In the presence of sensory knowledge, one was not able to know the objects without physical sense, etc.; now such characteristic got manifested that even without physical senses knowing of objects takes place.


Question:  In Siddha state, knowing would be taking place in the same manner as the mundane beings know the touch, etc. through mind and would not be in the manner in which the mundane beings know through touch and tongue, etc.?


Answer: It is not so; because on remembering, etc. through mind, one knows a little indistinctly.  As in mundane state, one knows clearly the touch, taste, etc. through the sense of touch, tongue, etc. by touching, taking taste, smelling, seeing and hearing, even infinite times more clear than that is known here in Siddha state.


The difference is only this much that there in mundane state one used to know on getting contact between senses and the objects, whereas here in Siddha state similar knowing takes place in spite of the objects remaining far off; this is the excellence of the power of knowledge.  Further, he (the mundane rational being) wanted to know some objects of past, future and the unmanifested through the mind; now (in Siddha state) he knows the substance, place, time and dispositions (traits) of all kinds of substances simultaneously from beginningless to endless period; nothing remains unknown for which the desire of knowing may arise.  In this way, one should know the absence of misery and its causes in the Siddha state.


Further, (in mundane state) owing to the rise of Moha (deluding Karma) perverse belief and the passion dispositions used to arise, all those got totally destroyed (in Siddha state); consequently, the misery also ended and because the causes of misery have also got destroyed.  The absence of those causes is being explained here:


On having realized (known) the true nature of all the substances, how can there remain the perverse belief of the form of disbelief in Tattvas? Nothing remained harmful, the censurer himself gets harmed; on whom should he (Siddha) become angry? None is higher than Siddhas.  The Lord Indra, etc. themselves bow to them and achieve the desired object; with whom should he feel exalted? All destiny is known, nothing is left undone, no purpose remains with any object; in which thing should he have greed? No other agreeable thing remains unattained; due to what reason should he indulge in laughter? No other agreeable object remains worth loving; where should he have liking? No distress causing external association remains; where should he have disliking? No favorable disfavorable association-dissociation take place; why should he feel lamentation about anything? No cause creating harm remains, why should he have fear from anything? All things are cognized by him with their inherent characteristics, nothing is disagreeable to him; where should he have disgust? Due to absence of sexual affiliation no purpose remains of cohabiting with woman and man both; what for should he feel the sex-passion peculiar to man, woman or eunuch? Thus, in Siddha state there is total absence of the causes producing Moha.


Further, because of feeble power due to rise of Antaraya (obstructing) Karma the soul’s energy was not manifested fully; now it is destroyed; so, the misery also got destroyed.  And infinite energy of soul is manifested; hence, the cause of misery ahs also disappeared.


Question:  The Siddha Gods do not perform the acts of charity, benefit, enjoyment, re-enjoyment; how has their power got manifested?


Answer:  These acts were the treatment of the disease; when there is no disease why should one take treatment? Hence, there is no existence of these acts and the Karmas obstructing these acts got destroyed, that is why the power is said to have got manifested.  For example, someone wanted to go somewhere; some other person obstructed him, then he was unhappy and when the obstruction is removed then the purpose for which he wanted to go is now no more.  Therefore, he did not go.  There, even without his going, the power of going is said to be manifested; similarly, one should know here also.  Further, they are found possessing infinite energy in the form of infinite knowledge, etc.


Further, on getting the rise of inauspicious prakritis of Aghati- Karmas (non-destructive Karmas) he (the mundane being) was feeling distressed and on getting the rise of auspicious (Punya) prakritis was feeling happiness but in spiritual sense due to perturbation all that was anguish only. Now (in Siddha state) due to destruction of Moha (deluding Karma) on getting all sorts of perturbation rooted out, the anguish of all kinds is destroyed. And the causes by which he was feeling distressed, got destroyed and due to certain reasons, because of some lessening in misery, he was feeling  happiness. Now the misery is rooted out; therefore, there remains no necessity of the means of treatment of misery by which he (the Siddha God) may like to accomplish the purpose. Its accomplishment is taking place on its own. The details of the same are explained here:


In Vedaniya due to rise of Asatya the diseases hunger, etc. used to evolve in the body as cause of anguish. Now (in Siddha state) since there is no corporal body, there is no corporeal body, where would these generate? Moreover, the fever, etc. were the causes of harmful state of the body but now (in Siddha state) without body where would the causes remain? And in the mundane life) the external harmful instrumental causes were associated, but now nothing disagreeable remains for them. In this way (in Siddhahood) the causes of misery have ended.


And due to rise of Sata, the medicines, food, etc. were the cause of mitigating somewhat misery, now (in Siddha state) their purpose does not remain and the agreeable purposes are not dependent on anything; therefore, externally also there remains no purpose of considering friends, etc. to be beneficial; in the mundane state, he wanted to end misery by means of them and wanted to obtain agreeable state, now (in the Siddha state) all misery has ended and everything agreeable has been obtained. And (in the mundane state) birth and death were caused due to Ayu Karma. There, one used to feel anguish due to death but now he has attained an immortal state; hence, there remains no cause of anguish. Further, by holding the material vitality's he used to feel happiness (in mundane state) for quite a long period by keeping alive and dying. There also, in the hellish life, due to intensity of agonies, he did not want to survive; but now in this Siddha state he keeps alive for ever by his sentient vitality even without having material vitality's and there remains even no trace of anguish.


Further, (in mundane existence) due to name-Karma on association of inauspicious Gati (condition of existence) and Jati (genus) etc. he used to feel anguish, but now (in Siddha state) all those have ended where from now anguish arise? And on association of auspicious Gati, Jati, etc. by reduction of some misery, he used to feel happy but now (in Siddha state) even without all these, all miseries have ended and absolute happiness has been manifested. Therefore, no purpose remains with them.


And on getting birth in a low status family due to instrumental cause of Gotra-Karma he used to feel misery; now (in Siddha state), owing to its absence, there remains no cause of misery, and on getting birth in a high status family he used to feel happiness but now (in Siddha state) even without having the high status family, he has attained the highest status worshipable by three worlds.


In this way in Siddha-Gods, due to destruction (shedding off) of all kinds of Karmas, all miseries have ended.


The characteristic of misery is perturbation, and perturbation is caused only when desire arises, but now in Siddha state the desire and the causes of desire have totally ended; therefore, by becoming social one experiences infinite bliss devoid of all miseries, because non-perturbation only is the characteristic of bliss. In the world also, everyone believes happiness by somehow becoming unperturbed.  Why should not one believe full happiness to arise when one becomes totally unperturbed?


Thus, on attaining the Siddhahood by means of right belief, etc. all kinds of miseries end and infinite bliss manifests.


Now, here the sermon is given ": 'O' Bhavya ! 'O' Brother! think yourself as to the worldly miseries described here are experienced by you or not. And whatever means you adopt to remove them are false or not. And also ponder over whether happiness is caused or not on attaining Siddhahood. If you believe in whatever is stated above then adopt those measures, which we have suggested for getting release from mundane existence and obtaining Siddhahood; don't delay. By adopting these measures, you will achieve self-benefaction."


Thus ends the 3rd chapter describing "The miseries of mundane existence and bliss of liberation" in this Moksha Marga Prakashaka  named Shastra.










Couplet:  Is bhav kai sab dukhnikai, karanr Mithyabhav

                    Tin kee sata nash kari, pragtai moksh upaav


The main causes of all miseries of this mundane existence are fallacious (alien) dispositions of belief-knowledge and conduct. By uprooting their existence, the right means of attaining liberation gets manifested.


The fundamental causes of all worldly miseries are perverse belief, perverse knowledge and perverse conduct. Their characteristics are being elaborately described here. As a physician tells in detail the causes of the disease and the patient does not take unsuitable diet then he gets free from the disease. Similarly, a detailed exposition of the cause of transmigration (mundane existence) is given here; by knowing which if the mundane beings do not indulge in perverse belief, etc., then they would get free from mundane existence. Hence, a detailed exposition of the perverse belief, etc. is being given here:


The Characteristics of Perverse Belief


This Jiva is having bondage of karmic matter from times immemorial. The misbelief in Tattvas (reality) caused in him owing to the rise of Darshan Moha (faith-deluding) karma is termed as MithyaDarshan (wrong belief). For, the Quality of thatness is the reality (Tattva) i.e. the intrinsic characteristics of the substance which is worth ascertaining is termed as Tattva (the reality). That which is not a Tattva is Atattva (non-reality). Therefore, that which is Atattva (non-reality) is false, so the name of this (falsity) is perversity (Mithya). And "this is thus only"- having such ascertainment, is called Shraddha (belief).


Here Shraddha (belief) is to be taken as Darshan (Faith). Al- though the literal meaning of the word Darshan is general (undifferentiated) perception, yet with reference to the context here the meaning of this verb should be known as "to believe." Similar interpretation is given in Tattvarthsutra's commentary Sarvartha Siddhi. Because general perception is neither the cause of transmigratory existence nor of liberation; rather the belief alone is the cause of transmigration or liberation; hence, in the context of the cause of transmigration-liberation, the meaning of Darshan should be known as belief only.


Thus, the wrong form of perception, i.e., belief is to be understood as Mithya Darshan (wrong belief). Believing contrary to the nature of the substance and not believing as it really is such fallacious determination, i.e. misconception is Mithya Darshan (perverse belief).


Question: Without omniscience (perfect knowledge) all the substances are not comprehended rightly and without having right comprehension the right belief does not evolve; how could then the wrong belief be abandoned?


Answer: Knowing, not knowing or wrong knowing of the substances depends on the Kshayopashama or Udaya of Jnana Varana karma and the ascertainment (belief) evolves only on knowing; how could ascertainment take place without knowing - this is true. But as some person know incorrectly or correctly those objects with which he has got nothing to do and believes them exactly as he knows them, even due to that there is no harm or benefit to him; because of this he does not get the name of an insane or an ingenious person. And if he knows incorrectly the objects with which he is concerned and believes them accordingly then he gets harmed; so, he is called an insane person and if he knows those objects correctly and believes accordingly then he is benefited; so, he is called a wise person.  Similarly, if the Jiva knows incorrectly or correctly those things with which he is not concemed and believes them accordingly then there is no harm or gain to him; because of this he does not get the title of misbeliever or true believer, but if he knows incorrectly the substances or elements with which he is concerned and believes them accordingly then he is harmed; therefore, he is called misbeliever and if he knows them correctly and believes them accordingly then he is benefitted: therefore, he is called true believer.


Here it should be known that in not knowing or knowing correctly-incorrectly the non-concerned or concerned substances, there happens the decrease or increase of one's knowledge; so, this much is the loss or gain of the Jiva and its instrumental cause is the Jnanavarana karma. But due to holding false or right belief about the concerned

(essential) substances, there happens some more harm or benefit to this Jiva; so, its instrumental cause is Darshan Moha karma.


Question: Since belief is according to the knowledge, hence, belief appears to be related with Jnana Varana karma; how could the specific instrumentality of Darshan Moha karma be established here?


Answer: All five-sensed rational beings possess the Kshayopashama (destruction cum subsidence) of Jnanavarana karma (i.e., manifestation of knowledge) necessary for effectuating belief of the Jiva etc., essential principles (Purposeful Tattvas).  But the Dravyalingi Muni (a possessionless ascetic following complete conduct without right belief) studies even up to eleven Angas (out of the total 12 Angas of the whole scripture) and the Devas (Gods) of Graiveyaka heavens possess clairvoyance knowledge (Avadhijnan) etc.; in spite of possessing such a high degree of Kshayopashama of Jnana varana karma they do not possess the right belief of Jiva etc., essential principles whereas the Tiryanchas (rational five-sensed animals) in spite of their having lesser degree of Kshayopashama of Jnanavarana karma may be found possessed with right belief of Jiva etc., essential principles. It is, therefore, understood that the belief does not evolve according to. (the Kshayopashama of) Jnanavarana only; some other (instrumental) karma is there and that is Darshan Moha (faith-deluding karma). Owing to its rise, the Jiva is found with false belief; then he perversely believes the Jiva etc.  essential Tattvas.


Purposeful and Purposeless Substances (Principles)


Question: Which are the purposeful and purposeless substances?


Answer: This Jiva has only one purpose and it is that he should not be miserable but be happy. No Jiva has any other purpose. And non-occurrence of sorrow and occurrence of happiness is one and the same thing, because the absence of misery is nothing but happiness and the accomplishment of this purpose takes place by acquiring right belief of Jiva etc. Tattvas (realities).


Question: How does it happen?


Answer: First of all for eradicating miseries, one must possess the discriminating knowledge of the self and the non- self. If one does not have the discriminative knowledge of the self and non-self then how can he eradicate his misery without identifying the self? Or knowing the self & non-self as to be one thing, if for rooting out the sorrow of the self, one does the treatment of the other non-self thing, how can then the sorrow of the self be rooted out? Or the non- self things are distinctly different from the self, but if one holds the feeling of I-ness and mineness in those non- self things, then misery alone results. The misery gets eradicated only on attaining the discriminative knowledge of the self and non-self. And the knowledge of the self and non- self is attained only after having got the discriminative knowledge of Jiva (soul) and Ajiva (non-soul) substances, because the one himself is Jiva (soul) and the body, etc. are Ajiva (non-soul).


If through distinctive characteristics (differences) etc., the Jiva-Ajiva are identified, then the separateness of self and non-self may be comprehended; hence one ought to know Jiva-Ajiva. Or, on acquiring the knowledge of Jiva-Ajiva, the substances by contrary belief of which one used to suffer from misery, now by attaining the right knowledge of the same, misery gets eradicated; hence, acquiring knowledge of Jiva-Ajiva is a must.


Further, the cause of sorrow is bondage of karmic matter and its causes are false belief, etc. influx (instincts). If one does not identify these, does not know these as to be the root cause of sorrow, how can then he uproot them? And if one does not eradicate these instincts, how would not then the karmic bondage take place? Therefore, misery alone is caused. Or the false belief, etc. instincts (dispositions) are misery -incarnate. If those are not identified correctly as they really are, then one cannot eradicate them and consequently, one would remain miserable only; hence, one must know Asrava (influx).


Further, the cause of all miseries is karmic bondage. If one does not know this then one would not make effort to get rid of it; then due to its instrumentality one would remain miserable. Therefore, one must know Bandha (Bondage).


And uprooting of Asrava (influx) is Samvara (stoppage); if one does not know its (Samvara 's) differentia then one would not indulge in it; then influx (Asrava) only would continue, due to which misery alone would be caused both in present and in future. Therefore, one must know Samvara (stoppage).


Further, somewhat partial eradication of karmic bondage is termed as Nirjara (partial sheddingoff). If one does not know it, then he would not make effort to follow it; consequently, the karmic bondage would persist wholly, due to which misery alone would continue. Hence, one must know Nirjara (partial shedding off of impurity).


And the absolute up rooting of all sorts of karmic bondage is termed as Moksha (perfect liberation). If one does not identify it, he would not make effort for evolving it, then he will continue suffering from the agonies in the world produced by karmic bondage. Hence, one must know Moksha (liberation).  Thus, one should know Jiva, Ajiva etc. seven Tattvas (realities).


Further, if someone may know the seven Tattvas from scripture but until "those are exactly so only" - such sort of a crystal clear conception is not evolved, what is then the advantage of such knowledge? Therefore, right belief of Tattvas is fruitful. Thus, only on acquiring the true belief of Jiva etc. Tattvas, the purpose of eradicating miseries is accomplished. Hence, one should know that the Jiva etc. substances only are the purposeful substances (Tattvas).


Further, specific details of these (Tattvas) are Punya (virtue) and Papa (vice) etc; their true belief also is fruitful because detailed exposition is more effective than general exposition. Thus, these substances are purposeful; hence, on acquiring their right belief, misery ends and real happiness evolves and without their right belief misery continues and happiness does not evolve.


And besides above stated Padarthas (substances) there are other innumerable substances; all those are purposeless because possessing or not possessing their right belief is in no way the cause of happiness or misery.


Question: Basically, you have described Jiva and Ajiva the two substances, in which rest all substances are covered; besides them, what other substances are left out which are described as purposeless?


Answer: All substances are, of course, covered in Jiva-Ajiva but there are many specialties of those Jiva-Ajiva substances. Out of those specialities of Jiva-Ajiva, the right belief of such specialities which leads to the right belief of self and non-self, gives rise to the belief of forsaking Raag (attachment) etc. and will produce happiness; and by having wrong belief, of which the right belief of self and non-self is not evolved, the belief of forsaking attachment, etc. is not generated and will result in misery. Knowledge of Jiva & Ajiva substances with such specialties is to be known as purposeful.  Moreover, the Jiva-Ajiva substances with their those specialties are to be known purposeless by having or not having the right belief of which the belief of self and non-self may or may not get generated and the belief of uprooting attachment, etc. may or may not get evolved; there is no surety.


For instance, having belief of Jiva and body (person) with Caitanya (consciousness) and Murtatva (corporeality) etc. respectively is purposeful and having belief of human, etc. embodied and jar, cloth, etc. forms of matter (specific forms of Jiva & matter) is purposeless. Similarly, other examples are to be known.


Thus, wrong belief of the aforesaid purposeful Jiva etc. Tattvas should be known as Mithya Darshan (perverse faith).


The Tendency of Wrong Belief


Now the tendency of wrong belief found in mundane beings is described here. Though belief is to be described, yet the description is being given with emphasis on cognizance, because belief follows knowledge.


Wrong Belief about the Self (Jiva) and Non-self (Ajiva) Tattvas


The self Jiva is from the beginningless time; he assumes different modifications owing to the instrumentality of karmic matter.  There, he relinquishes the former modification and assumes new modification. And that modification is a conglomerated form of bondage of the one- self (soul) and corporal body of infinite matter-particles (atoms). And "I am this" such sort of I-ness feeling in that modification is found to this Jiva. And he himself is Jiva (soul), his intrinsic nature is knowledge, perception, etc. and the alien dispositions are anger, etc. and the color, smell, taste, touch, etc. are the nature of matter-particles (atoms) - all these characteristics, he believe to be as his own nature.


`These are mine' - this type of mineness feeling is found in them (non-self things). And he himself is a Jiva, the increasing-decreasing states of knowledge, etc. and anger- passion, etc. are his modifications and the changing of color, etc. is the modification of matter-particles (atoms) - all these forms he believes to be as his own modifications. `This is my state' such sort of mineness feeling is held by him.


Further, there exists cause and effect relationship between the Jiva (soul) and body, hence, whatever movement or action takes place, he believes it to be as his own. Perception, knowledge (sentience) is one's nature and the touch, etc. material senses which are parts (limbs) of the body are merely instrumental to his activity.  This (misbeliever) treating these as one with himself, believes that "I touched by hand, etc., tasted by tongue, smelled by nose, saw by eyes, heard by ears". Further, situated in the heart is the material-mind made up of (specific material-particles called) Manovargana in the form of eight-petal lotus. It is not visible to eyes, and is a part of body; thus on its being instrumental, the knowledge functions in the form of remembrance, etc. Treating the material mind and the knowledge as one, he believes that "I knew by material mind".
Further, when the desire of speaking arises then he vibrates his Pradeshas (spatial units) in- a way that speaking materializes.  Thereby, owing to (the instrumentality of) common-space occupancy-relationship, the organs of the body also vibrate.  Owing to their instrumentality, the Bhasha- Varganakind of Pudgala (matter-particles) turn into the vocal-words-form.  Treating all these as one, he believes "I speak".


Further, the desire of making movement, etc. action or acquiring (enjoying) a thing, etc., arises in the self, then he vibrates his Pradeshas in a way that the desired action takes place. There, owing to the common-space-occupancy- relationship; the organs of the body vibrate then that action takes place; or without one's desire the body vibrates; then one's (soul's) Pradeshas also vibrate. Treating all these as one, he believes "I make movement, etc. I acquire (enjoy) the objects or I have acquired (enjoyed) it, etc." Thus he believes in several ways.


Further, when the passion dispositions arise in this Jiva then the bodily movements also become according to those passions; for example, eyes become red on the rise of anger- passion, etc., the face becomes cheerful on the rise of laughter-passion, the penis becomes stiff (erect) on the rise of male sex-passion; this (misbeliever) treating all these as one, believes, "I do all these acts". And the states of cold, warm, hunger, thirst, disease, etc. are generated in the body; through their instrumentality, being overpowered by delusion, he himself believes happiness and sorrow; knowing all these as one, he believes the cold, etc. (states of body) and happiness-sorrow as if all this has happened in him.


Further, because of union and disunion of the atoms of the body or because of changes in their states or because of cuts in the bodily parts, etc., one (embodied self) becomes (physically) obese-gaunt (lean and thin) etc., young-old, etc. or crippled, and accordingly, one's soul's Pradeshas get contracted or expanded; this (misbeliever) treating all these as one, believes: I am obese, I am lean and thin (gaunt), I am child, I am old (aged), my these limbs have been cut" believes in such many ways.


Further, the Gati (state of existence), Kul (race) etc. are found from the viewpoints of the body. Treating them as one's own, he believes, "I am human, I am animal or plant (Tiryanch), I am Kshatriya (warrior), I am Vaishya (trader) etc." And from the union and disunion of the body point of view, birth and death take place; treating it as his own birth-death, he believes: "I took birth, I will die".


Due to the relationship with the body only, he believes having kinship with other things. He treats them to be his parents who have been instrumental in giving birth to his body, to her who dallys his body amorously accepts as his wife, to him who got birth by his body accepts as his son, to him who is beneficent (helpful) to his body accepts as his friend, to him who harms his body accepts as his foe; such sorts of belief are found in him.


What more to say? He believes himself and the body as one in all respects. Here the names of the senses, etc. have been described but he is totally unaware of all this. Senselessly, he holds I-ness feeling in the embodied form (Paryaya); What is its reason? The same is being explained now:


This Jiva is having sensory knowledge from the beginningless time, due to that reason, "the self who is of non-corporeal (immaterial) form" this is not cognized by him, but 'the body which is of material form' - that only is cognized by him. And it is the nature of the self to definitely possess I-ness feeling by knowing something as to be the self. Hence, so long as the self (soul) is not cognized as to be a separate entity till then he possesses I-ness feeling in their combined form of modification (embodied form) only.


There exists an uttermost cause and effect relationship between the self (soul) and the body, that is why the separateness (discrimination) is not cognized and the thought by which the separateness is cognized cannot evolve owing to intense influence of wrong belief.  Therefore, I-ness feeling is found in the embodied form (Paryaya) only.


Further, sometimes on association of external things (wealth, etc.), this Jiva treats all these things as his own due to wrong belief.  Although son, wife, wealth, grain, elephant, horse, house (palace), servant, etc. appear to the self as distinctly different from the self and always not dependent on the self, even then he (this misbeliever) feels mineness in them.


Sometimes such sort of hallucination about the son, etc. arises that "their existence is my existence". And due to wrong belief, the characteristics of the body, etc. are perceived only contrary to their nature. He believes transitory as permanent, separate as not separate, cause of sorrow as cause of happiness, sorrow as happiness; such contrary feeling generates.


Thus, owing to wrong knowledge of Jiva-Ajiva Tattvas wrong belief persists.


 Wrong Belief about Asrava-Tattva


Further, owing to the rise of Mohaniya karma (deluding karma) mithyatv (wrong belief) and kasayas (attachment & aversion passions) etc. dispositions are caused in this Jiva; he (the misbeliever) believes them to be as his nature, does not know them as caused by the rise of karmas. He believes perception and knowledge (Upayoga) and these influx dispositions (Asrava Bhavas) to be as one thing, because their substratum is the same one soul and the change of their modification happens on the same moment of time, therefore, the distinct nature of these is not comprehended by him and the thought (knowledge) which is the cause of realizing distinct nature cannot evolve owing to the force (severity) of wrong belief.


"These wrong belief and passions are found with restlessness, hence are distressing in the present and are the cause of karmic bondage; therefore, will produce misery in future" -he (the misbeliever) does not believe them so and knowing advantageous, indulges himself by engrossing in these dispositions. Further, he becomes miserable because of his own wrong belief and passions and in vain considers others to be the cause of misery. For example, (the Jiva) becomes miserable due to wrong belief but considers that substance irksome which does not modify according to his belief. And one becomes sorrowful due to anger-passion but he considers that thing distressing with which he got angry. One becomes miserable due to greed-passion but he considers misery being caused by not getting the desired thing. Similarly, one should understand in other respects also.


Further, whatever fruition of these influx dispositions takes place, same is not cognized by him. Due to severity of these (passions) one gets birth in the hell, etc. and due to mildness of these, one gets birth in the heaven, etc.; there he experiences more-less restlessness misery but one does not cognizes it to be so and as such those dispositions (influx) do not appear to be bad. The reason is this that those dispositions appear to be produced by him, therefore, how to believe them to be bad?


Thus, owing to wrong knowledge of Asrava-Tattva wrong belief is caused.


Wrong Belief about Bandha-Tattva (Bondage)


Further, karmic bondage of knowledge-obscuring, etc. type of karmas is caused by these influx dispositions (Asrava Bhavas); on rise of those karmas, decrease in knowledge and perception, evolution of perverse belief and passions, non- fulfillment of desired object, meeting with causes of happiness and unhappiness, continued association with the body, getting birth with particular Gati (state of existence), Jati (class of Jivas) body, etc. and obtaining of high-low status take place.


In the causation of these, the prime cause is the karmic matter, which he (the misbeliever) does not identify, because it is extremely subtle in form, it is not visible to him and that karma does not appear to him to be doer (instrumental cause) of these deeds; therefore, in their occurrence, either he believes himself as the doer or someone else as the doer. And when he fails in determining the doer (creator) to be either himself or someone else, then thoughtlessly believes destiny to be the creator.


Thus, owing to wrong knowledge of Bandha-Tattva (principle of bondage) wrong belief is caused.


Wrong Belief about Samvara Tattva


Absence of influx (Asrava) is stoppage (Samvara). How can one effectuate the right belief of Samvara (stoppage of inflow of karmic matter) who does not correctly recognize influx (Asrava)?  For instance, someone follows unwholesome conduct; (if) it does not appear unwholesome to him how would then he believe its absence to be wholesome? Similarly, Jiva (mundane being) is engrossed in influx Asrava; (if) it does not appear harmful to him, how then would he believe Samvara to be beneficial which evolves in the absence of influx (Asrava)?


Since eternity, only Asrava Bhavas are found evolving to this Jiva.  Samvara (stoppage of influx) has never been evolved; therefore, evolution of Samvara is not comprehended by him. On evolution of Samvara the spiritual bliss is produced; this is not believed by him. By Samvara there will be no sorrow in future, is not believed by him. Therefore, he makes no effort for stoppage of influx (Samvara of Asrava) and believing other objects to be distress-causing, makes efforts for their dissociation but those are not under his control; he unnecessarily feels melancholic.


Thus, due to wrong knowledge of Samvara Tattva, wrong belief is caused.


Wrong Belief about Nirjara Tattva


Further, partial destruction of bondage (of karmas) is Nirjara (shedding off). How can he who does not recognize Bandha correctly, evolve the right belief of Nirjara? For example, if someone does not know that misery will be caused by the poison etc. eaten by him, why would then he know beneficial the remedy of destroying it?  Similarly, if one does not know that the misery will be caused by the karmas bonded in the past, how would then he know beneficial the remedy of their destruction (Nirjara)?


Further, this Jiva cannot acquire the knowledge of subtle karmic particles through senses and also does not know their power of causing misery. Therefore, knowing other objects as instrumental in producing misery, he tries to destroy them only, but those objects are not under his control. Moreover, if by chance, for the sake of removing sorrow, some agreeable association takes place, then that too takes place as per one's karmas. Therefore, he unnecessarily becomes miserable by making effort about them.


Thus, due to wrong knowledge of Nirjara Tattva, wrong belief is caused.


Wrong Belief about Moksha Tattva


And (the state of) complete destruction of all sorts of karmic bondage is termed Moksha (perfect liberation). How can one, who does not recognize karmic bondage and all sorts of miseries caused by bondage, have right belief of Moksha? For example, someone is having a disease; if he does not know that disease and the anguish caused by that disease, how would then he believe beneficial the complete eradication of disease? Similarly, this Jiva is having karmic bondage; if he does not know that bondage and the misery caused by that bondage, how would then he know beneficial the complete eradication of karmic bondage?


And this Jiva does not have the knowledge of karmic matter and their potentiality; therefore, knowing the external objects as to be the cause of misery, he tries to destroy them totally. And he knows that he will become perfectly happy by accumulating the desired materials which he believes to be the cause of complete destruction of miseries, but this can never happen.  He unnecessarily becomes miserable.


Thus, due to perverse faith and owing to wrong knowledge of Moksha Tattva the wrong belief is caused. In this way, this Jiva entertains wrong belief about Jiva etc. seven purposeful Tattvas (elements) due to perverse faith.


Wrong Belief about Punya-Papa (Virtue & Vice)


Further, Punya-Papa Tattvas (virtue & vice) are the details of aforesaid Tattvas and the class of both Punya and Papa is one and the same; nevertheless, he understands Punya beneficial and Papa harmful due to wrong belief. Owing to rise of Punya if according to one's desire some work is accomplished then he feels it beneficial and owing to rise of Papa if the desired work does not materialize then he feels it bad; but both are the cause of agitation; hence, both are bad only.


And this Jiva, due to his own conviction, feels happiness- unhappiness in such conditions. Spiritually speaking, wherever there is agitation there is sorrow only. Therefore, treating the rise of Punya and Papa as beneficial and harmful is nothing but delusion.


And many Jivas, at times, consider the auspicious- inauspicious thoughts which are the cause of bondage of Punya and Papa as good or bad; that also is delusion, because both (types of thoughts) are the cause of karmic bondage.


Thus, owing to wrong knowledge of Punya-Papa wrong belief takes place. In this way, the nature of perverse faith in the form of misbelief of Tattvas has been described.  This is false; hence, its name is mithyatv (perverseness) and this is devoid of true belief; hence, the same is termed as Adarshan (no-belief).


The Nature of Wrong Knowledge


Now the nature of wrong knowledge is described. Knowing incorrectly the Jiva etc. purposeful Tattvas is termed Mithya-Jnan (false knowledge). Due to this, doubt, perverseness and indecisiveness are caused in knowing the Tattvas. There, "is it this or that?" - such sort of mutually contradictory dual form of knowledge is termed doubt (Sanshaya); e.g.- "Am I a soul or a material body?" such knowledge - And "It is like this only"- such sort of one form of knowledge contradictory to the intrinsic nature of the substance is termed perverseness (Viparyaya); e.g.- "I am a material body" - such knowledge. And "Something is there" such sort of indeterminate form of thought (knowledge) is termed indecisiveness (Anadhyavasaya), e.g. "I am something"- such knowledge. Thus, doubt, perverseness, indecisiveness form of knowledge about the purposeful essential Jiva etc. Tattvas is termed wrong knowledge (Mithya-Jnan).


Further, the name of false knowledge or right knowledge is not attributed from the viewpoint of knowing correctly or incorrectly the purposeless substances (Tattvas). For instance, if a misbeliever knows a rope as a rope, it is not termed as right knowledge and if a true believer knows a rope as a snake, it is not termed as false knowledge.


Question: Why should not one call right knowledge or wrong knowledge to the clearly perceptible right-wrong knowledge?


Answer: Where the purpose is only of knowing or ascertaining right-wrong, then whatever substance is there, the name right knowledge, wrong knowledge is given according to the viewpoint of knowing it right or wrong. For example, in describing direct-indirect form of comprehensive knowledge (Pramana) some substance is taken in view; there knowing it correctly is taken as right knowledge and knowing it doubtfully etc. is stated as the invalid form of wrong knowledge. But here the object is to determine the right and wrong knowledge, which are the cause of transmigration or liberation. In this connection the right or wrong knowledge of rope, serpent etc.; is not the cause of transmigration or liberation; that is why the right knowledge or wrong knowledge are not described here from their point of view. Here the right knowledge - wrong knowledge are described from the viewpoint of knowing of the purposeful Jiva, etc. Tattvas.


From this purport point of view only, in the scripture, all knowledge of a misbeliever is termed as false knowledge only and all knowledge of a true believer is termed as right knowledge.


Question: The misbeliever's knowledge about the Jiva etc. Tattvas is wrong; you may call it wrong knowledge, but at least call his correct knowledge about rope, serpent, etc. as to be the right knowledge?


Answer: Whatever a misbeliever knows, he does not perceive there the difference of substantial existence and non- existence, that is why it produces cause-perversity, nature- perversity and discriminative-perversity. There, whatsoever he knows, he does not identify its root cause and believes the contrary cause as to be the real cause; this is cause- perversity. And whatever he knows, there he does not identify its basic substantial nature; rather believes the contrary nature as to be the real nature. This is nature-perversity. And whatever he knows, there he does not identify that this is different from these and indivisible from these; rather believes divisibility and indivisibility contrarily; so, this is discriminative perversity.  Thus, perversity (contrariness) is found in the knowledge of a misbeliever.


Just as an insane person understands mother as wife and wife as mother; in the same way the misbeliever knows (the Tattvas) contrarily. And just as that insane person also in some particular moment knows mother as mother and wife as wife, even then, his knowledge is not backed by definite and assertive belief. Therefore, his knowledge is not said to be right knowledge. Similarly, a misbeliever if in some particular moment knows some thing correctly also, even then his knowledge is not backed by definite and assertive belief or if he knows correctly also from it he fulfills his purpose contrarily only. Therefore, his knowledge is not termed the right knowledge. Thus, misbelieve knowledge is called wrong knowledge.


Question: What's the cause of this wrong knowledge?


Answer: Due to rise of Moha (faith-deluding karma) the wrong belief is caused and the right belief is not evolved, this is the cause of this wrong knowledge; e.g. as due to mixing of poison, the food also is termed as poison; similarly, due to relation with wrong belief, the knowledge is also termed as wrong knowledge.


Question: Why don't you call Jnanavarana karma as to be the instrumental cause?


Answer: Due to rise of Jnanavarana karma ignorance in the form of absence of knowledge is caused and on account of its Kshayopashama somewhat manifestation of knowledge in the form of Mati Jnan (sensory knowledge) etc. takes place. If out of these we regard some aspect as wrong knowledge and some aspect as right knowledge then both of these aspects are found in the misbeliever as well as in the true believer; hence, both of them will be found possessing wrong knowledge and right knowledge and this is against the fundamental principle; therefore, Jnanavarana karma is not established as to be the instrumental cause (of wrong or right knowledge).


Question: What is the cause of wrong-right knowledge about rope, snake, etc.? Why should not the same be described as the cause of wrong-right knowledge about the Jiva, Ajiva, etc. Tattvas ?


Answer: Whatever incorrectness is there in the knowing process, it is due to the rise of Jnana Varana karma and whatever correctness is found, that is due to the Kshayopashama of Jnana Varana karma. For example, someone knew a rope as a snake; there is the rise of the obstructing cause of the power of knowing correctly; that is why he knows incorrectly; and when he knew a rope as a rope, there the cause of the power of knowing correctly is the Kshayopashama (of Jnanavarana karma); that is why he knows correctly. Similarly, the instrumental cause in the manifestation and non-manifestation of the power of knowing the Jiva-Ajiva etc. Tattvas correctly is only of Jnanavarana karma, but for example, if due to Kshayopashama some person possesses the power of knowing correctly the substances which are the cause of sorrow and happiness, there the one who has got the rise of Asata Vedania karma experiences those objects only which are the cause of sorrow, and does not experience the objects which are the cause of happiness. If he could experience the objects which cause happiness, then he may become happy but that cannot be due to the rise of Asata Vedaniya karma. Therefore, here in experiencing the objects which cause sorrow and happiness, the instrumentality is not of the Jnanavarana karma but the rise of Asata-Sata Vedaniya karma alone is the instrumental cause.  Similarly, Jiva possesses the power of knowing correctly the Jiva etc. purposeful Tattvas and the other purposeless objects. There, one who has the rise of faith-deluding karma, experiences and knows only those objects which are purposeless and does not know the purposeful Tattvas. If he could know the purposeful Tattvas, he may attain the right belief but that cannot be due to the rise of Mithyatva (faith-deluding karma). Therefore, here in knowing the purposeful and purposeless objects, the instrumental cause is not of the Jnanavarana karma but only that of the rise and non-rise of mithyatv (faith-deluding karma). Here one should know that in the one-sensed, etc. irrational beings, where the power of knowing Jiva etc.  Tattvas correctly is not found, there the rise of Jnanavarana karma and the wrong belief caused due to the rise of faith-deluding karma both are instrumental cause. And in the rational human beings etc., where the power of knowing exists due to attainment of Kshayopashama etc. and even then if one does not know (the purposeful Tattvas), there lies the instrumentality of faith-deluding karma only. Therefore, Jnanavarana karma is not stated to be the main cause of wrong knowledge, (but) the disposition caused due to the rise of mithyatv (faith-deluding karma) only is stated to be the cause of wrong knowledge.


Question: Belief evolves on knowing, therefore, why not say that wrong faith is preceded by wrong knowledge?


Answer: It is so only; how can belief evolve without knowing? But the name wrong and `right' is attributed to knowledge on account of instrumentality of wrong belief and right belief respectively. For example, both misbeliever and true believer know the gold etc. objects alike but the knowledge of misbeliever is termed wrong knowledge and knowledge of true believer is termed right knowledge. Similarly, it should be known that the cause of all wrong knowledge and right knowledge is wrong belief and right belief respectively.


Therefore, where knowledge and belief are described in the general sense, there, knowledge is the cause; it should be mentioned first and belief is the effect; so it should be mentioned later. And where wrong-right knowledge-belief are being described, there belief is the cause; it should be stated first and knowledge is the effect; so it should be stated later.


Question: Knowledge and belief both are produced together; how do you establish cause and effect relationship between them? If the cause is present, the effect will also be there?


Answer: The cause and effect relationship is stated from the point of view that if one is there the other is there; For example, the lamp and light are found together but the light will be there only when the lamp is there; therefore, the lamp is the cause and the light is the effect. Similarly, relationship exists between knowledge and belief. In other words the cause and effect relationship should be known between wrong belief wrong knowledge and right belief right knowledge.

Question: If knowledge gets the name of wrong knowledge when accompanied by wrong belief then why not state the wrong belief only the cause of Samsara (mundane existence); why is wrong knowledge stated separately?


Answer: From the knowledge point of view only there is no specialty in the correct knowledge produced due to Kshayopashama in both the misbeliever and the true believer; and finally the knowledge attains the form of omniscience also in the same way as a river joins the sea. Therefore, there is no fault in the knowledge; but wherever Kshayopashama knowledge gets attached, there it knows (is attached in) only one object (knowable), and due to instrumentality of this wrong belief; that knowledge gets attached in the other purposeless objects (knowable) but it does not get engrossed in ascertaining correctly the purposeful Jiva etc. Tattuas. So, this is the fault of knowledge. This is termed as wrong knowledge. And the right faith about Jiva etc. Tattvas is not evolved; so, it is the fault of belief; this is termed as wrong belief. Thus, due to characteristic difference, the wrong belief and the wrong knowledge are stated to be different.


In this way, the nature of wrong knowledge has been described.  This itself is termed as Ajnana (ignorance) owing to the absence of knowledge of Tattvas (realities), and (since) it does not accomplish the purpose of the self so the same is termed as Kujnana (folly).


The Nature of Wrong Conduct


Now the nature of wrong conduct is being described: The passion disposition which is produced due to the rise of Charitra Mohaniya (conduct-deluding karma) is termed as Mithya Charitra (wrong conduct). Here one is not found with the conduct of the self intrinsic nature and instead wants to follow the false conduct of the non-self nature, which does not materialize; therefore, its name is wrong conduct. The same is being explained.


The nature of the self (soul) is knowing and seeing but the self does not remain a seer and a knower only; whatever objects he sees and knows, he believes them to be beneficial- harmful; therefore, due to attachment-aversion feeling, he wants the association of some object and dissociation of some object, but their association or dissociation is not in his hand, because no substance is the creator or destroyer of any other substance; all substances modify according to their respective nature; he unnecessarily becomes agitated due to passion disposition.

And if, by chance, a substance modifies according to his desire it has not modified by his effort to modify it that way.  As a cart moves and if a child by giving a push to it believes that "I am moving it" -then his belief is false. If it moves due to his effort then why does he not move it when it does not move? Similarly, the substances modify on their own and this Jiva by knowing that modification believes that "I am modifying these this way", but his belief is false. If the substances modify due to his effort then why does he not modify them when they do not modify in the desired fashion? Rarely, it happens so, that the substance modifies incidentally according to his desire.  Most of the modifications, which he does not like, are seen modifying in their own way; hence, this is a confirmed fact that the association or dissociation of anything is not caused by our effort.


And if the association - dissociation (of the objects) are not caused by our effort, then what is the sense in indulging in passions? Only the self becomes miserable; as in some marriage ceremony, etc., someone's advice is not followed at all, then he of his own indulges in passions, then he himself becomes miserable; similarly, one should know here.


Therefore, indulging in passions is in vain, like churning of the water. Hence, the tendency of these passions is called Mithya-Charitra (wrong conduct).


Misconjecture About Good & Bad


The passionate dispositions are produced owing to believing the substances either good or bad, but believing good or bad is also false, because no substance is good or bad. The same is being explained here: -


That, which is pleasurable and beneficial to us, is termed good, and that, which is distressing and uneneficial, is termed bad. In the universe, all substances are the producer of their individual natural functions only, none is pleasurable or distressing, beneficial or unbeneficial to anybody. This Jiva himself, in his thoughts, by believing them pleasurable beneficial knows them to be agreeable or knows them bad by believing them distressing and unbeneficial; for same substance appears to be good to someone and bad to someone.  For example, one who does not get the cloth, to him a coarse cloth appears to be good and the one who gets the fine cloth, to him the coarse cloth appears to be bad; to swine, etc. the faces appears to be good and to celestial beings, etc. it appear to be bad. To someone the torrents appear to be good and to someone it appears to be bad.  Similarly, other examples are to be understood.

And in the same way, to some Jiva, one substance appears to be good in some particular instant and the same substance appears to be bad in some other particular instant. Moreover, it should be known that this Jiva considers chiefly a particular substance to be good but the same substance sometime appears to be bad. For example, the body is agreeable but when it gets diseased then it becomes disagreeable; the son, etc. are agreeable but under some circumstances they appear to be disagreeable. And those objects which this Jiva chiefly considers to be disagreeable appear to be agreeable sometime. For example, an abuse (usually) is not agreeable but the same appears to be agreeable in father-in-law's house.


Thus, benefit - harmfulness are not the characteristics of substance. Had there been benefit -harmfulness in the substance, then the substance which would have been beneficial by itself it should be beneficial to all and which would have been harmful by itself it should be harmful to all; but it is not so. This Jiva himself believes them in his imagination to be beneficial or harmful; so, this imagination is false.


Further, the substance, which appears to be pleasurable- beneficial or distressing - not beneficial is not of its own but due to the rise of Punya-Papa karmas. The one who has got the rise of Punya (merit) karma to him the association of substances is found to be pleasurable-beneficial and the one who has got the rise of Papa (demerit) karma to him the association of substances is found to be distressing-  not beneficial. This is practically found to be so. To someone, wife, son, etc. are pleasurable and to someone are distressing; someone earns profit by doing the business and someone gets loss; to someone even the foes become slaves and to someone even the son becomes inimical. Therefore, it is ascertained that the substances do not become good or bad on their own but they act according to the rise of karmas. As the servants, according to their master's order, produce good or bad situation to someone then it is not the work of the servants but is the work of their master. If someone considers the servants only to be good or bad then it is wrong; similarly, if the substances, associated due to rise of karmas, produce good or bad situation to Jiva according to karmas then it is not the work of the substances; it is the work of karmas. If someone believes the substances only to be good or bad, then it is wrong.


Hence, this is proved that indulging in attachment-aversion feeling, by believing the substances to be good or bad, is a fallacy.


Question: The association of external objects is caused due to the instrumentality of karmas, then should we have attachment-aversion feeling in the karmas?

Answer: The karmas are material (Inanimate matter-particles), they have no desire to give pleasure or pain.  Moreover, they on their own do not turn into karmic form but assume the karmic form due to the instrumentality of his (impure) dispositions. For example, if someone breaks his head by picking stone in his hand then what is the fault of the stone?  Similarly, if this Jiva harms himself by turning the matter-particles into karmic form by means of his attachment, etc. (impure) dispositions, then what is the fault of the karmas?  Therefore, it is wrong to entertain the feeling of attachment-aversion in karmas-even.


Thus, having attachment-aversion feeling in other objects, by considering them good or bad, is wrong. Had the other objects been good or bad and if he used to feel attachment-aversion towards them then it would have not been termed to be wrong. Those objects are not good or bad but this Jiva (mundane being) entertains the feeling of attachment-aversion towards them by considering them good or bad; that is why this type of conduct is described to be wrong, and the conduct which is wrong is termed as wrong conduct.


Constitution and Growth of Raag-Dwesha


Now the constitution and growth of attachment (Raag) and aversion (Dwesha) in this Jiva are being analyzed.


Primarily, this Jiva is possessing I-ness feeling in the embodied form; so, he acts by knowing self and body to be one. When a pleasurable condition is produced in this body, agreeable to self, he feels attachment in it and when an unpleasing condition is produced, disagreeable to self, he feels aversion in it. He feels attachment in the external objects which are the cause of pleasurable state of the body and develops aversion in the destroyers of that state. And he develops aversion in the external objects which are the cause of unpleasing state of the body and feels attachment in the destroyers of that state. And further, he develops attachment is those objects which are the instrumental cause of above external objects and feels aversion is their destroyers. And further, develops aversion in those objects which are the instrumental cause of external objects in which he was already having aversion feeling and feels attachment in their destroyers. And among these objects also in which he feels affection, he entertains the feeling of aversion- attachment in the other objects, acting as the associating cause and destroyers of them. And the objects in which he has developed aversion, he entertains the feeling of aversion- attachment in the other objects, acting as the associating cause and destroyers of them.  In this way, the tradition of attachment-aversion continues.


Further, in those many external objects which are not the cause of producing any condition in the body, in them too, he feels attachment-aversion. For example, nothing good of the body is caused to the cows, etc. from its calves, even then they (cows, etc.) feel affection in them and nothing bad of the body is caused to the dogs, etc. from the cats, etc., yet they entertain the feeling of aversion in them. Further, nothing good of the body is caused by perceiving, etc. of many of the colors, smells, words (tune) etc.; even then this Jiva feels affection in them, and nothing bad of the body is caused by perceiving etc. of many of the colors etc., yet the Jiva feels aversion in them. In this way, the attachment-aversion feeling is generated towards different external objects.


Further, in these objects too in which he feels attachment, he develops attachment-aversion in other objects too, acting as the supporting cause and the destroyers of them.  And one object in which he feels aversion, he develops aversion attachment in other objects too acting as the supporting cause and the destroyers of them.  Similarly, here too the tradition of attachment-aversion continues.


Question: The purpose of having attachment-aversion feeling in the other non-self objects is understood but primarily what is the purpose of believing good or bad in the basic states of the body and in the objects which are not the cause of the state of the  body?


Answer: Firstly, whatever basic states of the body are, there, even in them, if he feels attachment-aversion keeping the purpose in view, why would it then be termed as Mithya Charitra (wrong conduct)? In them, purposelessly, he develops the feeling of attachment-aversion and for the sake of them only he feels attachment-aversion in the other objects, therefore, all passion modifications (all sorts of attachment-aversion, etc.) are termed Mithya Charitra (wrong conduct).


Question: This much seems to be clear that no purpose is served in developing the feeling of good or bad in the state of the body and in the external objects, yet one is not able to abstain from developing the feeling of good or bad in the same; what is the reason?


Answer: Owing to the rise of Charitra Moha karma the attachment-aversion feelings are caused to this Jiva and those feelings cannot be caused without developing association with some object.  For example, if attachment feeling is developed, it must be based on some object and if aversion feeling is developed, it too must be based on some object. Thus, there exists the cause and effect relationship between those objects and the attachment-aversion feelings. There, the specific point is only this that many objects are predominantly the cause of attachment feeling and many other objects are predominantly the cause of aversion feeling. Many objects act as the cause of attachment feeling to someone in some particular time and act as the cause of aversion feeling to someone in some particular time.


Here it should be known that there are many instrumental causes in the evolution of a modification. In the evolution of attachment feelings, etc., the internal cause is the rise of Mohaniya karma; it is the strong cause and the external cause is the associated object; it is not a strong cause. Due to feeble rise of Mohaniya karma, the great ascetics do not develop the feeling of attachment-aversion in spite of the instrumentality of external objects. On the other hand, even in the absence of external causes, due to intense rise of Mohaniya karma, the wicked Jivas develop the feeling of attachment in those objects by mere imagination. Therefore, attachment, etc. (passionate dispositions) are evolved due to rise of Moha karma.  There, that external object with the association of which attachment feeling is to be evolved, in that object without any purpose or with some purpose attachment feeling is developed. And that external object, with the association of which aversion feeling is to be developed, in that object without any purpose or with some purpose, aversion feeling is developed. Therefore, due to the rise of Mohaniya one is not able to abstain from developing the feeling of good or bad in the objects. In this way, whatever attachment-aversion form of conduct is caused due to believing the objects good or bad, that is termed Mithya Charitra.


And the anger, pride, deceit, greed, laughter, liking, disliking, sorrow, fear, disgust, female sex-passion, male sex-passion, neuter sex-passion, forms of passionate dispositions are nothing but the details of these attachment- aversion feelings only. All these are the sub-divisions of Mithya Charitra only. All these have already been described earlier.


And in this conduct, there is absence of self-absorption form of conduct; therefore, it is also termed as Acharitra (non- conduct). And here those (passionate) thoughts are not destroyed or are not free from attachment; therefore, this is called Asamyam (incontinence) or Avirati (vowlessness). Because, if there is unrestrained involvement in the objects of five senses and mind and in the injury of five kinds of immobile being as well as mobile beings and the thoughts of renouncing them do not arise, the same is termed as twelve kinds of incontinence or vowlessness. Such activities take place on the evolution of the passionate dispositions. Hence, know that Mithya Charitra is called Asamyam or Avirati. This is also termed as Avert (Vowlessness) because indulgence in sinful acts of injury, falsehood, theft, unchaste and hoarding is called Avert.  The root cause of all these tendencies is the Pramattayoga i.e., the activity actuated by passions. The Pramattayoga is full of passions; therefore, Mithya Charitra is also called Avert, (Vowlessness). In this way, the nature of wrong conduct, (Mithya Charitra) has been described.


In this way, the tendency of wrong belief, wrong knowledge and wrong conduct is found in the mundane beings since eternity. This type of conduct is found in all kinds of Jivas from one-sensed etc., up to the irrational five-sensed beings. And excepting true believers, such kind of conduct is found in all the rational five-sensed beings.  Whatever type of conduct be possible in which ever state of existence, the same should be understood in that context. For example, the one-sensed beings, etc., are found possessed with less or more senses and the attachment of wealth, son, etc. is found in the human beings only.  With the consideration of these things only the wrong belief, etc. are described here. And whatever peculiarities are possible in whichever state of existence the same should be understood in that context.


Further, the one-sensed beings, etc., do not know the name of the senses, body, etc. but the disposition which signifies the meaning of that name, they are found indulging in them in the aforesaid manner. For instance, "I touch with the touch- sense, body is mine"- such word or name is not known to him, nevertheless, it indulges in that disposition which signifies its meaning. And the human beings etc., know many of the names too and tend to indulge according to their characteristics; such many types of peculiarities are possible in different contexts.


The Glory of Delusion


Such dispositions of wrong belief, etc. are found in this Jiva since eternity; these are not imbibed afresh. Behold its greatness; whatever embodied form (this Jiva) attains there at (in that particular state of existence) such sort of aforesaid conduct only is found automatically to this Jiva even without any sermons, due to the rise of Moha (deluding karma). And in the human beings etc., even on meeting the causes of right thinking, right form of conduct is not evolved and even if the chance of the discourse of a real monk is available and he may admonish repeatedly but he does not pay any attention.  And if he also perceives the truth rightly even then he does not believe in it and believes contrarily. The same is being explained hereunder.


When death occurs, the body and the soul clearly get separated.  Leaving one body, the soul reincarnates in other body; there the peripatetic Devas etc. are seen disclosing the relations of their previous births, but he cannot discriminate the self from the body.  The wife, son, etc. are clearly seen to be the companions of their selfish motto. If
their self-interest is not served, instantaneously they are seen turning inimical, (but) this misbeliever feels mineness in them and for fulfilling their desires, he indulges in various types of sinful acts which become instrumental cause of his going to hell, etc. Wealth, property, etc. are seen changing hands, but he believes the same to be his own. Further, the condition of the body and the external property, etc. are seen getting created and destroyed of their own; he unnecessarily becomes the doer of them. There the work which goes right according to his will, about it he says- `I did it' and if it goes wrong then he says, `What can I do? Rather he thinks "so was to happen or why did it happen like this?" But either he should have been the doer of all such deeds or should have remained the non-doer, (but) he does not think so.


Although he knows that death is certain, yet being sure of his death he does not do any thing worth doing; rather he indulges in the activities concerning the present embodied existence only. And being sure of his death, he sometimes says, "I will die and the body will be burnt"; sometimes says, "If my fame remains, I remain alive"; sometimes says, "If the sons, etc. will survive, I will survive". In this way, he prattles like a mad man and thus remains unconscious (about the self).


Although he knows well that he has to leave for next embodied life, yet he makes no effort for getting agreeable and avoiding unagreeable associations for the next birth and instead makes ceaseless effort in order that the generation of his sons, grandsons, etc. may remain in agreeable condition; nothing unagreeable may happen to them.


Although, after someone's death, the property collected in the present existence is not seen rendering any help, yet in spite of being sure of next birth, he continues to protect and acquire property, etc. in this birth.


And due to indulgence in sensual pleasures, passionate acts and acts of injury, etc., he himself becomes unhappy and miserable; becomes foe of others and reproachable in this world and becomes miserable in the next world also. All this he knows well, yet indulges in the aforesaid acts only. Although in many ways he himself perceives all this well, yet he believes, knows and follows contrarily.  So, all this is the glory of delusion.


In this way, this Jiva is found indulging in wrong belief- knowledge-conduct from beginningless time. Due to this indulgence, the association of karmas creating several kinds of miseries in this world is found. These (perverse) dispositions alone are the seeds of all sorrows and none else.

Therefore, Oh! Bhavya! (O! capable soul!) If you wish to get rid of sorrows then eradicating of these wrong belief etc., alienated dispositions, is the only act worth doing; by this way only, you will achieve the highest benediction.


Thus, the 4th chapter describing the wrong belief-knowledge- conduct in the Moksha Marg Prakashak Shastra is concluded.










Doha: "Bahuvidhi Mithya gehankari, malin bhyo nij bhav

                                                                                                                                                                                                   Tako hot abhav hey, sehajroop darsav"


[ Due to deep false belief, knowledge and conduct of different kinds, our natural disposition has become foul. When such delusion is destroyed then automatically natural form of self-qualities get manifested]


As described earlier, this mundane being is found indulging in wrong belief-knowledge-conduct since eternity.  Due to that, bearing the sorrows in the world, he, rarely, in the human state of existence, attains the power of having distinct belief etc.  There, if by indulgence in the specific causes of wrong belief, etc., he fosters the same wrong belief, etc., then getting rid of sorrows becomes extremely difficult.


For example, some person is sick; if he after getting some relief, starts taking unwholesome diet then it will be very difficult for him to get rid of that disease.  Similarly, this Jiva is having wrong belief etc., if he after obtaining some greater power of knowledge etc., starts indulging in the specific cause of perverse belief etc. then his liberation (from karmic bondage) will become extremely difficult. Therefore, as a physician, by pointing out the details of unwholesome diet, advises the patient not to take those things, similarly, by explaining the specific causes of wrong belief etc. he is advised not to indulge in those causes.


Here the false belief etc., dispositions, which are found from eternity, are to be known as Agraheet-Mithyatv (not newly adopted false belief etc.) because those are not newly adopted.  And their supporting causes further boost up those wrong belief etc.; such supporting causes are to be known as Graheet Mithyatv i.e., newly adopted false belief etc.


The Agraheet type of false belief etc. has already been described earlier. Now the Graheet (newly adopted) type of false belief etc. is being discussed here :-


Faith in the untrue deity (Kudeva), untrue preceptor (Kuguru), untrue religion (Kudharm) and imaginary principles (false Tattvas) is false belief (Mithyadarshan). And the study of such untrue scripture (Kushastras) with due respect, wherein the attachment, etc. passions are fostered by way of wrong interpretation, is false knowledge (Mithya Jnan). And the conduct in which the indulgence in passions is fostered and acceptance of such conduct is termed as religion is false conduct (Mithya Charitra). Now the details of these (perversities) are being explained:-


Indra (heavenly God), Lokpal (so-called protecting deity) etc., monotheistic Brahma, Rama, Krishna, Mahadeva, Buddha, Khuda, Peer, Paigamber etc., Hanuman, Bhairon, Kshetrapal, Devi, Dahadi, Sati etc., Sheetala (so-called Goddess of smallpox), Chauth (4th lunar day), Sanjhi, Gangaur, Holi (burning the heap of wood) etc., sun, moon, planets, Auta- ancestors, peripatetic gods, cow, snake etc., and fire, water, tree etc., and weapon, inkpot, utensils etc., many things are there (in India particularly) which the misbelievers worship; then by having wrong faith in them they want to fulfill their object but those things are not the causes of fulfulling the objects. Therefore, this type of faith is called newly adopted false belief (Graheeta mithyatv).


`How their belief is wrong, this is now being described:-


Analysis of the Theory of Ubiquitous Monotheism (Addvait Brahma)Many people believe Addvait Brahma (monism) as to be the ubiquitous and the creator of whole world but no such person is there. First, they believe him ubiquitous but all kinds of substances are distinctly separate and their nature are perceived distinctly separate; how to believe them as one? The following are the different ways of believing him to be ubiquitous:


The one way of such belief is this: Though all things are separate-separate but conjecturing them altogether some common name is given.  For example, the horses, the elephants etc. are separate-separate but their collective name is army reality there is no such thing as army different from horses etc.  So in this way all substances which are termed Brahma, that Brahma is not proved to be a distinct entity; it is mere imagination.


Another way of such belief is this: From individual point of view all things are separate-separate, but those are conjecturally treated as one from common character point of view. For example, one hundred horses are there; from individual point of view, those are separately- separately one hundred only. Seeing their common features, they are collectively treated as one class but that class is not something different from those individual horses. In this way, looking at some common specific features of all substances, if their collective name is one Brahma, then in reality no separate existence of Brahma is proved.


A third way of such belief is this: Though all substances are separate from each other, owing to their conglomeration, one lump is formed, that is called one. As the molecules of water are separate-separate, on their getting conglomerated, their collective name is called sea etc. and on getting the conglomeration of the molecules of clay, it is termed as `pot' (Jar) etc. But in these examples, there is nothing like a separate sea or a separate pot different from the molecules from which they are formed. Thus, all kinds of substances are separate-separate, but" sometimes by getting conglomerated those (substances) become one and that is Brahma. If this is to be accepted then no Brahma is proved to be something separate distinct entity.


A fourth way of such belief is this: Though the limbs are separate-separate, yet he who has those limbs is one corporal form.  As the eyes, hands, legs etc. are separate-separate but the man who has those limbs is one human being. Thus, all these substances are limbs and the one who possesses these, in the corporal form is one Brahma. This whole universe in gigantic form is the limb of Brahma - this is what they believe. But, if there be any gap in the form of disconnection between hands, legs, etc., limbs of the human body, there remains no oneness; only on their remaining connected, those are collectively called one body. In the universe, the substances are seen mutually disconnected from one another; how then to believe in its oneness? Even if in such disconnected state of existence oneness is believed, then where would the separateness of all substances be believed?


Question: In the center of all substances, the limbs of Brahma, in the subtle form, are existing, by means of which all remain connected.


Answer: Whichever limb is connected to whatever other limb, does it remain connected so with it or continues getting connected with the other different limbs by breaking repeatedly? If the first side of the argument is accepted then the sun etc. make movement; with them by which subtle limbs it gets connected, those will also move. And due to their movement, the subtle limbs, which remain connected with the other massive limbs, will also move; in this way, the whole universe will become unstable. As on pulling any one limb of the body all the limbs get pulled, similarly, by making movement etc. of any one substance, all the substances will start making movement.  But this does not seem to be logical.  And if the second side of the argument is accepted then due to breaking of the limbs the separateness is definitely caused; how would then oneness remain existing? Therefore, how can it be possible to believe Brahma to be the oneness of the whole universe?


Another way, of such belief is this: Originally he was one, later on became many, again becomes one, so he is one. For example, water was one but in different utensils it got divided, when it meets again, it becomes one. And as there was a lump of gold, later on it was turned into bangle, ring, etc., it again becomes the lump of the gold by reunion. Similarly, there was one Brahma, later on he modified into many forms and again he will become one, therefore he is one.


In this way, the monist believes the oneness. Here our query is that when he assumed different forms then he remained united or got disconnected? If he will say that `He' remained united then the aforesaid fault will arise. If he will say that `He' got disconnected then at that moment there remained no oneness. Further, they (the monists) call water, gold etc. as to be one even on their getting separated but this (oneness) is stated from one specific point of view.  But here the class of all kinds of substances does not appear to be as one. Some are animate and some are inanimate; thus, the substances are of various kinds; how can their class be described to be as one?


Further, they believe that originally he was one, later on he got separated; so as a stone turns into pieces by splitting up, similarly.  The Brahma, got turned into pieces. Further, the monist believes that those pieces get reunited; so does their character remains separate there or it becomes one? If, it remains separate then, there, those are assuredly separate by their individual characteristics and if they become one then the inanimate things also will turn into animate beings and the animate beings will turn into the inanimate things. When many (different) things become one thing, it will be necessary to call them many in some moment and one in some moment; then it will not be possible to say- "there is one eternal infinite Brahma"


And if he will say that by creation or non-creation of the universe the Brahma remains one and unchanged, therefore the Brahma is eternal & infinite, then our question is -"In the universe, the earth, the water etc. are seen. Are all these things created newly and separately or the Brahma himself has obtained these forms? If these are created newly and separately then these things are separate and Brahma remains separate. This means there is no ubiquitous Addvait Brahma. And if the Brahma has transformed himself in the form of these things then sometimes he became universe and sometimes remained as Brahma; how did then he remain unchanged?


Further, he says that whole of the Brahma does not transform into the universe, its some portion only transforms. There, we ask him-' as one drop of the sea is transformed into poison then from gross-vision point of view it is beyond perception but from one drop point of view the sea has changed.  Similarly, Brahma's one portion on getting separated transformed into the universe; nothing is comprehensible there by gross-vision but on thinking minutely the Brahma has changed from the one portion point of view. This change has not occurred to anything else.


In this way, believing the universal form of Brahma is nothing but a fallacy only.


Further, another way of such belief is this- "As the space (sky) is an ubiquitous one, similarly, the Brahma is an ubiquitous one. If you (the monist) believe so, then believe the Brahma also as big as space and wherever the material objects, jar, cloth, etc. are found, the space is also found there; in the same way, believe the existence of Brahma too. But how could the jar, cloth, etc. and the space be treated and called as one only? Similarly, how the universe and the Brahma could be believed to be as one? And the differentia of space is perceived to be everywhere; so, its existence is believed to be everywhere; but the differentia of the Brahma is not perceived everywhere; so how could then his existence be believed everywhere? In this way also. no universal form of Brahma is established."


From all these considerations, the existence of one Brahma is in no way established. All substances appear to be separate- separate entities.


Here the respondent says- "All is one only, but you are under delusion, that's why you are not able to perceive him as one. And you have put up your logic but the nature of Brahma is beyond logic. And his nature is not describable in words. He is one as well as many. He is separate as well as united. His glory is so great".


Our answer to him is- "What I, you and all are perceiving clearly, you call it delusion. And if we deduce by logic then you say that the real nature is beyond logic. And if you say that the real nature is not describable in words then how can one ascertain without words?  "Further he says- "He is one as well as many, is separate as well as united", but you do not specify the viewpoint and instead like an insane person you are magnifying his glory by asserting that he is like this and also like that. But, where there is no justice, the liars indulge there in such garrulousness only. So, let them do so but justice will remain unchanged.


Revocation of World-creatorship


Further, some people believe that Brahma is the creator of the universe: the falsehood of the same is being shown hereunder :-


    Firstly, they believe that such a desire arose to Brahma that (H) "I am single, so I would like to be many". There we ask them-" If one was unhappy in earlier state then he would like to change that state". Brahma desired to obtain many forms discarding the earlier one form. What was the sorrow in that state of one form? Then the monist says that there was no sorrow but it was just an inquisitive instinct. Then we say to him- "If earlier one be less happy and if by inquisitiveness, he becomes more happy, then he may think of indulging in inquisitiveness.  So, how is it possible for Brahma to have become more happy by changing into many forms from one form.  And if he was perfectly happy in the earlier state, why should he change that state or form? Without any purpose, no body wants to indulge in any activity.


And suppose he was happy earlier and also remained happy after completing the desired act but would he not be unhappy at the moment of rise of the desire? Then he says- "the moment desire arises in Brahma, at the same moment the desire is fulfilled, so he does not become unhappy. Then we say- "One can accept this from relatively longer period point of view but from the instantaneous time period point of view the fulfillment of desire is not possible the moment it arises. The desire arises only when the act is not fulfilled; and when it is fulfilled there remains no desire. So, he must have become unhappy at least in that minute interval of time. Because the desire itself is misery and none else is misery. Therefore, the rise of desire in Brahma is inconceivable."


Further, they (the monists) say that on evolution of desire the Maya (illusion) of Brahma got produced. Since Maya got produced in Brahma then Brahma also became an illusive (deceitful) person; how did then here main of pure nature? And Brahma and Maya have the coherent relation just like a staff-bearer and the staff or both have an inseparable relation just like fire and heat. If it is a coherent relation then the Brahma is separate and the Maya is separate; how did `He' remain undivided (Addvait) Brahma? And as the staff-bearer holds the staff knowing it to be helpful, similarly Brahma knows the Maya as to be helpful to him, that's why he holds it, otherwise why should he hold it?  And the Maya which Brahma himself holds, how is it possible to deny (forbid) it?  Rather, it is proved useful. And if it is an inseparable relation then as heat is the nature of fire, similarly Maya is proved to be the nature of Brahma.  That which is the nature of Brahma, how its denial is possible? Thus Maya is proved to be useful.


Further, they say that the Brahma is a sentient being, Maya is insentient. But in inseparable relation such two (contrary) natures (of a thing) are not possible; e.g., how can light and darkness both be found together?


Further, they say that Brahma himself does not become deluded by Maya, rather (other) Jiva gets deluded by his Maya. Our answer is: As a treacherous knows his treachery himself, so he himself does not get deluded, rather the other persons get deluded by his treachery. But he who indulges in treachery, is called a treacherous; the others who got deluded due to his treachery are not called treacherous.  Similarly, the Brahma knows his Maya; the other Jivas get deluded.  There, the Brahma only will be called treacherous (Mayavi); how the other Jivas who got deluded by his Maya could be called treacherous (Mayavi)?


Further we ask them - whether Jivas are one with the Brahma or are separate entities? If they are one then as someone himself starts giving pain to his own limbs so he is called an insane person, similarly, the Brahma himself by his Maya starts giving pain to those Jivas who are not separate from him; so, how would this be possible? If the (Jivas) are separate from him, then as some ghost (peripatetic god) without any purpose creates delusion to other Jivas and makes them miserable., similarly, without any purpose the Brahma creates Maya for other Jivas and makes them miserable; this also seems illogical.


Thus, saying that Maya is of Brahma cannot be established. Further, they say that on evolution of Maya the universe got created; there the consciousness found in Jivas is part of Brahma's nature and their bodies etc. are Maya.  For example, water is filled in many separate utensils; in (the water of) all those utensils moon appears separately-separately, whereas the moon is one.  Similarly, the consciousness light of Brahma is found separately-separately in many separate- separate bodies, where as the Brahma is one, therefore, the consciousness found in Jivas is that of the Brahma.


This statement is also full of delusion because the body is inanimate; if in this body the consciousness got created due to the image of Brahma, why could not then the image of Brahma fall in other inanimate substances like jar, cloth, etc. and create consciousness in them?


Further, the monist says that the Brahma does not make the body conscious but makes the Jivas conscious.


Then we ask him - "Is the nature of Jiva Chetana (conscious) or acetone (non-conscious)? If it is conscious then what would new consciousness be created in the already conscious Jivas? If Jiva is non-conscious then the category of body, jar, etc. and that of the Jiva proves to be the same. "Further, we ask him," - `Is the consciousness of the Brahma and that of the "Jivas one and the same or separate?  If it is one and the same then how is the knowledge seen more or less in different Jivas?" And why one Jiva does not know whatever is known by other Jiva?' You might say that this is due to difference in embodiment of various Jivas. Then due to difference in embodiments, the consciousness of different Jivas is proved to be separate-separate. On destruction of embodiment, will the consciousness of the Jivas get intermingled in Brahma or get destroyed? If it will get destroyed then this Jiva will become inanimate. And if you will say that the Jiva itself gets intermingled with Brahma then there on intermingling with Brahma its own existence remains or does not remain? If Jivas existence remains separate then that Jiva along with his own consciousness also existed (remained intact); what did then intermingle with Brahma? And if existence does not remain then it means it got destroyed; who did then intermingle with Brahma? If you will say that the consciousness of Brahma and that of the Jivas are separate then the Brahma and all Jivas prove to be separate-separate. Thus, the belief that the consciousness of the Jivas and that of the Brahma are one and the same is also disproved.


You call the bodies etc. as to be of the Maya; so, does the Maya itself turn into the bone-flesh etc. or due to the instrumentality of Maya someone else turns in those forms? If the Maya itself converts then were the color, smell etc. of Maya existing formerly or are produced afresh? If those were existing formerly then Maya was formerly of Brahma but Brahma is of immaterial form; how are the color etc. attributes possible in him? And if those are produced afresh then he being of the immaterial form, got turned into the material form; hence, consequently the immaterial form did not prove to be eternal. And if you will say that due to the instrumentality of Maya someone else turns then the question is that when you do not prove or accept existence of the other substances who else got turned then?


If you will say that the new substance gets created, then does it get created separate from Maya or inseparable with it? If it is produced separate from Maya, why do you call then Miyamae Sharira i.e., the bodies etc. to have formed from Maya? But those prove to be of their own substances. And if those substances are created as inseparable then Maya itself became tantamount; why do you then say that the new substances got created? Thus, your this statement that the body etc. are of the nature of Maya is fallacious.


Further, they say that three qualities (constituents) got produced out of Maya, (i) Rajas- the quality of passion, of love and pleasure (ii) Tamas- the quality of malignancy and (iii) Satvik- the quality of goodness and virtues. This statement is also not maintainable; because the disposition of pride-passion-form is called Rajas, the disposition of anger-passion-form is called Tamas and disposition of feeble- passion-form is called Satvik. So, these dispositions are clearly seen full of consciousness but the nature of Maya according to you is inanimate. So, how would these dispositions be created out of the inanimate objects ? If the inanimate objects too have these (qualities) then stone etc. will also have these dispositions; but only the Jivas of conscious nature are seen possessing these dispositions; therefore, these dispositions are not produced out of Maya. If Maya is considered to be of conscious nature, then this can be believed. So, on accepting the Maya as to be conscious, if you will say the bodies etc. as produced out of Maya then nobody will believe it. Hence, you should ascertain properly; what is the gain in believing fallaciously?


Further, they say that from those three qualities, Brahma, Vishnu and Mahesh, these three deities are born; so how is it possible?  Because the quality is produced from the substance possessing qualities; how would the substance of qualities be produced from the quality? The anger passion will get produced from man, but how will man be produced from anger passion? Moreover, these qualities are censured; how are Brahma etc. produced from these (qualities) considered venerable? Further, these qualities are full of Maya and the same are described as to be the incarnation of Brahma; but these are proved to be the incarnation of Maya, how are these described as to be the incarnation (Vishnu Puran, chapter 22/58. Vayu Puran, chapter 7/68-69.)  of Brahma?  And those who are found having even a little of these qualities they are sermonized to give up them, but how could those who are the idols of these qualities only be treated as venerable? Is it not delusion?


Further, their actions also seem to be full of these traits. They indulge in the acts of sportiveness etc., sexual intercourse etc. and combating etc.; so, from those Rajas etc. qualities, only these acts are caused; therefore, you should say that the Rajas etc. traits are found in them. Treating them venerable and supreme God etc. is not befitting. They too are like other mundane beings.


Further, you might say that the mundane beings are under the influence of Maya, so unknowingly they indulge in those acts. But Maya is under the control of Brahma etc., so they indulge in these acts knowingly. So, this too is fallacy. Because by being under the control of Maya, sex-passion, anger-passion etc. only are created, what else is created? Only the vehemency of sex-passion, anger etc.  is found in those Brahma etc. Due to the vehemence of sex-passion, they being overpowered by women, started dancing and singing, started becoming impatient, started indulging in bad demeanor in many ways and started combating in various ways under the influence of anger, started adopting various means for exhibiting one's excellence under the influence of pride, started making lot of frauds under the pressure of deceit, started accumulating belongings (paraphernalia) being overpowered by greed and so on, - what more to describe? Thus being overpowered by passions, they started doing many censurable acts, such as the immodests' act of snatching off the cloths of the ladies, the thieves' act of looting the curd, the mads' act of wearing the wreath of human heads*, `the ghosts' act of making different forms of the body and the plebeians' act of cow- keeping (herdsmanship) etc.; what more censurable acts would have resulted on being overpowered by Maya is beyond comprehension!


Believing Brahma etc. who are found with censurable external acts and intense carnal desires etc. to be deceitless is similar to believing cloudy no-moon night as without darkness.


Further, he says that the sex-passion, anger etc. do not over power them; this also is a sportive act of supreme God. Our question is "Such passional acts which he does are done with desire or without desire?' If he does with desire then the name of desire of sexual intercourse itself is sex-passion, the name of desire of combating itself is the anger passion and so on. And if he does without desire then the act, which he himself does not want to do, is caused only on being dependent on someone; so, how is dependence possible in Brahma? Further, you regard this as to be a sportive act; so, if the God performs such sportive acts by reincarnating, then why do they preach the other Jivas forgetting liberation by detaching themselves from such acts?  The discourse of observing forbearance, contentment, chastity, continence, etc. all is proved useless.


Further, he says that God has no motive; just for the sake of keeping the worldly phenomena running he incarnates (Paritranraye sadhunam, vinashaye cha dushkritam; Dharm sansthapnarthaye sambhvami yugai yugai) for protecting the devotees and punishing the cruel. Then we ask him: Without any motive even an ant does not do anything, why would then God do so?" And you have also told the purpose that "He acts for the sake of keeping the worldly phenomena running". So as some man himself teaches his sons with ill intention and when they start behaving in that fashion then he beats them; how would then such a father be called good? Similarly, if Brahma etc.  by his passionate form of activity causes his own creation to indulge in untoward acts and when they do so then why he places them in the hell etc.? In the scriptures, the consequence of these dispositions is described as getting birth in hell etc.; so, how can such a God be believed to be good?


And you have stated that the motive of God is to protect the devotees and punish the cruel. Here we ask you that the cruel who torture the devotees were created by the desire of God, or without his desire? If they were created by God's desire then tell us as to how such a master be called good who firstly gets his own subordinates beaten by others and later on beats those beaters? Similarly, how such a God be called good who himself willingly causes his devotees to be afflicted by the cruel and then he starts killing those cruel by incarnating (into embodied form)?


If you will say that the cruel got created without his desire then either the God might not be having such a foresight that these cruelwill torture his devotees or earlier he might not be having such sort of power that this should not be allowed to happen. Further, we ask him- 'If God incarnated for the purpose of performing such activity, so, did he possess such power without incarnating or not? If he was possessing such power, why did then he incarnate? And if he did not possess such power then what was the cause of obtaining such power later on?'


Then he says- `How would the glory (importance) of God be reflected without doing so?' Then we tell him- "Protecting one's followers and punishing opponents for establishing one's glory is nothing but attachment-aversion passions (Raag & Dwesha) and Raag-Dwesha is the characteristic of the mundane being (Sansari-Jiva). If God also is found having Raag-Dwesha then why to preach the other Jivas for effectuating equanimity by quitting Raag-Dwesha?  Moreover, as he thought to act according to Raag-Dwesha, so no work is accomplished without consumption of some more or less time; then during that period God would remain restless. If the king himself undertakes to do the work which can be performed by a person of lower status then this does not glorify the king, rather it becomes a cause of his censure. Similarly, if God himself undertakes to do, through incarnation that work which can be accomplished by a king and a peripatetic deva etc., then this does not glorify God, rather it becomes a cause of his censure.


Further, the importance is shown to someone else if someone else be there, but you believe in one ubiquitous `Addvait Brahma' only; to whom he shows the importance? And the effect of showing the importance is to cause others to pray him; so, by whom does he want to be prayed? And you say that all Jivas function as per the will of the God, so, if the self has the desire of causing others to pray him then direct all the Jivas to pray him. Why should people engage themselves in other activities? Therefore, Gods, action for being glorified by others also does not seem to be logical.


Further, he says that God, even by doing all these acts remains non-doer; this cannot be ascertained. We say to him- "If you would say that this is my mother as well as is a barren lady" then how to believe your saying so? The one who does the work, how to believe him to be a non-doer? And you say that the ascertainment is not possible, so this means believing something without its ascertainment; then you should also believe that sky produces flowers and asses have horns; but such statement supporting impossible phenomenon is not logical.


In this way, belief in the existence of Brahma, Vishnu & Mahesh is false belief.


Further, they say that Brahma creates the Srishti (universe), Vishnu protects it and Mahesh destroys it; all this is also not possible, because while performing these duties someone would like to do one thing whereas the other would like to do the contrary thing; then there will arise mutual contradiction.


And if you will say that this also is a characteristic of God, why would there be any contradiction? Then "creating (the universe) himself and destroying it himself" - in performing such a task, what is the result? If the Srishti (creation) is harmful to the self, why did he create it then? And if it is beneficial why did he destroy it? And "if earlier he felt it beneficial so he created it, later on he felt it harmful so he destroyed it"- if it is so then either God's characteristic is wrong or the creation's characteristic is wrong. If you will favor first side of the logic then God's character is not proved to be of one nature. So tell us what is the reason of not having one nature? Why would the turning of the nature happen without the cause? And if you will favor second side of the logic then when the creation was under the control of God, why did he allow it to happen so, that it appeared harmful to himself ?


Further, we ask him- "Brahma creates the universe; so how does he create it?" The one way is this that as the builder of the temple makes the shape (of the building) etc. by collecting lime, (cement) stones etc. material. Similarly, Brahma creates the universe by collecting the material. Let us know that place where from he brought and collected the material and if only Brahma alone created the whole universe then either he might have made it in parts - some parts earlier and some parts later or might have made his hands etc. many?  Whatever answer you will give, it will also prove contradictory on thinking over it.


And the one way is this that as the work is performed as per king's order, similarly the universe is created by the order of Brahma, (If this be so) then whom did he order? And where from the persons who were ordered brought the material and how did they create the universe?


And the one way is this that the work gets accomplished automatically as per the desire of the person possessing supernatural powers. Similarly, the universe gets automatically created as per the wish of Brahma. If this be so, then Brahma's role remained confined to desiring only and the universe got automatically created.  Moreover, the desire arose in Parma Brahma, what was then the role of Brahma whom you advocate creator of the universe?


If you will say that Parma Brahma also desired and Brahma also desired then the universe got created. Then it appears that the desire of Parma Brahma alone is not efficacious. This shows lack of power in Parma Brahma.


Further, we ask, 'If the universe is created only by creating it then the creator will surely create it for the sake of happiness and then he will create the favorite things only. But in this universe the favorite things are found in lesser number and unfavorable things are found in greater number. Amongst the Jivas, Devas (celestial beings) etc. were created as favorite beings for the sake of enjoyment and for adoration. But what for worm, ant, dog, pig, lion, etc.  were created? Those are neither pleasing nor do they worship; rather, they are harmful in all respects. And why were such harmful objects like poor-wretched, unhappy-hellish beings, etc. created by seeing which disgust, aversion, sorrow are caused?'


There he says that the Jivas suffer due to their own sins in the embodied forms of worm, ant, pauper, hellish beings, etc. We ask him, ultimately you may say that these embodied forms Paryaya are produced owing to the consequence of vicious acts only, but why were these created earlier at the time of creating the universe? And later on the Jivas turned sinful, so why did they turn sinful? If you will say that they themselves turned so, then it appears that Brahma first created them and afterwards they did not remain under his control; for this reason Brahma felt sorry.


And if you will say that Brahma activates them to become active then why did he activate them for sinful deeds? The Jivas were created by him; why did he mean ill of them? Therefore, this too is illogical.


And amongst the insentient objects, he created many things of good color, good smell etc. for the sake of enjoyment but what for did he create the distressing things having bad colors, bad smell, etc.?  Brahma would not be happy by seeing these things. And if you will say that he created these things for torturing the wicked Jivas; then what for did he do such cruelty with the self-created Jivas that for them he created distressing things earlier? Further, dust, mountain, etc. are some such things also which are neither pleasing (delightful) nor distressing; what for did he create these things? Of their own those things may get any shape or size, but if there is a creator of them then he will create them with some purpose only. How is therefore Brahma called creator of the universe?


And they call Vishnu as protector of the universe. The protector performs only two acts; firstly he does not allow development of the causes of misery and secondly he does not allow development of the causes of destruction or devastation. But in the universe all everywhere only the causes of growth of miseries are seen and those things are seen causing misery to Jivas. The Jivas are suffering from hunger, thirst, etc., sorrow is caused due to cold and heat, etc., Jivas produce pain & misery to one another; weapons, etc., are the cause, of sorrow and various other causes of devastation are found.  The different diseases etc., and fire, poison, weapons, etc.  are seen as instrumental causes for the end of Jivas lives and in the insentient material objects also the causes of mutual destruction are seen. Thus, both types of objects could not be protected; what did then Vishnu protect being a protector?


He says - "Vishnu is the protector only. For the remedy of hunger, thirst, etc., grain seeds, water, etc. are created, ants get grain particles and elephants get ample food; He helps in difficulty. Even when the causes of death arise, he protects as he did in the case of lapwing (peewit)[A king of bird which used to live on seashore. The sea used to sweep away her eggs. Sorrowfully she prayed to Lord Vishnu through the adjutant bird , so , he caused those eggs to be given back to her from the sea. Such sort of story is there in Hindu mythology.] - thus, in many ways Vishnu protects". There, we say to him- "If it is so, then where hunger, thirst, etc. cause excessive pain & misery to the Jivas and food grain, water, etc. are not avail-able, when one is in difficulty no help is rendered, even a slight cause causes death - in all these cases either Vishnu's power became week or he did not have the knowledge of these things? In the universe; many Jivas generally live unhappy and die; why then did Vishnu not protect them?


Then he says- "It is the outcome of the Jivas own acts & conduct".  Our answer to him is - "As an ignorant greedy- liar-physician, finding someone benefited somewhat by his medicine, says that he has cured him but when the case gets spoiled or the patient dies then he says that it was his destiny. Similarly, you say, if something happened good (agreeable) to someone then it is attributed to as done by Vishnu and if something happened bad (disagreeable) then it is said to be the outcome of his own acts & conduct. Why should therefore one have such a misconjecture? Either say that both the good and bad conditions are caused by Vishnu or say that both are the outcome of one's own acts & conduct. If everything is done by Vishnu then how can he be called a protector when many Jivas are seen unhappy and dying quickly? And if it is the outcome of one's own acts & conduct then "as he will sow so shall he reap"- what will then Vishnu protect?


Then he says - "Those who are the devotees of Vishnu, he protects them." We say to him- 'Ants, elephants etc., are not his devotees then, believing the duty of Vishnu in supplying food grain, etc. to them, in helping in difficulty and in not letting one die, why do you then believe him to be the protector of all? Rather believe him to be the protector of the devotees only. But he does not seem to be the protector even of the devotees, because the non-devotees also are seen torturing the devotees.'


Then he says- On many occasions he has helped Prahlad etc., we say to him - 'Wherever he has helped, there you may believe him to be so. 'But we find that the devotees are afflicted by the wicked barbarian, Mohammedan, etc., 'non- devotees and temples etc. are being destroyed by such persons then why does he not help in such situations? So, either he does not possess the power or he is not aware of it. If he does not possess the power then he is proved to be weaker than the non-devotees too. If he is not aware of it then one who does not know even this much, he is proved to be an ignorant.


And if you say that Vishnu possesses the power also and knows also, but he desired this way only. Why do you then call him kind to devotees? Thus, believing Vishnu as the protector of the universe is not proved.


Further, they, the monists, say- 'Lord Mahesh is the destroyer'.  We ask them - Whether Mahesh indulges in the act of destruction always or does so only at the time of total destruction of the world?  If he always does so, then as you have adored Vishnu for protecting the universe, similarly you should censure Mahesh for destroying the universe. Because the protection and destruction are contradictory.


And how does he do the destruction? As a person beats someone by his hands, etc. or gets him beaten by others, so similarly does Mahesh do the destruction by his own limbs or gets destroyed by ordering someone else? In whole of the universe the destruction of many Jivas is continuously taking place every moment; then how does he destroy all together simultaneously, by what kinds of limbs and by ordering whom? Moreover, if you say that Mahesh merely desires and the destruction takes place automatically by his desiring only; then he would always be having cruel thoughts of the form of killing others and how would the desire of killing many Jivas altogether simultaneously be produced in him? And if he destroys at the time of total destruction of the world, then does he do so at the instance of Parma Brahma or does he do so without his wish? If he does so at Parma Brahma's wish then how did such intense anger arise to Parma Brahma that he desired to destroy all? Because, without any reason, the desire of destruction cannot arise and the desire of destruction itself is anger. So, tell us the reason for such anger.


And if you say that Parma Brahma had created this game of universe; later on he demolished it - for this no reason can be given.  The game-maker creates the game when he likes it and finishes it when he dislikes it. Similarly, if this universe appears to be good or bad to him (the Parma Brahma), then it shows that he has attachment aversion with the universe. Why do you then say Brahma's nature to be that of a mere observer? A mere observer is the name of that person who merely remains knower and seer of what automatically happens. How could he be called a mere observer if he creates or destroys the universe by treating it to be good or bad (agreeable or disagreeable). Because remaining a mere observer and also being doer & destroyer are contradictory to each other. Both these things are not possible in one person. Originally, Parma Brahma desired that "I am one, so I shall be many", then he became many. Now this desire cropped up- "I am many, so I will become less". So, as out of innocence, someone indulges in some work and then gives it up, similarly Parma Brahma also after becoming many desired back to become one; so, it appears that the work of becoming many he might have done out of innocence only.  Had it been done with foresightedness then why for did he desire to give it up?


And if without the desire of Parma Brahma, Mahesh indulges in destruction then he is proved to be an opponent of Parma Brahma and Brahma.


Further, we ask- 'How does Mahesh destroy the universe? Does he do so by his own limbs or destruction takes place automatically just on his desiring? If he destroys by his own limbs then how does he destroy all things at once?' And if destruction takes place automatically by his (Mahesh's) desire, then we ask - as to why did he destroy the universe when the desire originated in Parma Brahma?


Further, we ask him- "Where have the Jivas and Ajiva (i.e. living and non-living substances) of the universe gone on complete destruction?' Then he says- 'Among the Jivas those who were the devotees, they got united with Brahma and the rest got united with Maya'. Now, we ask him- 'Does Maya remain separate from Brahma or later on it gets unified with him? If it remains separate, then Maya is also proved to be eternal just like Brahma, then Brahma did not remain an Addvait (single undivided) Brahma. And if Maya gets unified with Brahma then the Jivas who intermixed with Maya, they also got intermixed with Brahma along with Maya; then it is established that at the time of total destruction all Jivas got inter-mixed with Parma Brahma; why should then the Jivas make effort for liberation (Moksha)?'


'Further, the Jivas who were united with Maya, will the same Jivas come back into the universe on recreation of the universe or because these were united with Brahma so will the new Jivas be created? If the same Jivas will come back then

it appears that those Jivas remain separate-separate; why do you call them united? And if the new Jivas are created then the Jiva's existence remains for a very short duration only; why should then the Jivas make effort for getting liberated?'


Then he says- 'Only the earth etc. (inanimate objects) get united with Maya;' then we ask whether Maya is an immaterial animate object or a material inanimate object? If it is an immaterial animate object then how would the material in animate object get united with the immaterial one? And if it is a material in animate object then does it get united with Brahma or not? If it gets united with Brahma then due to this union Brahma would also got intermixed with the material inanimate object. And if it does not intermix then the undividedness (monotheism) did not remain intact. And if you say- "All these become immaterial inanimate", then the soul and the body etc. proved to have become one, and this is what a mundane being believes (in the oneness of the soul and the body); why to call him an ignorant self?


Further, we ask- 'On total destruction of the universe., Mahesh is also destroyed or not?' If he is destroyed then his destruction takes place along with that of universe or some-what earlier or later. If Mahesh and the universe get destroyed simultaneously then how could he destroy the universe who himself gets destroyed simultaneously. If the destruction takes place somewhat earlier and later then where did Mahesh reside after distrusting the universe, because he himself was a part of the universe. Thus, believing Mahesh to be the destroyer of universe is proved impossible.


In this way, believing Brahma, Vishnu, Mahesh respectively as to be the creator, protector and destroyer of the universe is proved to be wrong by the logic given above and by various other reasons; hence. believe the universe as eternal uncreated and endless.


The Vindication of the Eternity & Infinity of the Universe


In this universe whatever Jivas etc. substances are, they all are separate-separate and eternal and their states (modes) always continue changing; from this point of view they are said to be getting created and destroyed. And whatever heaven, hell, islands, etc. are there, they too are existing in the same form as they are from the beginningless time and will remain always existing in the same form infinitely.


Perhaps you may ask- 'How would such shapes, etc. be formed without making them? Therefore, the various shapes, etc. which are found existing, are there only after being created?' This is not so.  How could any logic be advanced about the substances which are found existing from the beginningless time? The way in which you believe Parma Brahma's nature as to be beginningless and endless, so similarly the Jivas etc. and heaven, etc. are believed to be eternal and uncreated. If you ask- "How the Jivas etc. and heaven, etc. came into being?" Our rejoinder is- "How Parma Brahma came into being?" You might ask- 'Who made all these like this?' We will ask- 'Who created Parma Brahma like this?' You may say- "Parma Brahma is self-established"; we will say- "The Jivas etc. and the heaven, etc. are self- established".  You will say- "How is the parity between these and Parma Brahma possible?" Then you should spell out the flaw or fault in the possibility of their existence. We have already pointed out many flaws and faults in the belief that the universe is newly created and gets destroyed. Now you tell us what is the fault in believing the universe beginningless and endless.


You believe in the existence of Parma Brahma, but no such separate entity is there. There are Jivas in this world; they attain the state of passionlessness and omniscience by acquiring the right path of liberation through right knowledge.


Further, he argues- "You are maintaining that the Jivas are separate-separate and eternal, but after their attaining liberation they become formless, how is then their remaining separate-separate possible there?


Answer: After attaining liberation, they are seen by omniscients or not? If they are seen, some configuration of them would also be visible. What did the omniscient see without seeing the form? And if they are not visible then either the substance itself is not there or the omniscient is not there! Hence from the viewpoint of knowing through material senses they have no form; from this angle they, the liberated souls, are formless. But because they are known by omniscients, so they have an immaterial form. When their immaterial form is established then what is wrong in accepting them separate-separate? And if you say that they are one from one class point of view, then we also believe like that. For example, each grain of wheat is separate- separate but their class is one; in this way, if they (the liberated souls) are believed to be one then their is no fault.


Thus on the basis of right faith, all substances in the universe are to be believed to be uncreated, separate- separate and eternal. If someone under fallacy does not ascertain the truth or falsehood then it is up to him; he will bear the fruit of his own belief.


Negation of Hereditary Succession from Brahma


And they (the monists) maintain that the hereditary succession through son, grandson, etc. is from Brahma and they uphold that amongst the races there exists mutual sexual relationship between demons, humans, gods and animals. There they believe that birth of son - daughter from any mother and any father such as human from god, god from human and human from animals, etc. takes place; how is this possible?


Further, they say that birth takes place through mental imagination, inhaling air and smelling semen, etc. All this clearly appears to be wrong. If this be true then how could the rule of hereditary succession of son, grandson, etc. prevail? And they further believe that the big noble saints are born from different mothers and different fathers, but how would the noble persons take birth from the unchaste mothers and fathers? This is an abuse in the world; why then they ascribe nobility to those persons?


Further, they ascribe the birth of Ganesha etc. to have taken place from filth, etc. and say that someone's limbs are found joined with someone other's limbs. All this is clearly contradictory and false.


X-ray of Incarnation Theory


Further, they say that there have been 24 incarnations of the God.

(1. Sanat Kumar, 2. Shookaravatar, 3. Devarshi Narad, 4. Nar-Narayana, 5. Kapil, 6. Dattatraya, 7. Yajna Purush, 8. Rishabha avatar, 9. Part avatar, 10. Matsya, 11. Kachchhapa, 12. Dhanvantari, 13.  Mohini, 14. Nrisinghavatar, 15. Vaman, 16. Parasuram, 17. Vyas, 18. Hansa, 19. Ram avatar, 20. Krishna avatar, 21. Haya Greeva, 22 . Hari, 23. Buddha and 24. Kalki; these are believed to be the 24 Avatars (incarnations of God). of the God. Some of these Avatars are said to be complete incarnations and some others incomplete incarnations. When complete incarnations took place, then Brahma remained pervasive elsewhere or not?  If so, then why call these incarnations as complete? If it did not remain pervasive then Brahma remained only of this much extent.  And when incomplete incarnations took place then what extra event happened, since Brahma's part is found present all everywhere?  Moreover, this act was insignificant; why then Brahma himself took the incarnation. This shows that without taking the incarnation Brahma did not possess the power of doing that act; why should one make more effort when the same act can be accomplished by small effort there?


And in these Avatars the Matsya (Fish) Kachchhapa (Tortoise) etc., incarnations are said to have taken place; so, for minor acts, why did he incarnate in the form of inferior beasts? And for protecting Prahlad he incarnated in the form of Nrisingh. But why did he allow Harinankush to act that way and cause sorrow to his devotee for such a long period? And what for did he assume such a form? Further, they uphold that the King Nabhi was blessed with Vrashabha-Avatara, and he (Brahma) incarnated for blessing King Nabhi with son's pleasure. Why did he observe severe austerities in that incarnation?  There was nothing to be accomplished by him. You might say that he acted so just to show to the world; then he showed some incarnations with the austerities and some incarnations with enjoyment, etc. In this condition, to which incarnation the world will believe god?


Further, he says that there had been a king named Arihanta who discovered the Jaina-faith by accepting the religion of Vrishabha Avatar. Then we say to him that in Jaina tradition not only one Arihanta had been there but any man who on acquiring omniscience becomes adorable, his name is called `Arhat'.


And they (the monists) regard Ram & Krishna, these two in- carnations, as to be the main incarnations, so what did Ram avatar do? He moaned for Sita (his queen), fought with Ravana and killed him and then ruled. And in Krishna avatar, first he became a cow-keeper and indulged in many contemptible gestures and bodily actions for fascinating other cow-keepers-wives and became a king after killing Jarasindhu etc. So what is achieved by such acts?


Moreover, they mention that Ram and Krishna had one identity. But where did they live during such a long gap of time? If they lived in Brahma, then did they remain separate or united? If they remained separate then it appears that they live separate from Brahma. And if they remained united then how do you say that Ram himself became Krishna, Sita herself became Rukmani?


And in Ram avatar, they lay emphasis on Sita (Ram's wife) and in Krishna avatar they say that Sita is born as Rukmani (Krishna's wife) but they do not regard her as superior lady and instead regard Raadhika Kumari as superior lady. When asked, then they say- 'Raadhika was a devotee of Krishna, but how is it justified to regard a maid servant superior to one's own wife. And Krishna is said to have indulged in all sorts of actions in the form of illegal relationship with other's wives including Raadhika. How could this be called adoration?  Such acts are certainly highly condemnable.  And he treated Raadha as superior to Rukmani; this means that he might have established illegal relations with other's wives knowing this as a good thing. Moreover, he did not remain captivated in one Raadha lady only but also got involved with  Gopika Kubja (Bhagwat - skandh-10, chapter 48,1-11).  etc., other ladies.  Thus, this incarnation was Perhaps meant for all such acts only.


Further they say- `Lakshmi is his (Brahma's) wife and the wealth, etc. is called Lakshmi'. But as the stones, dust, etc. are found in the earth, etc., similarly, gems, gold, etc. wealth are also found; who else is then this Lakshmi whose husband is Narayana?  And they say that Sita etc. are the form (nature) of Maya (illusion). And when they (those Ram, Krishna incarnations) got captivated in them then how did they not got captivated in Maya? How long! how more to describe; whatever they say all that is found contradictory. But the Jivas feel gratification in the fables of sensual pleasures, etc.,that is why narration of the same is pleasing to them.


Such Avatars (incarnations) are said to be the form of Brahma.  And many other things also they describe to be the form of Brahma.  One is Mahadeva whom they believe Brahma- swaroopa. They call him a recluse (yogi), what for did he accept the yoga (penance's)? And he uses skin of deer and smears the body with ashes. What purpose is served by this? And he wears the garland of the trunks of human heads but even touching of bone is contemptible. Then why does he put it round his neck? He wears snakes, etc. like a garland but what is the greatness in this act? He eats susallow-wort and thoru-apple; so what benefit flows out of it? He keeps the trident, so whose fear he has? And he keeps Parvati with him but being an ascetic he keeps woman, so why did he indulge in such contrariety? If he was so passionate, he should have remained at home. And he indulged in various types of contrary activities; no purpose seems to be served by these acts. All these actions seems to be that of a mad-man. Such a person is said to be the personification of Brahma.


And sometimes they call Krishna to be the attendant of him (Mahadava) and some other times call him to be the attendant of Krishna. Sometimes they call both to be one and the same. All seems to be baseless.


Further, they call the Sun etc. as the personification of Brahma.  And they put up Vishnu as saying - "Gold in metals, kalpa-vraksha in trees, lie in gambling etc. -I am found in all these". All this is irrational. One who is described great by mundane beings from a particular aspect, the same is said to be the personification of Brahma. But if Brahma is omnipresent then why is such specific personification imagined? And if Brahma is found in Sun, gold, etc., then the sun gives light, gold is wealth; due to these qualities you consider these things as parts of Brahma. If this is so then treat the lamp also which gives light like Sun; and silver- iron, etc. also which are wealth like gold, -such qualities

are found in other substances also; so this way accept them also as parts of Brahma.  You may treat them big or small Brahma but their class is one. This shows that for proving false greatness they put up different illogical arguments.


Further, they describe Jwalamalini etc., many goddesses as the personification of Maya (illusion) and regard them as adorable by creating sin of injury (sacrifice) etc., but Maya is censurable; how is its worshipping possible? And how could the act of committing injury be good? And they regard cows, snakes, etc. animals as adorable, which eat non-eatables, etc. And they describe fire, air, water, etc., venerable by regarding them as gods and also describe trees, etc. as venerable by supporting with false reasoning.


What more to say? All objects with a masculine name are imagined to be Brahma personified and all objects with a feminine name are treated as Maya personified and regard all those adorable.  They do not apply their mind as to what will come out of their adoration. They misguide the world by ascribing false causes of temporal gains and purposes in these objects.


Further, they say that the creator Brahma makes the body and the god of death (called Yama) kills, and at the time of death the messengers of Yama come to take him; after death lot of time is spent in the way, there they prepare the balance account of Punya (virtue) and Papa (vice) and there they give him punishment, etc., but all this is fictitious, false conjecture. At each unit of time, i.e., every moment, infinite Jivas take birth and die; how is such simultaneous happening possible? And also there appears to be no reason for this belief.


They further say that the dead person is benefited by performing Shraaddh etc. after his death, but in the alive state none is seen becoming happy-unhappy by other's pious- impious acts; how would then he become happy-unhappy after death? This illogic is put up for the purpose of fulfilling one's greed by befouling people.


Ant, Moth, Lion, etc. Jivas also take birth and die. All these are regarded to be Jivas of destruction. But the birth and death of these animals too are seen like that of human beings, etc., what is the gain in misconjecturing? Further, they narrate the fables in the Shastras (scriptures), but on thinking over them they are found to be contradictory.


Further, they regard Yajna (sacrificial-oblation-ceremony) as a religious activity; there they sacrifice (burn) the big animals into the fire. They indulge in the sinful act of producing lot of fire, etc. and in that a lot of Jivas die; but in their own scripture and in the world also killing of Jivas is forbidden. But they are so cruel that they do not bother at all and say that Yagyarth pashva srishta": the beast are created for sacrifice in Yajna only; there is no sin in killing them"


Further, for the sake of accomplishing their greed, they misguide the kings, etc. by asserting that the performance of Yajna would result in heavy rains and destruction of enemy, etc. This is as contradictory as saying that by devouring poison people will become alive. Similarly, advocating the act of killing to be religion and the means of fulfillment of desire, is clearly contradictory. But the Jivas whose sacrificing is advocated do not possess much power and no body feels afflicted by their killing. It would have been befitting if the sacrificing of some powerful and beloved one would have been approbated. But there is no fear of sin, that is why the wicked people are engaged in doing ill of the self as well as of others by killing the weaker beings for the sake of fulfillment of their greed.


A Discussion on Yoga Theory


Further they, the monists, say that the path of salvation is achievable by two streams Bhakti Yoga (adoration process) and Jnan Yoga (knowledge process).


Analysis of Bhakti-Yoga: Now the characteristics of salvation-path through Bhakti-Yoga (adoration process) are being described:-


They describe the adoration (Bhakti) as of two kinds:- Nirguna (undivided & formless) and Saguna (with forms & qualities).


Adoration of an absolute & undivided God (Parma-Brahma) is called Nirguna-Bhakti and same is explained as under:-


"Thou art formless, faultless, not knowable by mind and speech (words), limitless, ubiquitous, one, savior of all, exonerater of sinners, creator and destroyer of all". They thus invocate by these and other such qualities. Out of these, many of the qualities such as formless, etc. are of non-existence form; by believing them in totally to be so, the non-existence of God only is established, because how can there be any substance without any form? And many of the qualities like ubiquitous, etc., are impossible and have already been proved so earlier.


Further, they say that "from Jiva point of view I am your devotee, from scripture point of view I am your part, and from Tattva (reality) point of view You and I are one"; all these three concepts are mere fallacies.  This devotee himself is an animateentity or is an in animate object? If it is animate then is this animation (sentience) of Brahma or of his own? If it of Brahma then the belief that "I am devotee" is possible in the consciousness only.  Therefore, conscious- ness is proved to be the nature of Brahma and the Swabhava (intrinsic nature) and Swabhavi (substance possessing that nature) have an indivisible relationship (Tadatmya Sambandha). How can then there be the relationship of devotee and lord between them?  The relationship of devotee and Lord is possible only between two separate substances. And if this consciousness is of his own then he is proved to be a separate entity as the master of his own consciousness.


Then "I am part" and "You and I are one" this statement is false.  And if the devotee is an inanimate object then the presence of sense in an inanimate object is impossible; how could such sense be there?  Therefore, "I am devotee" this statement is possible only when two, substances are separate entities. And "I am your part" this statement is also not maintainable because saying 'You' and 'I' is possible only when there are two separate substances but how could the 'part' and the 'whole' be separate entities? The 'whole entity is not separate from its parts because the mass of parts itself is the whole entity.  And "You and I are one" this statement itself is contradictory.  How is it possible to believe mineness and separateness in one and the same substance? Therefore, one should ascertain the truth by giving up fallacy.


And many of them recite the name only. How would simply reciting the name be fruitful without ascertaining the nature of the person whose name is being recited? If you will say that the grandeur is in the name only, then our question is that if the same name of a wicked person is kept as that of the name of the God then in reciting the name of both, there would be commonness of fruit. How could this be possible? Therefore, only after ascertaining the nature and characteristics of the adorable, one should adore him. Thus, the differentia of Nirguna-Bhakti has been explained.


And adoration of God by describing his deeds generated under passions of lust, anger, etc., is called Saguna-Bhakti, (adoration of forms & qualities). In Saguna-Bhakti, the description of God -Thakur and Goddess-Thakurani is done on the same lines as that of Hero-Heroine with worldly adornment. There they describe all kinds of behavior pertaining to relationship with one's own wife as well as with other's wife under circumstances of attachment and detachment. Further, they associate with God the acts like stealing of cloths of ladies, taking bath, looting of curd, touching the feet of ladies, dancing before ladies, etc., in performing of which even an ordinary person would feel ashamed. Such acts are possible only under intense desire of sex.


Further, He is said to have fought the wars, etc. but these

are acts of anger. He is said to have made efforts for showing his importance; but those are the acts of pride. Indulgence in the acts of duplicity is also associated with God's name but those are the acts of deceit. He is said to have made efforts for gaining the objects of senses. But these are the acts of greed. He is said to have indulged in sportive acts, but those are the acts of laughter, etc. Hence, such kinds of acts are possible only under the influence of anger, etc.


In this way, by attributing the acts of sex, anger, etc. to God, they say that they are praying, but which acts would then be called censurable if acts of sex, anger, etc. are stated to be adorable?  Adoring of God by ascribing to him such acts which are censured in world as well as in scripture is an act like that of a sycophant. Now our question is- `Will you regard him gentle or wicked who without naming the person starts describing the acts that someone has done such and such acts? If you will regard him gentle then the wicked people are proved gentle; who else would then remain wicked? And if you will regard him wicked then who so ever does such acts, he is wicked. Justice should be done without prejudice. If you will say prejudicially that describing the Thakur with such traits is also an invocation, then we ask you "Why did Thakur indulge in such acts? What did he accomplish by indulging in such censurable acts? If you say that for establishing the tradition he did so, then our question is- 'What benefit did he and others get in establishing such a tradition of contemptible acts of enjoying other's wife, etc.? Therefore, indulgement of Thakur God in such acts is not possible. And if Thakur did not indulge in such acts and you yourself attributed such traits to him, then you have blamed a person without blemish. Therefore, such a description is not adoration but censure.


Moreover, while invocating, one gets the same type of ideas and harbors affection in the same qualities which are being described.  So, while describing the acts of sex, anger, etc. one would also develop the feelings of sex, anger etc., or will become interested in such passions. But such thoughts and feelings are not praise-worthy. If you will say- "The devotees do not get involved in such feelings, then we will ask you as to how one would describe without being affected by such ideas? How could one adore without the feelings of affection?  If these thoughts and feelings are supposed to be good then why celibacy and forbearance, etc. are said to be beneficial?  Because, these are contradictory to each other.


Moreover, for the purpose of doing Saguna-Bhakti, they adorn the idols of Ram -Krishna, etc., with curvature accompanied by woman, etc. Merely on seeing them passionate feelings of sex, anger, etc. arise. And they worship Mahadeva in the form of phallus. See the Mockery! By taking the name of which one feels ashamed, which the world keeps covered, they adore the same in an idol form. Did he not have other limbs? But excessive mockery is exhibited only by doing so.


Further, for the purpose of Saguna-Bhakti, they hoard different kinds of sensual objects. In the name of God (Thakur) they themselves enjoy the objects. They prepare the food, etc. for offering to God (Thakur), but they themselves eat it by imagining it to be gift of God. Here we ask- "Perhaps Thakur would be suffering from hunger and thirst, if not so, then how such imagination is possible? "And when he would be suffering from hunger, etc., then he (the God) being restless would become unhappy; how will then he remove sorrow of others? And you have offered the food, etc. material to God for his use; therefore, it could be called a gift of God only when Thakur himself gives it. But taking food, etc. by one's own hand cannot be called God's gift. For example, if someone gives a present to the king and then the king gives him reward then its acceptance is commendable but if someone gives a present to the king and without king's saying anything; one himself takes back the present by his own hands saying that the king has given me the gift, then this is proved to be a mockery. Similarly, here in the case of God, all this cannot be called adoration, it is mere mockery.


Further, Thakur and you are two or one? If Thakur and you are separate then the present that you have offered should be accepted back only if Thakur gives it to you, but why do you take on your own?  And if you will say that because God (Thakur) is in idol form, there-fore, I myself make the imagination; then, this means that you yourself did the work which was to be done by Thakur, then you yourself became Thakur. And if Thakur and you are one, then presenting and taking back in the form of gift is false and imaginary. This behavior is not possible when both are one. Therefore, this shows that food greedy persons themselves indulge in such imagination.


Further, they indulge in the arrangement of activities like dancing, singing and accumulating such sensual objects which are agreeable to all mundane beings in different seasons of winter, summer, autumn, etc. for pleasing God (Thakur ji). Although they show that they are doing all this for pleasing Thakur ji but in reality they cherish the objects of senses for themselves. This shows that all such arrangement is done by the sensualist Jivas. And by mere imagination they celebrate birthday, marriage, etc. and show acts of sleeping, awakening, etc. (of Thakur ji). This, in reality, is similar to the game of dolls which girls arrange for their amusement. So, this has nothing to do with spirituality. Moreover, they dramatize the various actions of childhood of God and through it they cherish their sensual urges and say that this also is an adoration. What more to say, such many contrarieties are

found in Saguna-Bhakti.


In this way, both these types of adoration, though propagated as path of salvation, are proved to be false.


Analysis of Jnana-Yoga Theory


Now the nature of the Salvation-path as described through Jnana-yoga (knowledge-means) by different sects is being explained:-


There, the believers of this theory regard knowing of an absolute ubiquitous Para-Brahma (Supreme God) as Jnana (knowledge); so, its falsehood has already been explained earlier.


Believing oneself totally pure and of the nature of God and knowing sex, anger, etc. and bodily existence, etc. as delusion, is regarded as Jnana (knowledge). So, this too is fallacy; if the self (soul) is, pure then why do you endeavor for salvation? When himself is pure Brahma then what remains to be achieved? And the sex, anger, etc. are clearly seen arising to the self and the association of the body, etc. is also seen; hence, when their dissociation will take place at its proper time, how then their association in the present state of existence is treated as delusion?


They further say that "Making effort for Moksha (final release) is also delusion. As the rope is a rope only, knowing it a snake was delusion, on removal of delusion it is a rope only.  Similarly, one is Brahma himself, knowing (or believing) oneself impure was the delusion, when this delusion ends, the self remains Brahma only".  All this statement is false. If the self is pure and one knows it to be impure then it is delusion; but the self is in impure state due to sex, anger, etc. How would then believing impure as impure be called delusion? Rather knowing pure would be delusion. Therefore, what is gained by believing oneself as pure Brahma due to false delusion?


And if you will say that "These sex, anger, etc. impure dispositions are the traits of mind and Brahma is separate". then we ask you- "Whether the mind is your own functionary or not?" If it is, then the impure dispositions of sex, anger, etc. are also your own. And if those are not yours then tell us- 'Whether you are of sentience nature or of material (insentience) nature?' If you are of sentience nature then the knowledge in you is seen functioning through the mind and the senses only. If anybody can establish the knowledge functioning without these (mind and senses) then that can be accepted to be your separate nature, but it is not discernible. Moreover, the word Mana (mind) is derived from the root Mana-Jnan (in grammar), i.e., Mana means 'To know', so the mind (mana) is of the knowledge form, so tell us whose is this knowledge?  But knowledge does not appear to be separate from you. And if you are a material (insentient) object then without knowledge how do you think of the nature of self ? This does not seem to be possible.  And you say that Brahma is separate", so whether you yourself are that separate Brahma or someone else is?  If you yourself are, then your knowledge which believes that "I am Brahma", is the function of the mind only, it is not separate from the mind and believing I-ness i.e., belief of self is found in oneself only.  In a separate entity, one cannot develop the feeling of oneness. If Brahma is separate from the mind, then why does the knowledge of mind-form establish oneness in Brahma? And if Brahma is an entity separate from you then why do you believe oneness with Brahma?  Hence, give up your fallacy and know that as the touch, etc. senses are the nature of the body so those are lifeless (insentient) but the knowledge which is caused through them is the nature of the soul. Similarly, the mind also is a heap of subtle particles of matter and is a Part of the body only. The knowing activity and the feeling of sex, anger, etc. which are generated through it are all nature (function) of the soul.


The specific point to be noted here is that the act of knowing is one's own nature and the feeling of sex, anger, etc. are the perverse (impure) dispositions (of the self); owing to them, the soul is in impure state. When in due course of time, the sex, anger, etc. (impure dispositions) will vanish and the dependence of knowing act on mind and senses will end then on manifestation of omniscience-nature of soul, the soul will become pure.


Similarly, know about the intellect, egotism, etc. also, because the mind and the intellect, etc. are synonyms and the egotism, etc. are also the perverse impure dispositions like sex, anger, etc.; knowing these separate from the self is a fallacy. Rather, knowing these as one's own dispositions, it is desirable to make effort for uprooting these impure dispositions. Those Jivas who are unable to uproot them and want to establish their superiority, behave in an unrestrained manner by not accepting these impure dispositions to be of the self. Rather, they remain engaged in sensual objects and acts of injury, etc., by intensifying the feelings of sex, anger, etc.


Moreover, giving up of egotism, etc., is also not correctly under-stood by them. Believing all as Par-Brahma; not establishing I-ness in any object and dispositions, is regarded by them as giving up of egotism. But this is a fallacy.  Because, is he himself a separate entity or not?' If he is a separate entity then how not to believe I-ness in the self.  If the self is not an entity then who believes everything to be Brahma? Therefore, uprooting egotism consists in giving up the sense of I-ness and doing in the body, etc. which are non-self (foreign) objects. But having I-ness feeling in the self (soul) is not wrong.


Treating all equal, not differentiating in objects of different nature, is stated to be uprooting of attachment- aversion (Raag-Dwesh). This (belief) also is wrong because all kinds of substances are not of similar nature. Some substances are Chetan (sentient) and some substances are Achetan (insentient), each is different from the other; how can all those be believed to be similar? Therefore, not believing the non-self objects agreeable-disagreeable is relinquishing of Raag-Dwesh; however, there is nothing wrong in knowing the details of various substances.


In the same way, they imagine contrarily other dispositions (modes) pertaining to salvation-path and due to such false imagination they indulge in adultery, eat the non-eatables, do not differentiate between various castes, etc.; adopt low conduct which is perverse conduct. When someone questions then they say- "This is the function of the body or things change according to destiny or things happen as per God's desire; we should not ramble.


See the lie! The one himself knowingly indulges in various aforesaid activities and states it as to be the function of the body. He himself knowingly makes efforts for the said acts and puts the blame on providence. Further, he willfully indulges in passionate acts and acclaims it to be the wish of God.  He involves himself in rambling, yet absolves himself from its responsibility. Because he wants to enjoy sensual pleasures under the shelter of religion. So, he puts forward such false logic. If he does not involve himself interestedly in such acts then we will not hold him responsible for the same. For example, suppose someone is sitting in meditation posture and someone else covers him by cloth, there, if the meditator does not entertain any feeling of happiness, then it is true that there is no involvement on his part. But, if he accepts the cloth and wears it and feels happy by ending his suffering from cold, etc., then how is it possible that this is not treated as his own act? And the acts of indulging in adultery, eating the non-eatables, etc. cannot take place without one's own thoughts and desire. How can this be accepted as non-involvement by him? Therefore, only where the desire of sex, anger, etc. (impure dispositions) have ended, there only, one's involvement in any kind of activities is not maintainable. And if one cannot get rid of the passions of sex, anger, etc., then one should act in a manner by which these passions can be minimized. It is not desirable to increase them by behaving unrestrainedly.


Refutation of being called Enlightened by Breath-control


And many Jivas consider themselves enlightened by practicing

breath-control. When the air exhales out from the Ida, Pingla, Sushumna forms of the nose-doors, there, they, through the difference of colors, etc., imagine the air itself as to be the form of earthen element, etc. By way of practicing through that technique, one attains some knowledge of instrumental causes, so they foretell the world about the good or bad events and they are called learned; but this is nothing but a worldly act only and has no relation with the salvation-path. What is achieved by foretelling the good or bad events to Jivas causing them to enhance their attachment- aversion feelings and developing one's own pride & greed, etc. passions?


Further, he practices the Pranayam etc. yoga practice (physical exercises) and claims to have taken Samadhi by stopping breathing.  This act of yoga practice by controlling air is just like that of an acrobat who, through constant practice, performs various actions by hands, etc. The hands and breath are the limbs of the body only; how would the self-benediction be possible by controlling these limbs?


Further, you may say that the rambling state of mind stops, happiness arises and one is not overpowered by death. So, all this is false. As in sleep, the outward actions of sentience stop, similarly, in breath-control also the outward activity

of the sentience stops.  There, he has controlled the mind but the carnal desire in not destroyed, that is why the rambling state of mind cannot be said to have stopped and without sentience who experiences the happiness?  Therefore, the happiness cannot be said to have arisen.  Moreover, many practitioners of this technique have been there in this field but none of them is seen immortal.  By setting fire, they are also seen dying.  Hence, saying that they are not under the control of the God of death, is mere false imagination.


     And in the process of devotion, where some conscious awareness remains and then he hears some word, he calls it to be the Anhad-Naad (unique pleasure).  So, as one feels pleasure by listening to the sound of lyre (a stringed musical instrument) etc., similarly, he feels pleasure by listening to that Anhad-Naad.  So, here the sensuality only is fostered; no spiritual purpose is served.  And by imagining the word Soaham (that I am) in the process of inhaling and exhaling air, he calls it to be Ajapa- Jaap (silent utterance of deity's name without rosary). As in the sound of partridge, he imagines the word Too-hi (you yourself, are that), but the partridge does not intentionally make such sound for conveying any meanings; similarly, no intention could be imposed on the process of controlled breath for producing the word Soaham.  It is mere imagination.  Nothing is achieved by mere chanting and listening to words.  Only by grasping the meaning of the word, some achievement is possible.


     The meaning of the word Soaham is "I am that".  Here one should know who is "That" with whom he is comparing the self. He should ascertain "That" because the word "That" and the word "Who" are always inter-related terms.  Therefore, the word Soaham could be used after ascertaining the substance and then developing the feeling of `I-ness' in that substance.  There also if he experiences the `self' to be the self only then the use of the word Soaham is not possible. Saying the word Soaham is possible only when some other object is to be shown as the self.  For example, some person knows himself as the `self'; why would then he think so "I am the same".  Some other Jiva who is not able to identify himself and does not know the nature of the self, then he is sermonized that the one who possesses so and so qualities, the same I am.  Similarly, understand here also.


     Further, by concentrating on forehead, eyebrows and tip of the nose, one maintains that he meditated on Trikuti etc. and thus claims to have achieved Parmarth (spiritual excellence). There, he saw the material thing by turning the pupil of the eye; what is the spiritual achievement in that? And if through such means someone acquires somewhat knowledge of the past and future, etc., gains the power of words and the power of fast movement on the earth on the earth and in the sky, etc. and gains the power of restoration of health, etc. in the body, all these are only wordily achievements. The celestial beings are naturally found possessed with such powers.  By such powers no spiritual benefit is obtainable. Real spiritual benefit is obtained by uprooting carnal desires; whereas these powers are the means are not at all really beneficial to the self.  In the achievement of these, a lot of affliction is caused till death and no benefaction of the self is attained.  Hence, the spiritual persons do not unnecessarily entangle themselves in such activities; only the passionate people indulge in such acts.


     Further, they assert that some people have attained liberation with difficulty through the observance of many austerities, etc., and on the other hand, some people are said to have attained liberation easily.  Uddhava etc. who were stated to be great devotees were advised to undergo severe austerities and while the prostitutes, etc. are said to have achieved salvation by mere chanting of God's name. Thus, there is no consistency at all.


     In this way, they interpret the liberation-path contrarily.


Analysis of Liberation-path imagined by Other Sects


     Further, they (the monists) describe the nature of Moksha (liberation) also wrongly and of various types:-


     The one type of Moksha (liberation) is this "In the abode of liberation (Vaikuntha- dham), the Thakur along with Thakurani enjoys different sensual pleasures.  If one reaches there and remains engrossed in their service, so this his Moksha.  But this is contradictory.  Firstly, the Thakur himself is said to be indulging in sensual pleasures like other wordily persons.  So, the Thakur also is portrayed like a king.  Moreover, He has to be attainted by others which shows the dependence of Thakur.  And if the devotee even after Moksha remains a servant then it is just like being servant.  How would there he be happy on being dependant? Hence, this type of Moksha is also not possible.


     Another type of Moksha is stated thus: "In Moksha the self becomes similar to God".  So, this too is wrong.  If the other Jivas are also found separately similar to God then there would be many Gods.  Who would then be the creator and destroyer of the universe?  If all are accepted to be Gods then due to rise of different desires, contradiction will arise amongst them.  And if only one God is there then equality is not proved; one who has some deficiency will remain restless for attaining higher status from lower status; how will then he be happy?  As the difference between a small king and a big king is found in the world, so similarly, the difference between a small God and a big God would be found in the liberated state also, but this is not possible.


     Yet, another type of Moksha is described thus: "In Vaikuntha (liberated state) there is a light (Jyoti) similar to the flame of a lamp; there in that light, gets united. So, this concept, too, is wrong.  The light of the lamp is of material and inanimate form; how is such kind of light possible there?  And on union of one light with the other light, whether this light (Jyoti) exists or gets destroyed? If it remains existing then the light (Jyoti) will go on increasing then there will be decrease-increase in the light (Jyoti) and if it gets destroyed then how can such an act be believed to be worth achieving due to which our own existence gets destroyed?  Therefore, this concept also is not possible.


One other form of Moksha is this: " The soul is Brahma only; on destruction of Maya's (illusion) cover, liberation gets manifested".  So, this concept also is wrong.  When he was under the cover of Maya, then was he one with Brahma or separate from him? If he was one then Brahma himself became Maya (illusion) and if he was separate then on destruction of Maya he gets united with Brahma; thereafter, his separate existence remains or not?  If it remains then the omniscient would definitely be knowing his existence to be separate; then you should say them to have got united due to their meeting together, but from spiritual or realistic point of view they are not united.  And if his existence is lost then who would like to get his own existence destroyed? Therefore, this concept too is not maintainable.


Yet, another kind of Moksha is advocated by many people thus: "On destruction of intellect, etc. Moksha is attained".  It means the knowledge did not remain dependent on mind and senses, etc., which are the limbs of the body.  This statement is possible on eradication of sex, anger, etc., impure dispositions and if the sentience is also believed to have ended there then how can the inanimate condition like stones, etc., be accepted as beneficial?  Moreover, by adopting good means, the knowledge increases, then on adopting good means, the knowledge increases, then on adopting much better means how could the destruction of the act of knowledge be acceptable?  And in the universe, the greatness of materialism (inanimation) is not more than the greatness of the consciousness.


In this way, they (the monists) describe Moksha (liberated state) in various ways by imagination.  But they do not know the reality; rather misconjecturing the mundane state as the liberated state, they prate according to their will.  Thus, in Vedanta (monistic theory), and other sects, the form of Moksha is described perversely.


A Discussion about Mohammedanism


And in Mohammedanism also, false interpretations are found in the aforesaid manner.  As they, the monists, believe Brahma to be an ubiquitous, one faultless and the creator and destroyer of all, similarly, these (Mohammedan) believe Khuda God.  And as they (the monists) believe the incarnations of God, similarly these (Mohammedan) believe Paigamberas (prophets).  As, they (the monists) assert that Brahma takes an account of Punya- Papa (virtues and vices) of Jivas and accordingly gives punishment, etc., similarly, these (Mohammedans) attribute these deeds to Khuda.  And as these (monists) worship cow, etc., similarly, those (Mohammedans) pay same regard to pig, etc.  All these are the animals (of Tiryanch state of existence).  And as they (the monists) at some place foster kindness (Ahimsa) and at other place foster injury (Hinsa), similarly, these (Mohammedans) also at one place foster kindness and at other place foster killing.  And as they (the monists) at some place advocate observing of penance and at some other place indulgence in sensual objects, in the same way these (Mohammedans) also foster different contrary things at different places.  And as they somewhere prohibit use of meat-eating, alcohol-drinking, preying, etc., and at some other place support its its use by noble persons, similarly, these also support at different places prohibition and use of these things.  Thus, in many ways, the parity in the views of monists and Mohammedans is found.  Although the names, etc., are different-different, nevertheless, the harmony is found in their concepts and purposes.


Moreover, there is found similarly in their fundamental belief of Ishwar (God-Brahma) and Khuda God but in the details of their belief, various differences are found. These Mohammedans lay even greater emphasis on contrary acts of fostering of sensual desires, acts of injury, etc. and assert many things clearly against logic and reasoning as compared to monists.


Hence, the Mohammedanism is to be known as highly perverse and contradictory.


Thus, the falsehood of all those schools of faiths, which are abundantly followed in this region and time, has been established.


Someone may argue here "If these various faiths are false then why do the great kings and great learned persons follow them?"


Answer: The Jivas are found having false longing from the times immemorial and in these faiths the misbelief alone is fostered.  And the desire of indulging in the acts of sensuality exists in all the Jivas; so in these sects, the acts of carnal desires only are fostered.  And the purpose of carnal desires of the kings and learned persons is supported in such faiths.  And the acts which a Jiva wants to do even by ignoring public slander and knowing them vicious, and advocating indulgence in such religion?  Therefore, these religions are followed in great measure.


And perhaps you might say that in these religions detachment (renunciation), kindness, etc., virtues are also preached. But as a false coin is not accepted in circulation without giving a coating of superior metal, similarly, the false statement does not become acceptable without mixing the truth, but for the purpose of general benefit, the carnal desires only have been fostered.  As in Geeta (the sacred book of Hindus monists) the purpose of waging war is supported under the garb of religion; in Vedanta the unrestrained behavior is supported by describing the self to be pure (in the present state also); similarly, one should know at other places.  Moreover, the present time is very bad, so in this era, particularly, the worthless religions only prosper.


See the tragedy! In the present time, the Mohammedans have increased in power and in number and the Hindus have decreased; amongst Hindus also others have increased and the Jains have decreased.  So, this is the effect of bad time.


Examining the Elements Propounded in Other Sects


Many schools of thoughts have emerged on the basis of misconjectures under the power of erudition.  The main elements of philosophy discussed therein are being examined here:-


 The Sankhya - faith


In Sankhya faith, 25 Tattvas (elements) are stated,


(Prkritmhansttahankarstsmad ganrshch shodshak  

Tsmadpi shodshkatpanshya panchbhootani

                            Sankhya ka. 12)


amongst which the basis ones are three Satva (virtue), Rajah (passions) and Tama (ignorance).  The Satva quality causes happiness, the Rajah quality produces wavering state in mind and the Tama quality generates ignorance.  The collective name of conditions produced by these qualities is called prakriti and it gives birth to Buddhi (intellect) which is termed Mah-tattva.  The Mah-tattva produces ego, which further generates sixteen Matras (divisions).  Of these, five are Jnan-Indriyas i.e., senses instrumental in knowing activity, namely Sparshan (touch-sense), Rasna (tongue-sense), Ghraan (nose-sense), Chakshu (Eye-sense) and Shrotra (ear-sense) and the one is Mana (mind).  And five are Karma-Indriyas (senses or limbs of action) Vachan (voice), Charan (foot), Hasta (hand), Linga (sex-organ), Guda (anus). And five are the Tanmatras (i) Roop (color), Ras (taste), Gandha (smell), Sparsha (touch) and Shabda (words or sound).  Further they describe that fire from Roop, water from Ras, earth from Gandha, air from Sparsha and space or sky from Shabda are created.  Thus, the aforesaid 24 Tattvas are of prakriti form and different from these is one Purush who is Nirguna (undivided one absolute soul), Karta (doer) and Bhokta (enjoyer).


Thus, they describe the twenty-five Tattvas, which are imaginary because how would the Rajas etc., qualities be evolved without some shelter?  The shelter of these could only be the Chetan-Dravya (soul-substance).  And Buddhi (intellect) is said to be generated from these qualities, but intellect is nothing but knowledge and it is found only in the substance possessing knowledge; how could then the knowledge be said to have been originated from this?  If he says that intellect is separate and knowledge is separate, then our query is that the mind has been included earlier in sixteen Matras and if you assert knowledge to be separate, what else then would be called intellect?  And ego is said to

be generated from it but ego lies in doing in other objects.  Ego does not consist in knowing something in detached manner.  How could then ego be a product of knowledge?


And sixteen Matras are described to have evolved from ego; amongst them five are described as Jnan-Indriyas (senses instrumental in knowing activity). But in the body there are material senses (Dravya-Indriyas) in the form of eyes, etc.; those are seen to be insentient like the earth, etc. and there are psychic senses (Bhava-Indriyas) in the form of eyes, etc.; those are seen to be insentient like the earth, etc. and there are psychic senses (Bhava-Indriyas) which are of knowledge form and their function is knowing the color, etc.  What is then the purpose of ego (I-ness) there? Someone may be found possessing knowledge but without the feeling of ego (I-ness); therefore, how is it possible to treat knowledge as a by-product of the feeling of ego (I- ness)?  And the Mana (mind) in nothing but like other material senses, because the material mind (Dravya-Mana) is a part of body and the psychic mind (Bhava-Mana) is a form of knowledge. And the five so-called Karma-Indriyas (senses or limbs of actions) are nothing but the limbs of the body and are of material form.  How can these be believed to have evolved from the immaterial ego (I-ness-feeling)?


     Moreover, the Karma-Indriyas are not five only but all the limbs of the body are useful.  And the whole description is concerning with all Jivas and not concerned with human beings only.  Therefore, trunk, tail, etc. limbs are also the senses of action.  Why do you limit them to be the five only?


     And five Tan-Matras, touch, color, etc., are not separate entities but those are modes (qualities) inseparable from atoms; how are those said to be produced separately? Moreover, ego is the disposition of immaterial Jiva (soul); how can, therefore, these material modes be believed to have been produced from that Jiva?


     Further, they say that the fire, etc. are produced from these five Tan-Matras.  This is clearly false; color, etc. and fire, etc. have coexisting relationship of qualities (Guna) and substance (Guni) possessing those qualities.  In description only, those appear to be separate but substantially they are not separate.  In no way, these

can be sensed as separate.  Separation is created only in description.  How can, therefore, fire, etc. be described to have been produced from color, etc.?  Even in description, the correct statement would be that qualities (Gunas) are found in the substance but how can the substance (Guni) be believed to have been produced from the qualities (Gunas)?


Further, they say that there is a `Purush' (living entity) quite different from all these (above mentioned things); but

when asked about his nature, they reply that he is indescribable, then who would understand the indescribable? They are not able to answer how is he, where is he, how is he a doer and destroyer?  Whatever answer they might give could be proved to be false on examination.  Thus, the Tattvas as imagined in Sankhya philosophy are to be known false.


     Further, knowing the Purush separate from the prakriti (nature) is stated to be the path of salvation by them.  In reality, there is nothing like prakriti and Purush. Moreover, nothing is achieved be mere knowing.  Salvation (Moksha) can be obtained only by uprooting the passions like attachment, etc. after knowing their nature.  But by knowing what they say, attachment, etc. are not reduced.  So long as one believes prakriti to be the doer (of attachment, etc.) and the self as non-doer, why would then he try to reduce attachment, etc.?  Therefore, this is not the path of salvation or liberation.


     Further, they say that separation between prakriti and Purush is salvation (Moksha).  But out of the twenty-five Tattvas, twenty-four Tattvas are related with Prakriti, only one Purush is said to be different.  But those are already separate and no Jiva (soul) substance has been included in the twenty-five Tattvas.  And Purush itself is termed Jiva (soul) on union with Prakriti.  But different Purush are found associated with different types of prakriti and afterwards by adopting some means some Purush may get dissociated from Prakriti,- this is proved.  So in reality, there is no one single Purush.


     Further, "Is the Prakriti a mistake of Purush or is separate like a Vyantari (peripatetic goddess) who over- powers the Jiva?"  If it is his mistake then how could the senses, etc. and the touch, etc. Tattvas be believed to have been produced from Prakriti?  And if it is separate then that also is proved to be a substance, hence everything is governed by it, nothing is in the hands of Purush.  Then with what object do you preach?  Thus believing this type of Moksha (liberation) is also erroneous.


     Further, they describe three kinds of Pramana (valid knowledge's) Pratyaksha (direct knowledge), anuman (inference) and Agama (scripture).  But ascertainment of their true or false nature can be done only from Jainas' books on logic.


     Moreover, some followers of Sankhya religion do not believe in God; some others believe in one Purush to be God, some believe Shiva and some others Narayana as God.  All of them make imaginations as per their understanding without any firm decision and many followers of this sect keep long hair, (matted and braided hair), some others keep Choti (i.e., a lock of hair on the crown of the head left after tonsure.) some are without hair, many wear clothes of catechu color. Thus by adopting various disguising dress styles, they are called great under the garb of Tattva-Jnan (possessing knowledge of Tattvas-reality).


     Thus ends the discussion of Sankhya religion.


Shivamat (Followers of Shiva)


     The Shivamat is of two types, Naiyayika and Vaisheshika


     In the Naiyayika sect, sixteen Tattvas (elements) are described, which are Pramana, Premeya, Santhaya, Prayojana, Drushtanta, Siddhanta, Avayava, Tarka, Nirnaya, Vaada, Jalpa, Vitanda, Hetvabhasa, Chhala, Jati and Nigraha-Sthana.


     There, the Pramana (valid-knowledge) is described to be of four kinds: Pratyaksha (direct knowledge), anuman (inference), Shabda (words), Upama (comparison).  Soul, body, wealth and intellect, etc. are described to be the Premeya (knowable).  And the query `What is this' is Sanshaya (doubt).  The purpose or object for which the effort is made is Prayojana.  That which is acceptable to both plaintiff and defendant is Drushtanta (Example).  Whatever is decided through example is Siddhanta (principle).  And the Pratigya (pledge) etc. five parts of anuman (inference) are the Avayava (components).  On removal of Sanshaya (doubt), finding something correct from some angle, is Tarka (logic). Later on, knowing (something) is ascertained form, is Nirnaya (decision).  Learning by discussion between the teacher (Acharya) and the taught (pupil) in the form of `for and against a subject' is the vada (debate).  In the inquisitiveness form of tale, whatever faults like duplicity, etc. found, is called Jalpa (prattling).  A discussion without opposite viewpoint is Vitanda (perverse argumentation).  Where there is no true reasoning such sub- divisions like unapproved reasoning, etc., are Hetvabhasa (fallacy).  The words or speech with duplicity is Chhala (fraud).  Such imposed defects which are not real defects, are called Jati (class or category).  And by which the subjugation of opponent is caused, that is Nigraha Sthana (stoppage of argument).


Thus, the aforesaid Sanshya etc. Tattvas are in fact not substantially any Tattva (reality).  The Tattvas are described for involving thinking and being the cause for ascertaining the knowledge and for showing the profound learning through discussion.  But what spiritual achievement would result from these Tattvas.?  To remain unperturbed by uprooting sex-anger, etc. impure dispositions, is real achievement; that object is not highlighted here at all, rather different tactics of pedantry are put forth.  So, this too is mere cleverness; therefore, this theory is not rudimental.


Further, you will say that without knowing these (Tattvas)

the purposeful Tattvas cannot be ascertained; therefore, these are called Tattvas, but the grammarians also put forth such type of tradition that by reading grammar the meaning (of words, etc.) is determined and the specialists of food, etc. also maintain that on getting stableness of the body by taking food, the people become capable in ascertaining the Tattvas; so, such as argument is not purposeful.


And if you will say that the grammar, food, etc. are certainly not the cause of Tattva-Jnan i.e., attaining knowledge of Tattvas, but are the cause of accomplishing worldly objects.  Similar to these (cause) the Tattvas described by you are instrumental causes of accomplishing temporal deeds.  Knowing through senses, etc. has been described to be the direct knowledge, etc., and in taking decision about stump or person is stated to be the doubt etc. Hence, those Tattvas only are useful by knowing of which the sex-anger, etc. impure dispositions are uprooted and unperturbation is produced.


Further, you may say that in Premeya Tattvas (knowable elements) the ascertainment of soul, etc. takes place; so it is purposeful, but everything is knowable (Premeya), no such substance is there which is not the object of Pramiti (knowledge), so what for are the Premeya Tattvas described? The soul, etc. Tattvas should only have been described.


And also the nature of the soul has been propounded contrarily; such a decision is reached on thinking without prejudice.  For example, they describe two kinds of souls, Paramatma (supreme soul) and Jivatma (mundane souls).  The Paramatma is said to be the creator of all.  They conjecture that this world is created by the doer (creator) because it is a creation.  And whatever creation is there that is created by the creator, e.g., Jar (pot) etc.  But this too is a misconjecture because the other facet of this conjecture is also possible which is that this world is not created by the creator, because many uncreated (self-existing) substances are also found in this world.  Those, which are self-existing, are not created by any creator, e.g., sun, etc. For in the world of conglomerate form of different substances, some objects are created by human beings, etc., but many other things are self-existing.  So none is the creator of them. These are imperceptible by direct knowledge.  Therefore believing God as creator is false.


Further, they describe each Jivatma (soul) has separate- separate bodies, so this is quite true but after their attaining liberation also each liberated soul should be believed to be separate-separate.  This has already been discussed in detail earlier.  Similarly other Tattvas are described contrarily.  Moreover, the differentia of Pramana (valid knowledge) etc. are also imagined contrarily by them. This can be clearly understood by study of Jaina-scripture. In this way the Tattvas described in the Naiyayika-sect are to be known as imaginary.


Vaisheshika-Sect:- In Vaisheshika-sect, six kinds of Tattvas are described: 1. Dravya (substances), 2. Guna (attributes), 3. Karma (the actions), 4.Samanya (common), 5. Vishesha (specific) and 6. Samvaya (inseparable).


Dravyas are stated to be of nine kinds:- 1. Prithvi (earth), 2. Jal (water), 3. Agni (fire), 4. Vayu (air), 5. Akash (space), 6. Kal (time), 7. Disha (direction), 8. Atma (soul)

and 9. Man (mind).


There the atoms of the earth, water, fire, and air are separate-separate; those atoms are eternal, from them Prithvi (earth) etc. are formed which are unstable.  But this is contrary to actual experience and knowledge.  The fuel-form atoms of the earth, etc. are seen converting into fire-form and the fire-form atoms are seen converting into ash-form of earth.  The atoms of water are seen converting into the pearl form of earth.  Again you will say that those atoms disappear and some different atoms only turn into those forms.  By saying so, you are clearly falsifying what is clearly evident.  If you are able to put up some very strong logic then we may consider it; but simply stating so it is not proved.  Therefore, it is clear that all atoms belong to the one Pudgala (matter) form of material class which modifies into various forms like earth, etc. conditions.


And at some places they (the Vaisheshika) state that the Prithvi (earth) etc. possess separate body, but that is false only, because it has no proof.  Moreover, the earth, etc. are the mass of atoms; this is not possible that their body be elsewhere and these be elsewhere; hence, this too is false. And where no substance gets obstructed such a hollowness they term as to be the Akash (space).  They describe the moment, an instant, etc. as to be to be the Kal (time).  But both of these are non-entities because these are not the substantive objects.  They imagine these objects for the sake of considering from various angles the area, modification, etc. of substances.  And (according to them) there is no substance like direction (Disha), they believe directions as substance simply by imagining the divisions in the space.  And soul is described in two ways.  So this has been discussed earlier. And Man (mind) is not any separate substance.  The psychic mind (Bhavaman) is of knowing form so it is the nature of the soul and the physical or material-mind (Dravya-man) is a mass of atoms (mental-vargandas) which is the part of the body. Thus, these substances are imaginary.


Further, they describe twenty-four types of qualities (Gunas):

Sparsh (touch), Rasa (taste), Gandha (smell), Varna (color), Shabda (words or sound), Sankhya (number), Vibhaga (division) Sanyoga (union), Parinaama (consequence), Prithakatva (separateness), Paratva (difference),  Aparatva (similarity), Buddhi (intellect), Sukha (happiness), Dukha (sorrow), Ichchha (desire), Dharma (virtue or piety), Adharma (vice or impiety), Prayatna (effort), Samskara (impression), Dwesha (aversion), Sneha (smoothness or oily), Gurutva (heaviness), Dravyatva (substantiality).  Out of these touch etc. qualities are found in atoms but describing earth odorous only, describing water having cold touch only, etc. is false; for nowhere in earth, prominence of smell is found, somewhere water is seen hot; hence, it is all against clear-cut knowledge and experience.  And they describe the words (i.e., sound) as to be the attribute of space (Akash), but it is false, for the words or sound is obstructed by the wall, etc.; so, it is of material form and the space (Akash) is an immaterial and ubiquitous substance.  When space is found in the wall and the word or sound attribute (Shabda-Guna) which is asserted to be the quality of space cannot enter the wall, how would this be possible?  And the number, etc. are not there in the substance itself but we imagine the number, etc. in our knowledge for knowing the numerical strength of any particular substance in comparison to other substances.  And the intellect is the name of knowledge and it is definitely an attribute of the soul.  And when the Man (mind) has already been stated under nine substances why has it now been described as an attribute separately again?  And happiness (Sukha) etc. are found sometimes in the soul, those are not the characteristics (attributes) of the soul, rather these are seemingly so-called characteristics because they are not found in all states of soul.  And smoothness, heaviness, etc. are found in the atoms of matter and are known through the sense of touch, hence these are covered under Sparsh Guna (touch attribute); why are then these described separately? And fluidity is described to be the quality of water, but the fire, etc. are also found having the quality of upward motion, etc.  So, either all qualities (Gunas) should have been described or should have been generalized.  Thus, all the aforesaid qualities (Gunas) are imaginary.


Further, they describe karmas as of five kinds:-


1. Utkshepana (Throwing Outward or exhaling)

2. Avakshepana (Throwing inward or Inhaling)

3. Aakunchana (Contraction)

4. Prasarana (Expansion)

5. Yaman (Mortification)


But all these are mere bodily actions, what is the purpose of

describing these separately?  Moreover, these are not the only ones but are of many types.  And these are stated as separate Tattvas; but had these been separate substances then you should have described them as the separate Tattvas, or had these been specifically purposeful in rooting out the sex-anger, etc. passions, then these should have been described as Tattvas but both these specialties are not there.  And if there is just a casual approach in describing these then the stones, etc. are also found having different forms which could also be described.  Nothing is achieved by believing these.


And the Samanya (generalisation) is of two types: Par and Apar.  Par is of existence form. Apar is of substance form, etc.  And those which are always found functioning in the substance are called its details (Vishesha).  The name of a not united and inseparable relationship between a substance and its qualities is called Samavaya.  These Samanya etc. appear in our thoughts only, either by believing many as to be of one kind or by imagining the divisions in one substance or by believing the relationship from the divisions-imagination point of view.  These are not separate-separate substances. Moreover, by knowing these (Tattvas) even the specific purpose of uprooting sex-anger, etc. passions is not accomplished; why for then these are called Tattvas? And if only such Tattvas were to be stated then Prameyatva (knowledge) etc. infinite qualities are there in the substance and various types of cases like relationship base, etc. are possible in the substance; so, either all things should have been described or only purposeful ones.  Hence, these Samanya etc.  Tattvas also are purposelessly described.


Thus, the Tattvas (principles) described by the Vaisheshika are to be known as imaginary.  Besides this, the Vaisheshika believe only two kinds of Pramana (valid knowledge):-

1. Pratyaksha (direct knowledge) and 2. anuman (inferential knowledge).  So, the correctness-incorrectness of these may be ascertained from Jaina- scriptures pertaining to logic.


(Daivagam, yuktyanushasan, asht-sehsree, nyaye-vinishchya, prmanr-sangreh, tatvarth-shlokvartik, rajvartik, prameykamalmartend, nyaykumudchander adee darshnik  Jain-nyaya granth haen)


And the Naiyayika say that the state of the soul manifested in the absence of objects, senses, intellect, body, happiness and sorrows is liberation.  And the Vaisheshika say that out of twenty-four Gunas (qualities) the absence of intellect is described, but the intellect is the name of knowledge and the substratum of knowledge was described as differentia, i.e., intrinsic nature of soul. Now, on effacement of knowledge both the characteristics and the object possessing that characteristics, i.e., soul will also get effaced.  Then what would be the state of the soul? And if the intellect is the name of mind then the Bhava-man (psychic mind) is of knowledge form only and the Dravya-man (material mind) is a part of body.  So, on liberation the association with material mind (Dravya-man) ends.  How could then the name of insentient material mind (Achetan Dravya-man) be the intellect?  And the senses are like mind.  And if the object is destroyed then the knowing of the touch etc. objects would also get effaced.  Then, what will remain of knowledge? And on effacement of objects, the universe too will get effaced. Further, they say that happiness also ends; but all Jivas make efforts for happiness only.  When it will get effaced, how would then it remain worth obtaining? And if the sensuous pleasure which can perturb is said to have got effaced there, then it is true; for the supersensible happiness having the imperturbability as its characteristic is all possible in liberation, hence happiness is not lost. However, it is correct to say that in liberation, body, misery, aversion etc. come to an end.


Further, in Shivamat (Shiva's followers) the doer or creator is an absolute single (undivided) God Shiva, they believe him to be the God.  The falsehood of his (God's) existence has already been proved established earlier, it should be known from there.  And in this sect the Bhesha (attire of body) consists of cinders, lion-cloth, matted hair, sacred thread, etc; so, from the conduct code point of view, those Bhesha (attires) are of four kinds: Shaiva, Pasupat, Mahavrati, Kaalmukha.  All these Bhesha are nothing but the facets of attachment, etc. passions; these are, therefore, not the correct Bhesha (Sulingas).  Thus has been discussed and concluded the Shivamat (Shiva faith).


Meemansaka-mat (One of the 6 Systems of Hindu Philosophy)


Now, the characteristics of Meemansaka faith are described. The Meemansaka (those who reflect deeply on a subject) are of two kinds 1. Brahmavadi and  2. Karmavada.


The Brahma vadis believe in one absolute undivided Brahma and describe in Vedanta philosophy that "This whole universe is Brahma, none else is there" and "to remain engrossed in the self (soul) is liberation".  The falsehood of these have already been explained earlier which needs reflection.


And the Karma vadis believe in performing the rituals- religious duties, sacrificial ceremonies, etc.  But in these activities, the presence of fostering of attachment, etc. alone is found; therefore, indulging in such activities is not at all useful.


Further, there are two types of customs established by Bhatta and Prabhakara.  As per Bhatta there are six kinds of Pramanas (valid forms of knowledge) - Pratyaksha (direct knowledge, i.e., perceptible to senses), Anemone (inference), Veda (scripture), Upama (analogy), Arthaapatti (corollary) and Abhava (absence or negation).  And as per Prabhakara only five Pramana excepting the Abhava are

accepted.  So, their truth or falsehood should be known by study of Jaina-scriptures.


And those who follow Shat-karmas, i.e., six kinds of daily duties, wear the sacred thread of Brahma, have forsaken taking food-grains, etc. from the Shudras (persons belonging to fourth caste in Hindus) and live as house-holders are called Bhattas.  And in Vedanta sect the people who do not wear the sacred thread and accept the food, etc. from the Brahmins' house are named as Bhagwat; they are of four kinds- Kutichar, Bahoodak, Hansa, Parmahansa.  So, these are found to be satisfied with some external renunciation but perversity of knowledge and faith and presence of fostering of attachment, etc. are found in them.  Hence, these garbed or ungarbed Bhesha (postures of the body) are not beneficial.


Jaimineeya-mat. (Followers of Jaimineeya Faith)


There is one Jaimineeya school of faith which states as follows:- "No omniscient (all knowing Lord) is there, the Veda-Vachanas (the wordings or aphorisms of Veda-scripture) are eternal; the right ascertainment of truth is possible from them.  Hence, one should first observe the religious acts by following Veda path which is called Nodana (inspiration) and that alone is the emblem of a religion which one should practice.  For example, they say, ("Sva kamoagni yajait") i.e., one, who aspires heavenly abode ought to worship the fire.


Here we ask them- "The Shiva, the Samkhyas, the Naiyayika, etc., all believe the Vedas in which you too believe but in your and in their interpretation of Tattvas etc. mutual contradiction is found, what is the reason for this? If in the Vedas itself, somewhere something and somewhere something else then first of all, you people, by discussing mutually yourselves decide who is real follower of Vedas and who is not? But to us it appears that in the Vedas itself, the interpretations given earlier are contradictory to those given later.  That is why there have been different enunciators of different sects by having grasped its meaning differently according to their own wills.  But how can such Vedas be proved authentic? And by worshipping fire, one attains the heavenly abode! So, how can the fire be believed to be better than the human being? This is evidently wrong. And how would it be the provider of heaven? In the same way, the other aphorisms of Vedas are against authentic knowledge. When Vedas advocate the existence of Brahma why then you not accept the existence of omniscient? Thus, the Jaimineeya sect is also to be known as imaginary.


The Bauddha-mat (Bauddha Faith)


Now the differentia of Bauddha-mat (the Bauddha school of faith) is described:


In Bauddha-mat four Arya Satyas*.


(Dukhmayatn chaet tta, samudyomat, margshchaityasya cha vyakhya krmainr shryutamat 36 v.v)


 (Fundamental truths or principles) are stated :-


1. Dukha (sorrows or miseries)

2. Aayatana (senses and their objects, etc.)

3. Someday (combination), and

4. Marge (path).


There, the bodily form of mundane beings is Dukha (sorrow). It is of five kinds : (dukh sansarinr skandhastai che panch prkeertit vaidna sangya, sanskaro roopmaiv cha ): Vijnana, Vedana, Sanjna, Samskara, Roop.


Knowing of Roop (color) etc.  is Vijnana (knowledge).  The feeling of happiness and sorrow is Vedana (affliction); awakening from sleep is Sanjna (consciousness); memorizing what was read is Samskara (impression); formation of body is Roop. Describing the Vijnana (knowledge) etc. as sorrow is false.  The sex-anger, etc. passions are sorrows, knowledge is not sorrow.  It is evidently seen that someone has less knowledge but has more anger-greed, etc. passion, so he is unhappy; some other has more knowledge but has less or no sex-anger, etc. passions, so he is happy; hence, the Vijnana (knowledge) etc. are not the sorrows.


And Aayatana are stated to be twelve :- Five senses and their five objects (the words etc.), the mind (mana) and Dharmaayatana (the abode of religion).  What for are these Aayatana described? When all are said to be momentary, What is then the purpose of all these?


And the combination of soul and passions (dispositions of soul) which produces further intense passions is form is soul's disposition; but owing to believing called Samudaya.  There the I-ness form is soul and mineness form is soul's disposition but owing to everything momentary, there lie no purpose of describing these too.


And "all kinds of impressions (Sanskaras) are momentary" holding such feeling is the Marge (path). But things are evidently seen existing for a longer duration.  You may argue that same condition (of an object) does never exist, so we too believe this.  The subtle modification is momentary, i.e., exists for a moment only.  Further, they the Buddhists believe the complete destruction of the same substance, but this is not seen happening; how can we believe? And in all young, old age, etc. conditions of the body the existence of only one soul is realized (perceived); if the soul is not the same one then how do you believe the one doer of the former and posterior conditions.  If you will say -" This is due to impressions (Sanskaras)".  Then our question is - "whose are these Sanskaras?"  He whose these Sanskaras (impression) are, is perpetual or momentary?  If perpetual, then how do you state everything momentary wolly?  If momentary, how can then that sanskaras (impression) whose basis itself is momentary, keep its continuance? And if all is momentary, then you too are momentary. You have described the Marge (path) to be holding of the feeling of momentariness.  But why do you tread on this path when you are not likely to get the fruit of this treading? And what for have the useless scriptures been created in your sect? The discourse is given for the purpose of gaining the fruit by doing some duty.  Thus, the Marga (path) stated by you is false.


Further, they described Moksha (final liberation) to be the destruction of attachment etc., knowledge and their off- shoots.  But who attains liberation or beatitude when everything is momentary? We also believe in the uprooting of attachment, etc., passion; but on destruction of knowledge which is our own intrinsic nature, we would also get destroyed, how would then making efforts for destruction of knowledge be beneficial? Ascertaining what is beneficial and what is not beneficial is the function of knowledge only; how would then the wise-person treat beneficial his own destruction?


And in Bauddha religion two kinds of Pramanas (valid knowledge) are described :- 1. Pratyaksha (direct knowledge) and 2. Anumaana (inferential knowledge). Their truth and falsehood can be ascertained by study of Jaina scriptures. And if these two only are the Pramaanas (valid then their scriptures (shastras) would be proved to be unauthentic? for what purpose have those been written?  The Jivas will themselves ascertain what is Pratyaksha (direct or clear-cut knowledge) and what is Anumaana (inferential knowledge).  Why did then you compose the Shastras (scriptures)?


Further, they regard Sugata (Buddha) as god and establish his nature to be naked and in different poses. This is nothing but mockery.  And the hall-mark of Bauddha-saint (Buddhists saints) is a water-pot in hand, red cloth on body and taking meal in forenoon, etc. So, what is the purpose of assuming such a posture when everything is momentary? But acceptance of such a posture and imaginary description of Tattvas is done establishing one's superiority.


The Buddhists are of four kinds :- 1. Vaibhashika, 2. Sautrantika, 3. Yogachara and 4. Maadhysmika.


The Vaibhashika believe the substance with knowledge, the Sautrantika believe in the existence of those things, only which are directly visible, nothing beyond that.  The Yogachara believe in following a particular conduct and the Maashyamikas believe in knowledge independent of any substance.  Thus, these four groups have developed different types of imaginations about Tattvas; but on analyzing their concepts are found to be baseless.


In this way, the Bauddha religion has been discussed.


The Charvaka Philosophy


Now the differentia of Charvaka philosophy is described:- The Charvaka negates the existence of all these things - omniscient, religion, no religion, liberation, the fruit of virtue and vice, birth after death and states that whatever is perceptible or can be seen and sensed by material senses that is the only world.


Here we ask him, "Is omniscient not there in this present time and region or is he not present at all times and anywhere in the world?" We too believe that omniscient is not found in the present time and region but who did know this without omniscient that omniscient is not present anywhere and at any time?  One who knows about all regions and all times is omniscient and if he does not know, then how does he negate it?


Further, religion-no religion are well-known in the world.  If these were merely fancied then how would those have been very well-known to all persons? Moreover, religion-no religion form of conduct is clearly seen, owing to which the Jivas feel happiness and sorrow even in the present time, why not to believe these? And the existence of Moksha (liberation) is also well known by inference.  The anger, etc. blemishes (impure dispositions) are found less in someone and are more in some others.  This proves that there should be someone who should not have these blemishes at all.  Similarly manifestation of knowledge, etc. appears to be less in someone and more in some others. Therefore, it can be concluded that there should be someone, who  would have these (knowledge, etc.) in full measure.  In this way, the state of Moksha is achieved by one, who has uprooted all vices and evolved all qualities.


Moreover, we see the Jivas reaping the fruit of their virtues and vices.  Someone remains pauper even besides his making the efforts; someone gets wealth on its own; someone remains diseased even besides taking due care of the body; someone enjoys good health without efforts, etc. - is seen clearly. So, there should be some reason of all these contradictory conditions?  Whatever is the cause of these, the same is virtues and vices.


The existence after death i.e., rebirth also can be conjectured directly and by inference.  The Vyantaras (peripatetic gods) etc. are seen stating, "I was so and so and I have now become a god".  And if you say - "This is the Pavan (air) only but we call (believe) soul to be that substance in which "I am" etc. form of consciousness is found; you call same as Pavan (air).  But Pavan (air) is obstructed by wall, etc; whereas soul, even besides its being enclosed by body, cannot be obstructed by any thing; therefore, how can it treated as Pavan (air)?


Further, you say that the world is confined to that much only, which is seen and sensed by material senses, but you cannot know by senses even about the objects of regions, which are a few miles distant only and about times a few years past and a few years hence.  Yet, we have been hearing traditionally about far distant places and of immemorial times.  This proves that you do not possess the capacity of knowing all, how do you then say that world is confined to what you know?


Further, in Charvaka sect it is said that by intermingling of earth (clay), water, fire, air, sky (space) the animate object  gets created.  But on death, the earth (material body) etc. are left here and the sentient substance departed and became a Vyantara (peripatetic god) etc; thus these (earthen body and soul) are seen clearly separate-separate. And in a body the earth, etc. clearly appear to be separate- separate, the sentience appears to be one.  If the sentience be based on earth, etc. then bones, blood, breath, etc. will be having separate-separate sentience.  And on cutting the hand, etc. the color (pigment) etc. remains with it; similarly, the sentience will also remain there (which is not so).  Further, egoism and intellect are found in a sentient object.  When (on death) the earth, etc. constituents of body remained here itself, but in the Vyantaras (peripatetic god) etc. state of existence the feeling of I-ness about the previous life is found, how does it happen so?  And the Vyantaras etc.  disclose the secrets of last life; so with whom the knowing activity remained intact is the soul itself.


And the Charvaka sect unrestrained activities like eating, drinking, enjoying sensual pleasures, etc. have been advised but the world is found indulging in such unrestrained activities of its own.  What benefit have you bestowed by writing such books and sermonizing through them?  You might say that the object of giving such sermons was to dissociate people from penance, chastity, continence, etc. but by following these acts the passions are reduced which result in reduction of perturbation and misery.  This, in reality, is happiness, which also brings name and fame.  What benefit do you propose to do by advising people to give up these?  You are not afraid of harming the self as well as others by telling agreeable things to sensualist Jivas; you indulge in

such false logic by becoming unrestrained for the sake of enjoying sensuous pleasures.


Thus, the Charvaka faith has been x-rayed (explained).


Concluding Remarks about Falsehood in Other Faiths


Similarly, there are many other faiths (so-called religions) in which false logic has been adopted and which are propounded by wicked and passionate people.  So, harm is caused to Jivas who believe in them.  And the Jina's religion or Jaina-faith is the only interpreter of reality being discoursed by the omniscient passionless God (Arihant-deva); only by having faith in it the Jivas are benefited, i.e., they get real happiness.


In Jinamat i.e. in the religion discoursed by omniscient Jina, the Jiva-Ajiva etc. Tattvas (essential purposeful principles) are described.  The Pratyaksha (direct knowledge) and Paroksha (indirect edge) are stated.  Completely passionless and omniscient is the Lord Arihanta Deva.  Having no external and internal possessions or paraphernalia- such naked monk is the Nirgrantha Guru (preceptor).  Detailed characteristics of these will be discussed later on in this book.


Here someone may say- "You have attachment-aversion feeling, that is why you establish your faith by negating other faiths."


Our answer to this is that "There is no attachment-aversion feeling in describing the right thing.  If contrary exposition is done with some self-interest then it can be regarded as prompted by attachment-aversion feeling".


Then he says- "If you do not have any attachment-aversion feeling then how do you say that other faiths are false and only Jaina-faith is true?  If you have feeling of equanimity then you ought to treat all as equal; why do you take side with your faith?"


Our answer is that "What is wrong we call it wrong, what is right" we call it right.  How is attachment-aversion feeling involved in it?  Moreover equanimity does not consist in treating both wrong and right as similar, this is rather insensibility.


He further says that the purpose of all faiths is one and the same; hence, one should know all as equal?


Our answer is that `Why are there so many faiths (philosophies) if all have the same objective.  In one specific faith discourse can be given in different ways from different angles but with one object only; who calls it a separate faith?  But the objects of various faiths are

different, the same is being explained here as under:-


Comparison of Jaina Faith with Other Faiths


In Jaina-faith the sole purpose is of fostering passionless disposition (conduct) Veetaraagbhava only.  Therefore, through mythological stories, description of universe, etc., code of conduct and essential principles or Tattvas etc., thus everywhere, only passionlessness (Veetraagata) has been fostered.  But in other faiths the sole purpose is of fostering passional dispositions (Saraag Bhava).  Because imaginary exposition of substances, etc. is done only by passionate beings who foster only passions by putting forth various tactics.  For example, the followers of Addvait Brahma (monists) by believing all to be one Brahma, the followers of Sankhya by believing the self to be a purely non-doer by treating whole of the functioning to be the act of Prakriti (nature) and the followers of Shiva be believing the fulfillment of objectives by knowledge of Tattvas only, the follower of Meemansaka by believing religion in passionless conduct, the followers of Buddha by believing everything momentary, the Charvakas by not believing in the continuance of life after-death- all these foster the propensity of living unrestrained in the sensuous pleasures through indulgence in passionless acts.  Although at some places, they support the viewpoint of reducing passions also but under that pretext they foster some other kind of passions.  They advise people to leave householders's state, and foster and engage in the invocation of God, by quitting householders's state and foster their sensuous pleasure under the garb of God's characteristics to be Saraagi, i.e., full of passions, whereas in Jaina religion only Veetraagata i.e., passionlessness and no attachment alone is fostered by specifying the characteristics of the omniscient God, preceptor and religion to be Veetaraaga passionless, i.e., free from all sorts of passions, attachment-aversion feelings; so, this is an established fact.


Not only we say, even Bhatrihari- a non-Jain monk (poet) has described in context with renunciation as under:


"Aiko ragishu rajtai priytmadaihardhdharee haro

Neeragaishu jino vimukt lalnasango ne ysmatpar

Durvarsmrvanr pannagvishi vyasakt mugdheejan

Shaish kam vidvito hi vishyan bhoktum ne bhoktum ksham



[Amongst passionate persons, Shiva is unique, sharing half his body with his beloved and again amongst the dispassionate, Jina the conqueror is unique who is totally unattached to the company of women and none is superior to him, while the rest of mankind smitten and stupefied by the irresistible, serpent like poisoned arrows of cupid and being overpowered by intense feeling of sex-can neither enjoy their desires nor renounce them at will.]


In this verse, amongst Saraagis (passionate) Mahadeva has been found to be supreme and amongst Veetaraagis (dispassionate) Jina Deva is supreme.  Moreover, there is contrariety in the Saraaga Bhava (passional dispositions). So, both are not praiseworthy but in these only one is beneficial and that is passionlessness (Veetaraaga-Bhava) only, by evolution of which, owing to immediate end of perturbation one becomes adorable.  Not only we but even people perturbed one becomes adorable.  Not only we but even people following other faiths agree that passionlessness is the basis of future happiness also.  On the other hand, on evolution of Saraaga Bhava (passional dispositions) perturbation is caused immediately; the person becomes censurable and future also becomes miserable.  Therefore, the Jaina-faith wherein the purpose of Veetaraaga-Bhava (passionless conduct) alone is supported is only beneficial.  The other faiths wherein the purpose of Saraaga-Bhava (passional dispositions) are supported and fostered- such kinds of other non-Jaina faiths are harmful; how could these be treated as equal?


Further, they say that this is true but by criticizing other faiths, the followers of other faiths will afflicted, dissension will be caused, therefore, why should you criticize others?


Our answer is that if we criticize any body out of passion and hurt others feelings, then we are certainly sinners.  But knowing that due to faith in other (non-Jaina) religions Jivas' belief in wrong Tattvas or wrong principles will be reinforced and because of that the Jivas will suffer miseries in the world, out of compassion, we have described the truth. What could we do if someone is hurt and dissension results without our fault?  For example- by censuring use of wine the vintner feels unhappy, by condemning adultery the whores, etc. become unhappy and by describing the method of differentiating between wrong and right things, the swindler gets hurt, what could then we do?  Similarly, if due to the fear of sinners, the religious discoursers are not given, how could then the benediction of Jivas be possible?  There is no such discourse by virtue of which everybody will feel happy and if they create dissension then disharmony will result when we too partake in it; but we will not indulge in any quarrel; so, they will themselves become calm, we shall reap the fruit of our own thoughts and actions.


Further, if someone says that by erroneous faith in purposeful Jiva etc. Tattvas the wrong belief, etc. are caused; how would the wrong belief, etc. be caused by faith in other religions?


Answer: In other religions, by putting forth contrary, logic an effort is made to misguide Jivas about the real nature of Jiva etc.  Tattvas; what for have they done so? When the true nature of Jiva etc. Tattvas is ascertained by someone then after the emergence of Veetaraaga-Bhava (passionless pure disposition) only, his superiority is established but the Jivas who are not Veetaraagi (passionless) and want to establish their superiority or greatness even besides having passional dispositions have interpreted the Tattvas contrarily through misconjectures for the sake of establishing superiority.  They foster false faith of Jiva- Ajiva by describing an Addvait Brahma etc., Asrava (influx) Samvara (stoppage of influx) by supporting unrestrained conduct and Moksha (liberation) by stating Moksha to be like a passionate and inanimate state; that is why the falsehood of the other (non-Jaina) faiths is revealed. When one realizes the falsehood of these then he may develop interest in the ascertainment and belief of real Tattvas and misconception may not be caused by their contrary logic.


Thus, the different (non-Jaina) faiths have been discussed here as above.


Establishment of Antiquity & Correctness of Jainism on the Basis of Extracts from the Scriptures of Other (non-Jaina) Faiths


Now the correctness and antiquity of Jaina faith is shown (proved) on the basis of evidence from scriptures of other faiths (non-Jaina religions):-


The Bada Yoga Vasishtha is equal to 36,000 verses (couplets).  In its chapter on the negation of egotism under renunciation topic in the dialogue between Vasishtha and Ram it is described that:-


Ramvach - "Naham Ramo ne mai banchha bhavaishu che ne mai mana

Shantimasthatumichchhami, svatmnyaiv jinotha


Here in this verse Lord Ram has expressed his desire "Neither I am Ram, nor I have any desire, nor my mind is entangled in the thoughts and objects, rather I want to establish or attain peace in my own soul similar to the Jina (the conqueror omniscient Lord).


Here Ram has expressed his desire to become like a Jina; hence, the supremacy and the antiquity of Jina Deva is proved in comparison to Lord Ram.


And in Dakshinamurty- Sahasranaama it is said- ("Shivovach jainbargrato Jain jinkrodho jitamya") Here Bhagwat's name is described to be a Jain who is engrossed in the Jaina- path (Jaina way of life).  This also proves the prominence and antiquity of Jaina-path.


And in the Vaishampayna-Sahasranaama it is said, Here the Bhagwan's (God's) name is said to be Jineshwara; so, Jineshwara (passionless omniscient) is the Bhagwan (the God).


And in the Mahimni- Stotra by Durwasa-Rishi (saint) it is said-


Taddarshan mukhyashaktiritee che tvam brahm krmaishvaree

Krtahrm purusho harishch savita budhh shivstvam guru


Here "Thou art Arhanta" by these words God has been prayed. Therefore, it is accepted that Arihanta is God.


And in the "Hanumannataka" it is said-


"Yam Shaiva samupastai shiv iti brahamoti vaidantin

Boudha budh iti prmanr patva katoti naiyayik

Arhinityath jain shashanrat krmotimeemansaka

Soyam vo viddhatu banchhitphalam trilokinath: prabhu

                            -(3rd verse of Hanumannataka)


In this verse, in the six systems of Indian philosophies only one God is stated. Thus Arihanta Deva, i.e., Jina is also accepted as God.


Here someone may ask- "You (Jaina) should also believe in one God as stated in all the systems of philosophies?"


Our answer to him is - "This is your statement and not ours; hence, in your faith also Arihanta Deva is proved to be God. If we too describe in our faith as done by you then it would mean that we too accept Shiva etc. as God. For example, some trader shows real gems and some other shows counterfeit gems. Here if the man possessing counterfeit gems describes both types of gems as of the same (real) quality for selling his gems at the price of the real gems then how would the real gems seller agree to both gems being treated at par? Similarly, the Jainas describe the true Deva (God) etc. whereas the rest (non-Jaina) describe the false. There the believers of other (non-Jaina) faith describe all faiths as equal for the sake of gaining their equal importance (dignity) but how can the Jainas agree to this?


Further, in Rudrayaamal Tantra in Bhavaani Sahasranaam it is said -


Kudasna jdhatree, budhmata jinaishwari

Jinmata jinaindra cha, sharda hansvahinee


Here in this verse the Bhavaani's names are stated as Jineshwari etc.; hence, the superiority of Jina is established.


And in the Ganesh Purana it is stated so (HINDI) (Jainam Pashupatam Sankhyam).


And in Vyaskrit Sutra it is stated thus,


(Jainas Ekasminneva Vastuni Ubhayam Praroopayanti Syadvadinah). Thus at many places in their scriptures, the description of Jain religion is found; hence, the antiquity of Jaina-faith is established.


And in the fifth chapter of Bhagwat, the description of Rishabh incarnation is found. There, He is described as benevolent, devoid of passions, etc., possessor of meditation posture and adorable by all.  And they say that the king Arhat has followed the path shown by Him. So, as the other faiths are the followers of the reincarnations of Ram- Krishna, etc., similarly, the Jaina-faith is also the follower of Rishabha incarnation. Therefore, according to their belief too the Jaina-faith is established.


Here one must think this also that according to incarnations of Krishna, etc., the tradition of indulgence in passional acts is established, whereas according to the incarnation of Rishabha the tradition of passionless or attachmentless tranquillity is established.  Here treating alike both the traditions, there will remain no distinction between the religious and irreligious practices and by accepting the specific difference between the two, one should follow the tradition which is beneficial.


Further, in Dash avatar Charitra, etc., the differentia of Buddha avatar is written identical to Arihanta Deva; so, if such sort of differentia (posture) is adorable then the Arihanta Dev a is automatically established as adorable.


And in Kaashi-Khanda it is stated that on being sermonized the king Deva Das relinquished his kingdom.


It is, further, stated that the Narayana became the Vinaya- Kirti, Yati (monk), Laxmi became Vinayshree Aaryika (nun) and Garuda accepted the vows of Shravaka (house-holder's religion. So, wherever sermonizing was required there the Jaina vows and postures were adopted. This proves that the Jaina-path is beneficial and very old.


And in Prabhasa Purana it is stated that:-


Bhavsya pashchamai bhagai vamain tapa kritam

Tainan tapsakrisht shiva prtykshtan gata

Padmasanmaseen shyammurti digambara

Neminath shivaityaivam nam chakrai asyavaman

Kalikalai mhadhorai srvpap pranrshaka

Darshanatsparshanadev koteeyagya phalprada


Here Vamana is said to have got the Darshana (glimpse) of Digamber God Neminath in Padmaasana posture and He is described as Shiva also. And his adoration, Darshana, etc. is described to be resulting in the fruit equal to one crore Yajnas (oblations); so, such fruit of adoration of Neminath God the Jainas too advocate; therefore. Jaina-faith is proved to be authentic.


And in Prabhasa-Purana is stated thus:-


Raivtadro jino nemiryugdirvimlachalai

Rishinramashrmadaiv muktimargsyakaranram


Here Lord Neminath is called Jina, His abode is described as the hermitage of saints and the cause of liberation and the abode of Yuga, etc. is also stated to be alike; hence, He (Neminath) is proved to be supreme and adorable.


Further, in the Nagar-Puraana under Bhavaavatara Rahasya it is stated thus:-


Akaradihkaraantmuttheedhorai phsanyutam

Nadbindukalakrantam chandramndalsanibham

Aitdaivi param tatam yee vijanati tatvata

Sansar bandhanam chhitva sagachaiv parman gatim


Here the word Arhat is described to be the supreme Tattva (reality). And it is stated that by its knowledge one attains liberation. So, this word Arhat is taken from Jaina-faith.

Further, in Nagar Purana it is stated:-


Dashbhibhorjitai virprai yatphalam jayitai kritai

Munairhrtsu bhaktsya tatphlam jaytai kalo


Here it is stated that the fruit which results by feeding ten Brahmans in Krit- yuga, the same fruit results in offering food to one Jaina saint devout of Arihanta in Kal yuga. This establishes the superiority of Jaina saint.


And in Manu-smriti it is written that:-


Kuladibeejam srvaishan prthamo vimalvahan

Chakshuman Yashsvee Vamichandro ath Prasainjit

Marudevi cha Nabhishch Bharte kul satma

Ashtmo marudevyan tu nabhaijati urkarm

Darshyan vatram veeranran surasur namaskrit

Neeti tritya karta yo yugado prathmo jina


Here Vimalvaahana, etc. Manus (personages) are described; so the same names of the Kulkaras are described in Jaina- mythology and here further the first Jina is described to have been the guide of the salvation-path in the beginning of the aeon and worshipped by the celestial gods and demons. This proves that the Jaina-faith is existing from the beginning of the aeon, and how is then the Jaina-faith not proved to be authentic?


And in Rigaveda it is mentioned thus:-


"Om traelokay prtishthan chaturvishti teerthkran rishbhadyan vrthmaanantan sithan, shranram prpdyai .

Om pvitr ngnmupvisprisamhai asham nagnam yaisham jatan yaisham veeram suveeram……..itiyadi."


Here it is stated that I (the aspirant of liberation) take the refuge of 24 Tirthankaras from Rishabha etc. to Vardhmana -all liberated souls who are worshipped by whole of the universe,... etc. And in Yajurveda it is written so


"Om namo Arhato rishbhaye"


 in the same Veda it is further stated so:


Om rishmpvitran puruhootmdhvangyam ygyaishu nagnam

Parman mahsanstutam varan shatrun jyantam pashuyidrmahtiritisvaha. Om tratarmindram rishbhan vdanti amritarmindram havai sumtam supashvrmindram

Havai Shakrmrjitam tdvarthmanpuruhootmindram mahriti

Svaha. Om nagnam sudheeram digvasasam brahmgbarbh snatnam upaemi  veeram purshmrhatmaditye vranr tmsa

Prstat svaha. Om svasti nah indro vrithshrava svasti  nah poosha vishvvaida  svastinstashryo arishtnaimi svastino vrihaspatirdadhatu. Deerghayustvayurva shubhajatayu. Om raksh raksh Asishtnaimi svaha. Vamdaiv shantyarth manuvidheeyatai so smakam arishtnomi svaha.

  _____ (Yajurvaid a. 25,  m. 16,  ashth  91,  a  6,  varg 1)      


So here whatever names of Jaina Tirthankaras are spelled out above those are stated to be adorable. This proves that the Vedas were written after the incarnations of Jaina- Tirthankaras.


In this way, the superiority and antiquity of Jaina-faith is confirmed even by the evidence of the scripture of other (non-Jaina) faiths. Moreover, after studying Jaina-religion all the other faiths & religions appear to be imaginary. Therefore, one who is desirous of his own benefaction should accept the true Jaina-religion by giving up all sorts of preconceived notions.


Further, in other faiths there appear to be contradiction in what is stated earlier and thereafter. In the first Avatar (birth) the Vedas are said to be regenerated.  In these violence (hinsa), etc. is supported in the Yajnas (religious ceremonies) and in Buddhavataara by censuring Yajnas, violence, etc. was prohibited. In Vrishabhaavataara the path of passionless continence is supported and in Krishnaavatara the path of enjoying others women, etc. sensual pleasures, etc.  is advocated. Now the problem is which path this mudane being should accept? And according to whom he should mould his conduct? Further, they describe all these Avatddars as to be one and the same.  Even if they be one, they at some place support one path and at other places reject the same path and are found to be indulging in contradictory conduct, then how can one believe their words and the mode of conduct preached by them?


Further, at some places they prohibit indulging in passional acts like anger, etc., and objects of senses; at other places

they preach fighting [combating] and enjoying the sensual pleasures; there they regard it as to be the result of destiny (Praarabdha). But if fighting or combating, etc. be possible without indulgence in anger-passion, etc., then one can/may accept this argument; but it does not happen like this. And even on indulging in the acts of fighting or combating, etc. if anger, etc. passions are not believed to have generated then what else are anger-passion, etc., which have been prohibited?  Hence, this conception is not possible, for there is contradiction in the earlier and latter expositions. In Geeta while supporting passionlessness (Veetragata) fighting is preached; this clearly appears to be contradictory. And they also describe the act of cursing by the great sages, etc., so on indulgence in such acts of anger, how is it not a contemptible act?


Further, they also say that


 (`The sonless persons do not get good rebirth') and on the other hand in Bharata it is stated thus:-


"Anaikani sehsranri kumar brahmcharinram

Divam gatani rajendr akritva kul santim"


Here the bachelor celibates are described to have achieved heaven, so this is contradictory. And in Rishishwar-Bharat it is written so:-


Mymansashanam ratro bhojan kandkshanram

Yai kurvantivrithastaishan teerthyatran jpstapa

Vritha aikadashee prvata vritha jagranr harai

Vritha cha poshkaree yatra kritsnam chandraynram vritha

Chaturmasya tu smpraptai ratri bhojyam kroti ye

Tasye shuthirn vichait chandraynrshtaerpi


Here in these couplets drinking wine, etc., eating flesh etc., taking food in night: particularly taking food in night during four months of rainy season and eating tuber-roots (sweet-potatoes, onion, squills, etc.) are strictly prohibited and on the other hand, they support drinking wine, etc., and eating meat, etc. by the people of high status; further, they recommened taking food in night and eating tuber-roots, sweet-potatoes, etc. on vow days. Thus, they advocate contradictory things.


Similarly, many self-contradictory statements are found in the scriptures of other faiths (non-Jaina religions); so, what to do?


Keeping in view the old tradition somewhere they have supported good conduct for the sake of creating faith in people and at other places they have supported bad conduct for the sake of fostering passions, sensuous pleasures, etc., so how can their words be treated as authentic when such contradictions are found?


The words of other sects (non-Jaina faiths) which foster forbearance, chastity, contentment, etc., are found in Jaina- faith too and the contradictory statements found in their scriptures are imaginary.  Due to faith in their words ,which are found in accordance with Jainism people start believing their contradictory words also.  Therefore, one should not believe in the scriptures of other religions even if they contain some good aspect. As food mixed with poison is not wholesome, similarly one should be vigilant here also.


Further, if any aspect of good conduct is not found in Jaina- faith but is found in other faiths, or some prohibited aspect of conduct is found supported in Jaina-faith and is not found in other (non-Jaina) religions, then one can respect the scriptures of other sects, but this never happens so, because nothing is hidden or unknown in the omniscient's knowledge. Therefore, by giving up belief of other religions, one must develop staunchly firm belief in Jaina-faith.


An Analytical Study of Swetamber Jaina Sect


Due to bad times, lot of imaginary scriptures are written by the passionate Jivas in the garb of Jaina-faith also. The same is being discussed here:-


Someone, belonging to Swetamber Jain sect, composed the Sutras (aphorisms) but proclaimed them to have been written by Ganadharas. (The great Ascetics who possess four types of knowledge and translate & compile omniscient's revelation) Our question to them is- "You maintain that Aacharanga, etc. Shastras (scriptures ethics, etc.) presently available in your sect are written by Gandharvas.  So, whether these were written in the same measure in which they are available or were written in greater measure?" If those were made in the same measure as are available with you then the extent or measure of the words (Padas) of Aacharanga, etc. in your Shastras is described to be eighteen thousand, so can you prove its authenticity?


What is the measure of Padas (words)? If you will call the end of declension to be a Pada (word) then the word will become more than the aforesaid measure and if you say that the word itself is an authentic measure then there are more than fifty-one crore couplets of that one Pada only. So, in comparison to this measure, your scriptures are of very small measure. Therefore, this is not possible.  Moreover, the measure of Dasha- Vaikalika etc. is described to be lesser than that of Aacharanga, etc., whereas in your sect these are found in greater measure, so how is it possible?


Further, you may say - "Originally the Aacharanga, etc. were more in measure but due to bad times, we have prepared these Shastras by taking out several Sutras (aphorisms) from them". But firstly the incomplete Shastras are not authentic. And also there is a rule that if a big book (shastra) is written then in that everything is described in detail and if a small book (Shastra) is written then the same things are described there in short but the link is not disturbed and if only some description is extracted from any big book then the link is lost and the sequence of the description is broken. But in your aphorisms (books) the link even of the stories, etc.,

appears to be inter-connected and the discontinuity is not seen.


Moreover, the intellect of Ganadharas (chief ascetics) would definitely be more than that of other composers (writers); there should be more meaning in less words in the books written by them, but in the books of your sect, there is no profoundness even as is found in the works of other composers.


Further, whosoever writes the book, he does not mention his name in the style "so and so says", rather mentions "I say so", but in your Sutras Hey Gautama!" and "Gautam says" -such words are written.  But such style of addressing is possible only when someone else is the writer of that book. Therefore, these Sutras are not written by the Ganadharas, but some other persons have written them.  You want to establish authenticity of your imaginary works (scriptures) by the name of Ganadhara, but the intelligent persons believe only after investigating; they do not believe in mere statements.


Further, they say thus also- "There have been some saints who according to Ganadhara-Sutras possessed the knowledge of ten Purvas; they have composed these sutras"  Here we ask- "If new books were written then new names should have been kept? Why are the names of the Angas, etc. are kept?  For example- someone pretends to prove his wealth by keeping the name on his residence of some big wealthy person.  So, your effort seems to be like this.  Had you been truthful you should have named your scriptures in the name of their real author, a practice followed in Digamber-Shastras.  Why had the fallacy been created by keeping the name of Angas, etc. as written by Ganadharas?  Hence, your Sutras (aphorisms) are not the words of Ganadharas or of the knowers of the Purvas.  Further, for creating faith in these Sutras whatever description is in line with Jina's (omniscient's) religion, that is assuredly correct, the Digambers also describe in the same way.


And whatever imaginary compositions are made, in them there appears to be contradiction in the earlier and latter statements and are also found to be incompatible with direct knowledge; the same is being explained hereunder:-


Negation of Liberation by Other than Digambers Jaina-path


The Swetamber believe that the other sectarians, the house-holders, the woman and the untouchable low caste persons (Shoodras etc.) can attain liberation directly by the same birth, but it is not possible.  The unity of right belief knowledge and conduct constitutes the right path of liberation; but they- the Swetamber describe the differentia of right belief as follows:-


"Arhanto mhadevi javjeevan suhasanro gurunro

Jinpanratan tatam aismatam mye ghiyam"


So, how is the believing of Arhanta-Deva, true monk, preceptor and the Tattvas preached by the omniscient Jina possible in other sectarians?  When even right belief is not possible how would then the direct liberation be possible?


IF you will say that by having faith in the inner-self they attain right belief; so, when even praising of the perverse- path followers is described to be a transgression of right belief, then after attaining the right belief, how will one remain the follower of the perverse-path?  After attainment of right belief, the right conduct gets generated on accepting the five great vows (Maha vrata); how would it be feasible in the follower of other (non-Jains) path?  If right conduct is possible even in the followers of perverse-path then Digambar Jain-path and the other paths both become equal.  It is, therefore, wrong to say that attainment of liberation is possible by the followers of other (non-Jaina) paths?


The Negation of Liberation to Householders


They, the Swetamber describe attainment of liberation even in householder's life; but right conduct is evolved only on giving up all sorts of sinful activities of injury, etc., then on giving up all sorts of sinful activities how is the householder's life possible?  If you will say that "the internal renunciation has been achieved", but here in Jaina- path renunciation takes place through all the three (mind, body and speech) channels of activities, then how could renunciation be possible through body?  Moreover, in Swetamber even on keeping the external paraphernalia (belongings and possessions) the Mahavrat one takes the resolve of renouncing the external things only; without renunciation the great vows (Mahavrat) are not possible and without Mahavrat the sixth, etc. stages of spiritual development (Gunasthan) cannot be achieved, how would then the liberation (Moksha) be possible?  It is, therefore, wrong to say that the Moksha is also possible to householders.


Negation of Woman Attaining Liberation


Further, they- the Swetamber describe direct liberation to woman also; but who cannot commit the sin resulting in the birth in seventh hell, how can she effectuate perfectly pure (passionless) disposition instrumental for attaining liberation?  Because of one who has firm determination only can effectuate sin or religion of the highest order. Moreover, it is not possible for a woman to meditate fearlessly in lonely place and to renunciate all paraphernalia's, etc.  If you will contend- "Attaining of liberation in one unit of time by all the three sexes-male, female and neuter is described in the scriptures; therefore, we believe (direct) liberation to woman also".  But here in

this context, is he a Bhava-Vedi (psychically having the feeling of any of three (sex-passions) or is a Dravya-Vedi (physically having any of the three sexes)?  If he is a Bhava-Vedi then we too believe so, and if he is a Dravya-Vedi, then in the world the male and female persons are seen many and the neuter persons are seen rarely, then the question is that how are so many neuter persons possible attaining the Moksha (liberation) in one unit of time? Hence, the interpretation from Dravya-Veda (physical sex) point of view is not correct.


Further, you will say that the sex-passions are described to be persisting up to the ninth Gunasthan; but this statement is also from the Bhava-Veda (psychic-sex feeling) point of view.  If the statement would have been from the Dravya-Veda (physical-sex) point of view then asserting the existence of sex-passion up to the end of fourteenth Gunasthan would also become possible.


Therefore, believing direct liberation to woman is false.


Negation of Liberation to Shoodras


Further, they- the Swetamber assert that the untouchable ignoble low caste persons (Shoodras) can also attain liberation; but how would the householders offer food, etc. to slaughterers, etc. respectfully?  It is against the set public tradition.  And the auspicious thoughts are not possible in the ignoble (low caste people.)  Moreover, the rise of low status determining karma is only up to the fifth Gunasthan; how would the liberation be attained without ascending the upper Gunasthan?  If you will say that after accepting the continence he is said to have attained the high status karma.  If it be so then rise of low and high status determining karma would be governed by accepting continence or not accepting continence.  But on believing so the incontinent men even Tirthankaras, Ksatriyas  etc. (of noble high status family) could be found having the rise of low status determining karma.  If you will believe them to be having the rise of high status karma due to birth in high status family then you should accept the rise of low status karma in ignoble (slaughterers), etc. due to birth in low status family.  In your scriptures (Sutras) also the existence or rise of low status karma is accepted up to the fifth Gunasthan only; so, there will assuredly be contradiction in describing the imaginary things; hence, believing liberation to Shoodras (ignoble/slaughterers, etc.) is false.


Thus, they- the Swetamber have described the attainment of liberation by all human beings; so the purpose of such description is to appear to be benevolent in everyone's eyes and by giving allurement of liberation to propound their

imaginary faith.  But on deep thinking all such description appears to be false (fabricated).


 Refutation of Achheras (fancied peculiarities)


And in their Shastras (Swetamber scriptures) the Achheras, i.e., some fancied peculiarities and acts are described. There they say - " These Achheras are created due to the instrumentality of Hundaawasarpini period, i.e., a peculiar aeon which comes after innumerable years of time; so these are not to be questioned".  But though many uncommon things happen due to bad time, yet nothing happens contrary to nature.  If things do happen even contrary to nature then blossoming of flowers in sky and possession of horns by donkey, etc. would also be possible, which is not possible. The Achheras that they describe are contrary to the nature i.e., against the nature's law.  How is it contrary? Same is being discussed here:-


They describe that Vardhamana Jina, for some period remained in the womb of a Ksatriya lady.  But keeping someone's fetus into someone else's womb is not possible; even it cannot be contemplated.  And if they describe this to have taken place in case of a Tirthankara, then the auspicious ceremony of conception took place at someone's home and the auspicious birth ceremony took place for a few days at someone else's home.  The shower of gems took place for a few days at someone's home and for a few days at someone else's home. The sixteen dreams were dreamt by someone else and the son's birth took place to someone else; and likewise other things appear to be impossible.  Moreover, the mothers became two and the father remained the one Brahman only.  During the auspicious birth ceremony, he was not honored and some other imaginary father was honored.  Thus, stating two fathers of a Tirthankara appears to be totally contradictory.  Even listening to such words about a personage possessed of the highest rank is not worthwhile.


Moreover, if all this is possible even in the case of a Tirthankar then everywhere the transferring of fetus from the womb of one lady to that of another lady would become possible.  So, as the Vaishnavas describe in many ways the birth of son or daughter, similarly, it would become acceptable in Jaina-faith also.  But when in such bad times such events are not possible then how can it be thought of there in that era?  Therefore, this statement is false.


Further, they describe the Lord Millionth Tirthankara to be a girl.  But sitting at one place and giving discourse by a lady in the congregation of the monks and celestial beings, etc. is not possible. Moreover, the woman state of existence is inferior, so it cannot be assumed in a personage who is

possessed of the highest rank of Tirthankara.  And the Tirthankaras (embodied omniscients) are always in the naked posture but adopting a naked posture by a woman is not possible. Thus on deep thinking, all such statements appear to be impossible.


Further, they describe the Jivas of land of enjoyment, living in Harikshetra to have taken birth in hell, but in karmic bondage theory the Jivas of the land of enjoyment are stated to acquire the bondage of celestial life and age karma; how did then they go to hell?  In the doctrinal scripture descriptions are available even of events which happen in endless time.  The existence of Tirthankara-Prakriti (Nama- karma) is described to be up to the third hell but the bondage of Nark Ayu and Gati (hellish age karma and hellish life) is not described to the Jiva of land of enjoyment.  So, the omniscient does never commit an error, hence this is false.


Thus, all Achheras, i.e., fancied peculiarities, are assuredly impossible.


Further, they say- "Don't raise any question or doubt about these (peculiarities)."  So the liar tells this only







And if you Swetamber will say- "In Digambers scripture too, it is stated that the birth of a daughter to a Tirthankara and dishonor of a Chakravarti (king of kings) etc. have taken place due to bad times; similarly, we also believe these Achheras (pecularities) to have taken place. But these acts (viz. taking birth of a daughter to a Tirthankara and dishonour of a Chakravarti) are not contradictory to the law of nature, these were happening to the commoners, so same also could happen to the personages, that is why these are said to be due to bad times. (But) the acts of shifting the foetus from one lady's womb to another lady's womb, etc. are clearly contrary to the evidence and inference: how is happening of such acts possible?


They further make many statements which are also contrary to the law of nature.  For example- they say that the heavenly gods of Sarvartha Siddhi raise questions through mind only and the omniscient Lord gives answers through mind only; but the object or question existing in the common Jivas' mind cannot be known without telepathy (Manah Parayaya Jnana), then how would the gods of Sarvartha Siddhi come to know the things situated in the mind of the omniscient?  Moreover, the Bhava Mana (psychic mind) is absent in the omniscient and only the existence of Dravya-Mana (material mind) is found in material form; who did then reply there?  Hence, this statement too is false.


In this way, many of their (Shwetamberas) statements are contrary to valid knowledge; therefore, their scriptures are

to be known as imaginary only.




Contrary Characteristics attributed to Deva, Guru, Dharma in Shwetambera sect


Further, they (the believers of Shwetambera sect) describe the characteristics of Deva (the omniscient God) Guru (the Preceptor) and Dharma (the religion) totally false.



Attribution of Contrary Characteristics to Omniscient God


They describe the hunger, etc. blemishes being found in the omniscient Lord, but this is false characteristic of Deva, because owing to the hunger, etc. blemishes the restlesness will be caused then how would the infinite bliss be possible? Further, if you will say that the hunger takes place in the body, the soul does not feel absorbed in it; then why do you say that the omniscient takes food, etc. for quenching hunger, etc.?  One will take food only when he suffers from hunger, etc.  Further, if you will say, as the movement of the omniscient is found due to the rise of karmic matter, similarly, the act of taking food is caused.  But the movement is caused due to the uneasiness feeling; moreover, movement is seen in some Jiva even without any desire.  And taking of food is not due to the rise of any Prakriti (Karma); rather one takes it only on suffering from hunger. Moreover, when the soul impels the air, etc. then only the act of swallowing takes place; hence, taking of food is not similar to that of making movement.


You will say that taking of food is caused due to the rise of Sata Vedaniya Karma (pleasure-producing Karmas); but this too is not correct.  If the Jiva is suffering from hunger, etc. and after taking food, etc. he feels happy, then his taking of food, etc. are described to have caused due to the rise of Sata Vedaniya.  If you say that taking of food, etc. happens automatically due to the rise of Sata Vedaniya is chiefly found in the heavenly gods (celestial beings), why then they do not take food continuously?  Moreover, the great ascetics when observe complete fast, etc. then also the rise of Sata Vedaniya is possible to them and those who are found taking food continuously the rise of Asata is also possible to them.


Therefore, as without desire the movement is possible due to the rise of Vihayogati Karma, similarly, without any desire, the act of taking food is not possible simply due to the rise of Sata Vedaniya only.


Again they say- "In the scriptures, the hunger, etc., eleven afflictions, are described occurring to omniscient Jina; so, the existence of hunger is possible to him.  And without

taking the food, etc., how would it get mitigated?  We, therefore, believe the taking of food to be possible in the omniscient Jina."


Answer:  The rise of karmic Prakritis is found with feeble and intense variation.  There, in the omniscient Jina, due to extremely feebled rise of karmas, the manifestation of the act consequent on the rise of karmas is found; therefore, mainly it is said to be non-existent; but minutely speaking, its existence is accepted.  For example- in the ninth Gunasthanaa the rise of sex-passion is extremely feeble, the act of copulation is not present there; therefore, the complete celibacy is described there.  But minutely speaking, the existence of sex-passion, etc. is accepted there. Similarly, the rise of Asata Vedaniya is extremely feebled in the case of omniscient Jina; because on each one Kandakas ( the species of karmas which are due to rise every moment with certain fruition power and it contains infinitesimal parts and divisions.) there exists infinitesimal parts and divisions; so out of such types of many Anubhaga-Kandakas and Guna Samkramanas etc., the fruition (potency) of Asata Vedaniya in Satta (existence state) has become extremely feebled, so in the state of its rise, no such hunger gets manifested which may cause the body to become weak.  And also owing to the absence of Moha (deluding karma) there is no affliction caused by hunger, etc. is described to be absent but minutely speaking, its existence is accepted.


Further, you say- "Without taking the food, etc. how would hunger subside?" But if the hunger requiring food for its mitigation be found in the omniscient Jina how can then the rise of hunger causing passion be treated as very feeble? Even in the state of feeble rise of Asata karma to the Devas (celestial beings) and the Jivas of Bhoga-Bhumi (enjoyment land) very little intake of food is found after a very long interval of time, whereas He- (the omniscient Jina) has got extremely feebled rise of Asata karma, therefore, the absence of taking of food is possible in the omniscient.


Further, he says that the constitution of the body of Devas (celestial beings) and Jivas of Bhoga-Bhumi (enjoyment land) is such that the feeling of hunger is very feeble and that too occurs after a long interval of time, whereas His, (omniscient's) body is the Audarika (gross) body of the Jivas belonging to Karma-Bhumi (land of action); therefore, how does His body remain in the excellent form up to a period a little less than one crore Purva (1), without taking food?


(1) Purva- A measure of innumerable years period.


Answer: Such a constitution of the bodies of Devas etc. too is due to the instrumentality of the rise of appropriate karmas only.  Here on manifestation of omniscience, the rise of karma is of such a state that no hunger is caused to it.

As the hair, nails used to grow before the manifestation of omniscience, now they do not grow, the shadow of the body was cast (prior to attainment of omniscience) but now it is not cast; earlier Nigoda beings were found in the body but now they are not found.  As the condition of the body has turned totally, accordingly, the condition (of the body) has also become such that even without food the body remains as it is. See the tangible proof that when the other people are embraced by senility then their bodies become languid whereas His (omniscient's) body does not become languid till the end of Ayu-karma; therefore, the comparison between other people's bodies and the omniscient's body is not possible.


Further, if you will say that the Devas' food itself is such type that hunger gets subsided for a very long time but by which thing did the omniscient's hunger get subsided and how body remained sturdy? Our answer is that the hunger got subsided due to very feeble rise of Asata Vedaniya Karma and every moment the best quality of gross body particles are sucked, so this is the Nokarma-Ahar, i.e., taking of food of particles which forms the excellent gross body; therefore, such kinds of Varganas (matter-particles) are sucked owing to which the hunger, etc. are not caused and the body  does not get languid.  In the scriptures (doctrine) the taking of food by the omniscient Lord is described from this viewpoint only.


Moreover, the cereals food is not the main cause of the sturdiness of the body.  The tangible proof is that even if someone takes little quantity of food his body becomes sturdy, while someone takes large quantity of food and still his body remains weak.  And people following the yogic exercises of respiration control, etc. do not take food for a longer period and yet their bodies remain sturdy; the monks possessed of supernatural powers observe complete fasts, etc., yet their bodies remain strong.  The omniscient Jina is having the supremeness in all respects, what is the wonder if His body remains strong even without taking cereals food, etc.?  Moreover, how would the omniscient Jina go for taking food?  How would He beg?


And if He- the omniscient Jina goes to take food then how would the Samavasarana (Jina's auditorium or preaching Arena) remain vacant?  Or if you will support bringing food by others then who will bring? Who will know of His mind?  How would the oath of observing the fast, etc. taken earlier be sustained?  How would He accept food where obstacle caused by living beings appears to be present all everywhere?  Thus in many ways, the contrariety is quite obvious.  Further, they say- " the omniscient Jina takes food but it is not visible to anybody".  Further, they accept that taking of food is censurable act, therefore, they established its non- visibility as glory; but the contemptibility remained present in Him, even if others do not see it, so what?  Thus in many ways, contrariety is established.



Further, there are many other things full of imprudence in their scriptures.  They mention occurrence of motion to the omniscient Jina and say that diseases, etc. are found in Him and further say that someone threw Tejo Leshya (effect of electric body) on Him, due to which Lord Vardhamaan Jina suffered from the disease of dysentery (colic pain) and because of it He had frequent motions.  If there be found the rise of such type of karma even to the Tirthankara Kewali (omniscient Jina) and no glory took place then how could reverence by Indras, etc. be treated as graceful?  And how does He evacuate the bowels, where does He do it?  None of these things are possible.  Further, they establish the same type of activities in an omniscient which are found in the non-omniscient mundane beings having attachment, etc. passions.


They (the Shwetamberas) believe that Lord Vardhamaan Jina addressed Gautam! by name several times in His discourses. But in His natural divine speech (called Divyadhwani) which takes place in its usual time, the sermons are meant for all; how then addressing Gautam is possible? further, they believe that the omniscient salutes others, but without affection salutation is not possible.  Moreover, salutation is done to more meritorious person but none else was more meritorious than Him; so, how then this is possible?


Further, they say that His (omniscient Vardhamana's) Samavasarana (preaching-arena) alighted in the market place but how would the Samvasarana arranged by Indra be accommodated in the market place?  How such a large arena be accommodated in the market?  and why should he (the omniscient) stay in the market? Is Indra not capable of creating an organization similar to a market place, because of which taking shelter in the market would be necessary?


They further say, that the omniscient Lord went to somebody's house for sermonising but sermonising by going to someone's house is possible due to excessive attachment feeling only and such a feeling is not possible even in a monk, how could it then be imagined in the omniscient Lord?  Several such contrarieties are found in their scriptures.  The omniscient Lord has, in fact, turned into an absolutely passionless and attachment-less state full of pure omniscience and omniperception; only some activity possible due to the rise of non-destructive types of karmas takes place in Him.  But He is totally free from delusion and passions, etc., hence, such activities which might occur only by diversion of Upayoga (attention) are not possible in Him.  The fruition of inauspicious Prakritis have become extremely feeble, such as is not found in any body else, therefore, the activity which is seen occurring due to the rise of inauspicious Prakritis in other Jivas is unimaginable in the omniscient Lord.



Thus, they describe the characteristics of omniscient God false by ascribing to Him such activities which are found i ordinary human beings.


         Attribution of False Characteristics to the



And they describe the characteristics of preceptor monk contrarily.  They mention the clothings, etc. fourteen types of appendages (1) (paraphernalias) permissible to a monk.  We ask - "You describe monk as a Nigrantha (totally possessionless and occupationless saint) and at the time of adopting the monkhood one accepts the great vows by abandoning the nine kinds of all possessions (paraphernalias); so, whether these clothing, etc. are possessions or not? If those are possessions then why do they keep same after abandoning? And if those are not possessions then the clothing, etc. which are possessed by householders should also not be called possessions, only gold, etc. should be called possession.


(1) Patra-1, Patrabandh-2, Patrakesarikar-3, patalikas 4-5, Gochchhaka-7, Rajoharana-8, Mukha-vastrika-9, two cotton cloths-10,11, one woolen cloth-12, Matrak-13, Cholapatta- 14 (See Vrihatk, shu.U.-3/3962-3965)


Further, if you will say- "As they (the monks) take food for subsiding hunger, similarly they keep clothing, etc. for the purpose of protecting from cold, heat, etc."  But while accepting the monkhood they have not given up taking of food but have relinquished possessions.  Moreover, hoarding food, etc. is assuredly possession but going to take food is not possession.  And hoarding as well as wearing the clothings, etc. is certainly possession all everywhere and is known such in the world.


Further, if you will say- "They (the monks) keep the clothings, etc. for the purpose of maintaining the body, there is no feeling of attachment or mineness, that is why these are not termed possessions."  But in belief the moment one becomes a right believer, from the same moment the feeling of attachment or mineness in all kinds of non-self substances is finished; so from that point of view, you should accept the fourth Gunasthana itself as a state of possessionlessness.  And if the attachment of mineness is not there in the conduct or proclivity then how do they (monks) keep them?  Therefore, only when relinquishment of accepting and keeping clothings, etc. would take place then only one will become possessionless.


If you say- "If someone takes away his clothings, etc. then he (the monk) does not become angry and when he feels hungry then he does not sell them and by wearing cloths, etc. he does not become reckless, rather by developing unperturbed

state of thoughts engages himself in religious activities, so there is no feeling of attachment or mineness."  Though he may not be found to be angry outwardly, yet there will necessarily arise the feeling of dejection in the deprivation of those things, in the possession of which he has feeling of affection and agreeableness.  If he does not have the feeling of agreeableness then what for does he beg these commodities? The reason why he does not sell any of these possessions or things is the avoidance of the feeling of inferiority caused due to keeping of money.  But keeping of money, etc. is like keeping of cloths, etc.  In the world the Jivas who long for possessions desire both types of possessions.  Hence, keeping both types of possessions are alike from the point of view of fear of stealing by thieves, etc.  And if keeping of possessions is allowable for the sake of maintaining unperturbed state of thoughts then somebody would follow religious practices by maintaining unperturbedness of thoughts by putting on quilt when he feels severe cold. According to you, such a person should also be called possessionless?  Thus, what difference would remain between the householders's religion and the monk's religion?  The one who does not have the strength of enduring the afflictions, he practices the religious activities by keeping the possessions, is called a householder, and on the other hand one whose thoughts are pure so that he does not become perturbed by afflictious, does not keep the possessions and practices the religious activities, is called a monk; this much only is the difference between the two.


Further, you may say- "How will He not become restless due to afflictions of cold, etc.?"  But restlessness is caused owing to the instrumentality of rise of deluding karma (Mohaniya); and in the sixth, etc. Gunasthanas of the monk, there is no rise of the three categories of four kinds of passions, and Samjwalana (the fourth category of four passions), the rise of the Sarvaghati Spardhakas, i.e., wholly destroying type of karmic veil is not found there, only the rise of Deshaghati Spardhakas i.e., partially destroying type of karmic veil is found there, but these are not powerful.  For example- the rise of Samyag-Mohaniya, i.e., the mildest form of faith deluding Darshan Moha Karma is found to a Vedaka Samyag- drishti (a true believer having Kshayopashamic form of right belief); but it cannot destroy the right belief.  Similarly, the rise of Deshaghati Samjualana cannot perturb the thoughts (i.e., pure dispositions of a monk). Oh! there is no parity of thoughts between monks and ordinary persons.  All others have the rise of Sarvaghati Karmas, whereas the monks have the rise of Sarvaghati Kashayas (intense passions) they remain in the state of householders only and those who have the rise of Deshaghati-Kashyas (mildest form of passions) accept the monk's religion; their thoughts are not perturbed by cold, etc; therefore, they do not keep clothes, etc. possessions.



You might say- "In Jaina- scripture it is described that a monk can keep fourteen types of appendages (Upakaranas); but this is described in your shastras (scripture) only, it is nowhere described in your shastras (scripture) only, it is nowhere described in Digamber-Shastras (scripture) rather there in the Digamberas even on keeping a lion cloth only the votary or observer of the eleventh Pratima (pledge) is called a Shravaka, i.e., one situated in the highest spiritual grade possible in the house-holder's life.


Now, ponder over here that out of these two words (interpretations) are fabulous?  Primarily the fabulous compositions are made by him who is overpowered by passions and the passionate person only pretends to hold and emient status though he possesses low status.  Here in Digamberas it is not described that by keeping cloths, etc. the religion (or partial purity of thoughts) is not at all evolved but there in that condition Shravaka-Dharma- the householder's religion gets evolved; whereas in such status in Shwetamberas- Muni Dharma the monks religion is said to have evolved.  Therefore, he only is the passionate person who pretends to show eminence even on following the conduct of low order.  Due to this fabulous statement, the people have started believing themselves as monks even on keeping the cloths, etc., so they have cherished the pride-passion and shown eminence (higher status) in the easy conduct to others; hence, many people got engaged in it.  The fabulous sects, which have come up, have prospered this way only.  Therefore, in your scriptures persons indulging in passion and keeping cloths, etc. are described as monks.  So, this is proved to be contrary in the light of aforesaid logic.  Therefore, let it be known that your statements are mere fabulous statements.


Further, you may say- "In Digamberas too, the shastra (book) and pinchhi (soft brush of peacock-feather), etc. are described as the appendages (upakaranas) of the monk; similarly, in our scriptures fourteen appendages are stated?'


Answer: That by which assistance is rendered is termed Upakarana (appendage).  So here, if and appendage is allowed for mitigating the affliction caused by cold then all possessions and things would get the name of appendage (upakarana).  But what is the purpose of keeping them in the practice of religion?  Those things are the cause of sin only but in religion those appendages (upakaranas).  The shastra (scripture) is the cause of knowledge, the pinchhi of compassion and the kamandal (a wooden pot for keeping water) is the cause of cleanliness, i.e., the cause of ablution after evacuation of bowels), so these things are helpful in the practice of religion.  How would cloths, etc. be helpful in the practice of religion?  These are possessed only for the sake of comfort of the body.



If a monk poses to be great by possessing shastras, sweeps by Pinchhi, drinks water, etc. from Kamandal or removes dirt, etc. of the body, then the shastras, etc. also are the possessions only; but the (true) monk does not indulge in such acts.  Therefore, the means of appendages which are helpful in the practice of religion are not called possessions; rather the means (objects) of enjoyment only are called the possessions.


Further, you may say- "The monks keep kamandal (water-pot) only for ablution after evacuation of bowels"  But the monks do not keep the kamandal with such desire.  Since they engage themselves in reading of shastras, if at that time their body remains in impure state then it would amount to disrespect of shastras and also will e censured by people; hence, for religious practice he keeps the water-pot (kamandal).  With the same object keeping of pinchhi etc. appendages is desirable but regarding the cloths, etc. as to be the appendages is not possible.


To avoid external manifestation through the body of passions like sex-inclination, disliking, etc. which are caused due to rise of conduct-deluding karma and to avoid display of lack of forbearance of cold, etc., they keep cloths, etc.  Also due to rise of pride-passion, they desire people to treat them adorable; therefore, they regard cloths, etc. as appendages by fabulous logic.


Further, they approve bringing of food from different houses by begging.  Our question to them is- "Is begging (of food) a religious act or sinful practice?  If it is the religious act then all beggars would become religious persons and if it is a sinful act then how is it possible by a monk?"


Again if you will say- "If he begs some wealth, etc. out of greed-passion then it is a sin, but for the sake of practising religion he wants to maintain the stability of body, therefore, he indulges in begging of food, etc.?"


Answer: Taking food, etc. is not instrumental for religion, rather it is the cause of bodily happiness; hence, they beg for the sake of bodily happiness due to excessive greed- passion.  Had excessive greed-passion not been there for what purpose would he indulge in begging?  Giving or not giving of food is the concern of the householders only.  And the excessive greed itself is a sin, then there remained no monk's religion; so, what other religion would he practise?


Now he says- "If the desire of taking food is existing in the mind and he does not beg then it is deceit-passion and in inferiority complex arises, so if he does not beg due to pride then it is pride-passion.  The desire of food arose, so he begged it; how is this excessive greed? And how is monk's religion destroyed by this?



We say to him - "For example, some trader has feeble desire of earning, so he runs his shop and has also the desire of trading but he does not request any body to trade with him in the form of transaction of goods; if someone wants to trade with him according to his conditions then his greed-passion is feeble; the deceit and pride passions are not fostered by him.  The deceit and pride passions will be there only when he assumes such appearance for deceiving and establishing his superiority.  But a good trader does not possess any such objective; therefore, deceit-pride passions are not said to be nourished by him.  Similarly, monk's desire of taking food, etc. is feeble.  They come in the town for taking food and also have the desire of taking food, but they do not beg food.  If someone offers food on his own then he on getting his conditions fulfilled takes food; there his greed-passion

is feeble, deceit and pride passions are not found in him. The deceit and pride-passions will be there only when he assumes such disguise for deceiving and establishing his superiority; but no such purpose is found in the monks; therefore, deceit and pride passions then all those, who commit sins by mind only and do not indulge in sins by words and bodily acts, will be said to be possessing deceit-passion and those holding high status do not indulge in means acts, they all will be said to be possessing pride-passion; such interpretation would be highly damaging.


And you said- "How begging of food is regarded as possession of extreme greed-passion?"  But one wants to accomplish his desire by indulging in publicly censurable acts only when he is overpowered by intense passions.  Moreover, begging is a publicly censurable act and if he adopts begging as a means of fulfilling his desire of food, then intense greed-passion is proved to be there.


Further, you asked- "How is monk's religion destroyed?" Because in monk's religion such intense passion is not imaginable.  Moreover, someone may not be having the desire of offering food but he entered his house and begged food; there the householder felt embarrassment and offered food under the fear of public-censure, if food was not offered. But this amounted to hurting the inner feelings of the householder and so the monk is deemed to have committed injury (Hinsa).  Had he (the Shwetamber monk) not entered his house and the householder himself would have offered food of his own, then he would have felt pleasure by offering food. But this act materialised under pressure.  Moreover, for fulfilling one's own desire, if he (the monk) utters words of begging then it amounts to be a sinful act; therefore, this is proved to be an act of false utterance also.  And he (the householder) was not willing to offer food but he begged food, then he (the house-holder) offered food unwillingly under pressure.  Therefore, this also amounted to accepting without being offered.  Further, in the householder's home.

ladies were sitting unmindfully and this monk went in; so this amounted to be the breach of fencing of celibacy too. And after collecting food he kept it for some time and for keeping the food he possessed the receptacle (bowls) etc. so this amounted to keeping possessions.  Thus, due to breach of five great vows (Mahavratas) the monk's religion is destroyed.  Hence, collecting food by begging is not proper for a monk.


Further, he argues- "In the twenty-two afflictions which are to be endured by a monk, there is one Yaachana-Parishaha (begging-affliction); so how would the enduring of that affliction be possible without begging?"


Answer: Begging is not the begging affliction.  Rather not begging is the begging affliction.  For example- the attitude of disliking is not the disliking affliction, but not having the feeling of disliking is not the disliking is disliking- affliction.  If begging be treated as an affliction then the beggars. etc. indulge too much in begging, as such they will be called highly religious persons.  And if you will say that because of reducing pride-passion this begging is termed as an affliction, then also one remains a sinner even on forsaking some kind of passion for the sake of cherishing some other kind of passional act.  For example- if someone due to greed-passion does not mind even his being insulted then he is to be possessing intense greed-passion and being insulted in this way also amounts to great sin.  If one does not have any desire and someone else insulted him on his own accord then he (the endurer) is said to be highly religious. But in this case he (the Shwetamber monk) for the sake of greed of food gets insulted by begging the food; therefore, it is assuredly the sin and not a religious practice. Moreover, he begs for the sake of cloths, etc. also, but putting on cloth, etc. is not at all any part of the religion, rather it is the cause of bodily pleasure; hence, this too is negated in the aforesaid manner.  Let it be known that such practice of begging, etc. is not possible in monk's religion, but they (the Swetamberas) regard the possessor of such sort of impossible acts to be a monk and preceptor. Thus, they describe the preceptor's to be a monk and preceptor.  Thus, they describe the preceptor's characteristics contrarily.


False Description of the Nature of Religion


Further, they describe the religion's characteristics contrarily.  The oneness of right belief, knowledge and conduct (these three) is the path of liberation, the same is the religion but they describe its characteristics contrarily.  The same is explained hereunder:


In reality, belief in the real nature of substance (Tattvas) is right belief but they do not give due emphasis to this.

They regard right belief to be the belief in Arhanta God, monk-preceptor, compassion religion  as per their interpretation.  But firstly they describe the nature of Arhanta God, etc. contrarily.  So, how with this much faith only, would the right belief evolve without faith in the true nature of Tattvas?  Therefore it is false.


Though, somewhere they describe faith in Tattvas to be the right belief, yet they do not emphasise the purpose involved in such belief of Tattvas.  The nature of the spiritual stages and the quest places, etc. of the Jivas (soul), atom and molecules, etc. form of Ajivas (non-souls), the dispositions of vice and virtue (Papa and Punya), non- restraint (vowlessness) etc. form of influxes (Asravas), observing of vows, etc. form of stoppage (samvara), observing of religious penances, etc. form of partial destruction of karmas (Nirjara) and of Moksha (complete annihilation of karmas) through the differentiating characteristics of becoming Siddha (liberated state of soul)- knowing all these as described in their shastras (scriptures) and believing that the "revelation of the omniscient is authentic"- such belief of the Tattvarthas (essential principles) is stated by them (Shwetamberas) to be the attainment of right belief.


Here we ask them- "Is such sort of faith found to a Dravya- lingi Muni (Naked possessionless Digamber monk who although has not attained the real right belief, practises 28 Mulguna (essential rites) without blemish.) who gets birth in the Graiveyaka heavens or not?  If it is found then why is he called a misbeliever?  And if it is not found, although he has accepted the Jaina- monkhood with religious feeling and attitude, how has he then not got the conviction of Arhanta God, etc.?  He is also well versed in shastras (scriptural studies) then how has he not known the differentia of Jivas etc.?  Moreover, he does not have the slightest regard in his inner-self about other sects; how then he has not got the conviction of the revelation of Arhanta God?  Hence, he does possess such sort of faith but the right belief is not evolved in him.  And the infernal beings, Bhogabhumi beings (Jivas of enjoyment land) and the beasts, etc. sub-human beings do not have the instrumental cause of attaining such sort of faith, nevertheless, they are found possessing the right belief for a very long period; therefore, although they are not found having such sort of faith, yet the right belief is possessed by them.


Therefore, what you say is not the characteristic mark of the right belief. The real characteristic mark of right belief will be described later on and the same be known from there.


Further, they say that Samyag-Jnana (right knowledge) consists in the study of their shastras (scriptures), but the Dravya-Lingi Muni is described to be possessing wrong knowledge even though he has studied many shastras whereas a

vowless true believer's knowledge of the objects of senses, etc. is described to be possessing wrong knowledge even though he has studied many shastras whereas a vowless true believer's knowledge of the objects of senses, etc. is described as the right knowledge.


Therefore, this is not the characteristic mark.  The right nature will be described later on.


Further, they believe that Samyak-charita (right conduct) consists in observing the householder's and the monk's religion (rites) in the form of Anuvratas (small vows) and Mahvratas (great vows) as described by them; but firstly the nature of the vows, etc. is described by them contrarily; this has been discussed earlier in the elucidation of the preceptor's characteristics.  Secondly a Dravya-lingi-muni even after observing the Mahavratas (great vows) is not found to be possessing the Samyak-charita whereas according to their belief, the householders, etc. are said to have attained the right conduct even without accepting the Mahavratas etc.


This is, therefore, not the characteristic mark, the true nature is different, same will be described later on.


Here they say- "The aforesaid faith, etc. qualities have not evolved internally in Dravyalingi-muni, those are observed externally only; therefore, the right belief, etc. are not found?"


Answer:  If these (faith, etc. qualities) are not evolved internally and are being observed only externally, then this means that he observes them deceitfully.  But, if he is engrossed in deceit, how can he then go up to the Graiveyaka heaven?  Rather he ought to go in hells, etc.?  The bondage of karmas is the result of internal thoughts and dispositions , therefore, obtaining birth in Graiveyakas heaven is not possible without evolving internal thoughts and belief according to Jaina religion.


Further, they (the Shwetamberas) believe that the bondage of karmas resulting in heavenly life occurs due to the auspicious thoughts and disposition in the form of observing vows, etc and the same cause is believed to be the liberation-path by them, but this is false because they believe the same cause to be instrumental for both bondage and liberation.


And in the conventional religion-path, many contrary practices are described.  They say there is no sin in killing the calumniator, but the calumniators belonging to other (non-Jaina) faith were found in the time of Tirthankaras too; the Lord Indra, etc. did not kill the calumniators.  And they adore the Jina is installed for inculcating the

passionlessness; but by adoring with ornaments finery, etc., the Jina's idol too become similar to the idols of other (non-Jaina) faiths.  Likewise, many contrarieties are found in their scriptures.  Thus, the Shwetambera sect is to known as the fabricate sect.  Here in this sect, owing to misinterpretations of right belief, etc., the perverse faith, etc. only are fostered; hence, one should not have faith, etc. in it.



Analysis of Dhoondhaka Sect in Shwetamberas


Further, in Shwetamberas there is a sub-sect called Dhoondhaka and its followers as Dhoondhiyas.  They proclaim themselves to be the true pious persons; so, this too is a fallacy as discussed hereunder:-


Many persons by adopting the outward appearance of a saint (i.e., impersonators) are called saints, but they do not observe even the Vratas (vows), Samitis (carefulnesses), Guptis (control over mind, body and speech) etc. as described in their Shastras.  Further they take oath of renouncing all sorts of sinful acts by mind, speech and body and also of not performing, nor getting performed, nor supporting such acts, but later on they do not follow and observe the same.  They confer monk's initiation on boys of minor age, innocent people and even on Shoodras (low cast persons) etc.  Thus, they adopt renunciation and while renouncing do not apply thought and mind as to "What is being renounced?"; later on they even do not follow the vows, etc. and sitill they are treated by all to be the saints.


Further, the Dhoondhiyas say- "They will attain spiritual benefit afterwards when religious feeling and attitude is evolved in them, but the preceptor initiated the vow even though he knew that the vow is likely to be broken and the vow-oath-taker after accepting the oath broke it; so, who is responsible for this sin?  How did he ascertain that such a person will become the true follower afterwards?  And if after accepting the vows of monk's religion one does not follow the same properly should he be believed to be a monk or not?  If he is believed to be a monk then all those who are treated to be the monks but are corrupt should be revered as monks by you.  If he is not believed to be a monk then all those cannot be treated (as monks) possessing monkhood. Moreover, with whatever conduct you believe one to be a monk, even the observance of the same is rarely found in someone: why then you regard all as monks?


Here someone may say- "We will regard as monks only those persons in whom we will find the proper conduct and will not pay regard to others."  There we ask him- "In a congregation there are many who appear to be monks; but the one to whom you regard monk possessing proper conduct, whether he himself

regards others in the congregation as monks or not?  If he regards them as monks then he is proved to be a greater misbeliever than yourself, how do you then believe him to be a venerable person?  And if he does not regard others as monks then why do you treat him as a monk?  Further, if he himself does not regard them as monks, why does he then indulge in the deceitful act of keeping such fellows in his congregation and inducing others to regard them as monks and thus make others misbelievers?


And the one whom you will not regard as monk then you will advise other colleagues also not to regard him as monks, but due to this, there arises contrariety in the religious tradition.  And the one to whom you regard as monk, with him also your relation will be like that of an opponent because he regards the other one as monk.  And the one whom you regard as the follower of proper conduct-you will find on thoughtful consideration that he too is not following the real religion of the monk.  If someone says that they (the Swetambera monks) are better than the other impersonators, so we pay regard to them.  But in the other sects different kinds of impersonations are possible, because the negation of passions (attachment-feelings) is not found there.  Whereas here in Jaina-faith one gets the title of a monk only if he follows into the correct path of a monk as described therein.


Here someone argues- " They observe chastity, continence, etc., undergo penances etc. hence to the extent they follow the path of a monk to that extent it is good?"


Answer: It is true in whatever small measure religion is practised, it is good; but if someone takes the oath of high order of religious status and practises less then it amounts to great sin due to breaking of the oath.  For example- if someone after taking the oath of observing fast takes food only once, then he is called a sinner even though he has restrained himself from taking food several times. Similarly, if someone having taken the oath of a monk's religion does not observe that religion even in a small measure then he is called a sinner in spite of his following chastity, continence, etc.  And as someone, by taking the oath of one time meal, takes the food once only, then he is assuredly a religious person. Similarly, if someone by accepting the householders status practices religion even in small measure as per his oath, then he is assuredly a religious person. Here sinfulness is possible in observing the conduct of lower status by keeping the name of higher status. But sinfulness is not caused by observing the religious practice by holding the name (or rank) to one's status of conduct; thus to the extent one follows religious practices to that extent it is good.


                 Someone further argues- "In the scripture it is stated that the existence of the four kinds of religious

congregations will be found till the end of fifth era. Therefore, if these are not to be regarded as monks then who are to be regarded as such ?"


                 Answer: In the present time the existence of swans is accepted but if in the approachable area the swans are not seen then the other birds cannot be treated to be the swans; only those birds in which the differentia of swan is found can be called swans. Similarly, in the present time the existence of monks is described but if in the approachable area the monks (with their definite characteristics) are not found then the other impersonators cannot be regarded as monks; only those in whom the definite characteristics of a monk are found are to be treated as monks. Moreover, their ability too is found in a limited area only, how to accept the existence of monks in the area farther away from such area ? If monkhood is decided by the characteristics of a monk, then here also the same principle. And if somebody is to be regarded as a monk even though he does not possess the characteristics of a monk, then the impersonators found there (in those farther areas) should be treated as monks." Thus the contrariness is obvious. Hence your arguments are not correct.


                 Someone may say. "The monkhood of this type also is found in this fifth era." If it is so, then show the relevant scriptural proof, then you are a sinner. Thus in the light of all this logic, the monkhood, cannot be established in them and in the absence of monkhood, if they are regarded as monks and preceptors then it fosters wrong faith, because only by believing true monk (naked possession-less saint) as preceptor right faith can be evolved.


Negation of the Belief of not Becoming a Jaina-Shravaka following the Pratimas (Oaths)


                 Further, they (the Shwetamberas) encourage contrary practices of Shravaka-Dharma (householder's religion). They regard such persons as observers of partial vows in whose life the sins of injury to mobile beings with two or more senses and indulgence in big lies etc. are found, by causing them to accept some meaningless renunciation; and he continues to indulge in such acts in which the injury to mobile beings with two or more senses is caused; but in Deshavrata Gunasthana (fifth stage of spiritual development) eleven non-abstinences are mentioned; so, how is the injury to mobile beings with two or more senses possible there ?

And the eleven kinds of Pratimas (oaths) are of the Shravakas (Jaina-householders), but in your sect no Shravaka is found observing the vows of the order of tenth and eleventh Pratimas and directly becomes monk.


When asked, they say- "The Shravakas observing the vows of Pratimas are not possible in this era". Behold! Shravakas religion is difficult and the monk's religion is easy "-such contradictory statements are given by them. And they advocate less belongings and possessions to a Shravaka of eleventh Pratima and more belongings and possessions to a monk, so this is impossible. Further, they say - "Shravakas give up this Pratima after observing it for a short period." But, if this pious practice is excellent, then, why will a devout person leave the higher grade of conduct an if it is a low grade practice, then why will he accept it ? All this is not at all possible.


                 Further, they support that householder's religion is possible by offering salutation, etc, to the false deities and preceptors, etc. They argue that they do not salute them with some religious attitude; it is merely a worldly formality. But in the doctrines even the act of praising and invocating them is stated as the transgression of the right belief and here for pleasing the householders, they do not oppose such practice of salutation.


                 Further, if you will say- "We salute them because of fear, shamefulness, sport, etc"., then on the ground of these very reasons, you should not regard sin even in their indulgences in the acts of unchastity, etc.; only know them to be sin internally. Thus, contradiction will arise in all religious practices.


                 In this way, no prominence is given to forsaking of indulgence in the great sin like Mithyatva (false belief) and prominence is given to the sin of injury to air beings by denying the practice of speaking with uncovered mouth, so this is clearly a non-sequential discourse. Moreover, the aspects of religion are many; out of them, they emphasise only compassion towards other beings, but in this also they do not have any prudentiality. The prominence is not given to the practice of filtering of water, cleaning of food grains, etc., non-eating of impure things, non-indulgence in trading activities involving injury, etc.


Negation of Mukha-Patti (A Clothpiece for Covering Mouth)


                 And they give importance to the acts of tieing of a clothpiece over the mouth, using less amount of water in ablution but the organisms are created due to the contact of the spittle with the dirty clothpiece tied over the mouth; they are unmindful of these acts and lay stress on avoiding the injury to air beings, a lot of air is exhaled through the nose but they do not bother about it. And according to their scripture, if care is to be taken while speaking only, then why do they always keep it over the mouth ? While speaking they should take care of it. If they say- "We forget, then the question is that when even this much is not remembered how will then other aspects of religion  (rituals) be followed?  And they advocate use of less amount of water in ablution, etc. but the necessary is done by the monks also; hence, the householders should also do the ablution as per their status.  Observing the act of Samayiaka (meditation) etc. without doing ablution after sexual intercourse, etc., sin is caused due to disrespect, madness, etc. Thus, the practices they stress, too, are not strictly followed. And they observe many of the aspects of compassion correctly, forsake eating of vegetables, etc., consume less amount of water; so we do not negate them.


Refutation of the Negation of Idolatry


And they (a group of Shwetamberas) refute Pratima (installation of omniscient's idol), Chaityalaya (temple of Arhantadeva, Jina) and rituals of worshipping, etc.  by holding one-sided view of Ahimsa (non-injury). But in their own shastras (scriptures) description of Pratima (Jina's idol's worshipping) etc. is found; that aspect they hide with bigotry feeling. In their Bhagwati-Sutra Shastra there is found the description of a monk possessing supernatural powers; therein it is written that he went to Merugiri (mount Meru) and offered salutation to Jina 's idols.  The meaning of this is that there he makes obeisance to the Chaityas and the word Chaitya is popular in the sense of Pratima (Jina's idol). And they obstinately hold that the word Chaitya is used to denote knowledge, etc., so, it has a different meaning, its meaning is not the Pratima.  Our question is - "By repeatedly going to the land of Merugiri and continent Nandishwara he offered obeisance to the Chaitya, but how is the meaning of offering obeisance to knowledge, etc. possible there? The obeisance to knowledge, etc. is possible everywhere. The offering of obeisance to the particular adorable Chaitya is possible there only where it is found and nowhere else found. So, such possible meaning could be Pratima (Jina's idol) only, because main meaning of the word Chitya is Pratima only which is famous. By this meaning only, the name as Chaityalaya (Jina's temple) is possible, why to hide it by showing obstinacy?


Moreover, adoration by heavenly gods by going to Nandishwara continent, etc. has been described in their scripture at several places.  And the description of naturally existing Pratimas (Idols of Jina) in the universe are found in the scripture, so, such uncreated existence is found from beginningless time. That uncreated (self-existing) formation is not for the purpose of sensuous pleasures, etc. and there in the abodes of heavenly gods, Indras, etc. the purposeless formation is not possible. What do Indras, etc. do to see it? To see the purposeless formation in their temples, either they might be becoming apathetic with it and feeling unhappy but this is not possible; or by seeing suck attractive formation they might be fostering the objects of senses but it is not possible that by seeing the Arhanta's idol the true believers would foster their objects of senses.  Therefore, the only possibility is that they do their adoration, etc. only there.


In their scripture there is a story of Suryaabha Deva; there the ritual of worshipping Pratimaji (Jina's Idol) is specifically described.


For concealing it they say- "Devas ' duty is of such type only". So, this is true but there is always found some fruit of the duty or activity (that one does). So, what is its result - religion or sin i.e., virtue or vice. If religion is its result then it would mean that elsewhere there used to be sin and here the result is religion; so, how could this be treated similar to others? This is befitting act. If sin is its result, but he recited the hymn of Namotthunam. Why did he then recite the hymn of salutation which is the place of sin?


And one thought arose here is this that in the recitation of the hymn Namotthunam there is invocation of Arhantadeva; so they recited this hymn before the Jina's idol; hence the act of Arhantas' adoration done before the Jina's Idol is logical.


They further say- "Such act is possible for Devas (celestial beings) only and not for human beings because in making idol, etc., injury is caused by human beings." But in their own shastras there is such description that Queen Draupadi started worshipping the Jina's idol as was done by Suryaabhadeva; hence, such act is also the duty of human beings.


Another idea arose here that if the tradition of making Chaityalayas (Jina's temples) and Pratimas (Jina's idols) was not prevalent, then, how did Draupadi queen worship the Jina's idol?  And if the tradition was prevalent then were the makers of the temples, etc. religious persons or sinners? If they were religious persons then such act of worshipping, etc. is commendable for householders and if they were sinners, why did then they make these things when there was no purpose of enjoying the sensual pleasures?  And Draupadi recited the hymn of Namotthunam there and per-formed the worship, etc.; was this done for mere fun or religion? If this was done for mere fun, then she was a great sinner. How could there be sportive act in the religion? And if she did this as a religious practice, then others also ought to worship and adore Jina's idol.


Further, they put up such false logic- "As by installation of Indra's idol, our purpose from Indra is not served, similarly by installation of Arhanta Jina's idol, our purpose is not served. If the Arhanta God does good of some person by considering him as his devotee then what you say can be accepted, but He is totally passionless. The devotee himself obtains the auspicious fruit by his thoughts and dispositions of devotion. For example, if someone, by seeing the idol of woman made from wood or stone, develops affection by becoming lustful then he will have the bondage of inauspicious karmas; similarly, if someone, by seeing the idol of Jina made from metal or stone, develops the feeling of devotion by religious attitude, then, why will he not have the bondage of auspicious karmas? There they say- "We will develop auspicious thoughts by devotional feelings towards Arhanta God even without His idol." Our logic is- "The type of thoughts which arise by seeing the form (idol) do not arise by remembering indirectly (the Arhanta God). This is why the lovers of woman make the portrait of woman in this world also; therefore, by taking the recourse to Jina's idol, special types of auspicious thoughts and dispositions are generated due to specific devotional feelings.


Further, someone argues- "One may see the idol but what is the purpose in worshipping it?"


Answer: For example, if someone after making the effigy of some Jiva destroys it, then he commits the type of sin similar to that of killing that Jiva and if someone after making the effigy of some Jiva spoils it with the feeling of aversion, then he gets the fruit of the type similar to that of actually harming that Jiva. In the same way, if someone by making the idol of Arhanta God worships it with religious devotion and regard, then in him rises the auspicious thought as similar to that of worshipping the real Arhanta God and he gets the same type of fruit; under the feelings of intense devotion and regard one worships the idol of Arhata God due to non-availability of Darshan (seeing) of actual omniscient Lord Arhanta Deva. This devotional regard results in the bondage of auspicious karmas of very high order.


Further, they put up such illogical argument- "It is a mockery of a person to offer him those articles which he has relinquished, therefore, worshipping Arhanta Deva by offering sandal, etc. before His idol is inappropriate.


Answer: While accepting the monkhood (homeless ascetic life) all kinds of possessions and occupations were renounced (by the Shravaka), and after attainment of omniscience Lord Indra created Samavasarana (omniscient's preaching arena), Chhatra (umbrella) and Chamvar (flapper) etc. for adoring Tirthankara Deva. Was this a mockery or adoration? If this was a mockery, then the Indra committed great sin. But this is not possible. If by all this he adored Lord Arhanta Deva then in the worshipping of the idol of Arhanta Deva the devotee does the adoration only. And mockery lies in offering to a non- omniscient person the things which he has already forsaken because it may result in upsetting him; but no fault lies in putting before the omniscient or His idol the best faultless articles with devotional feeling. Upsetting is not caused to them. Rather due to religious devotion the devotee is benefitted.


They further say- "The injury (Hinsa) is caused in making the idol, in constructing the temple (chaityalaya) etc., in doing the worship, etc. where as the religion is Ahinsa (non- injury); therefore, great sin is caused in believing religion by committing Hinsa (injury); we, therefore, forbid, these rituals."


Answer: There is a statement found in their own shastras:-


Succha janreyi kallanram, succha janreyi pavgan

Ubhyam pi janryai succha jan saiye tam smayir


Here it is said that an aspirant should know these three things i) the benediction or virtue, ii) the vice and iii) the mixed or both virtue and vice. So, the mixed disposition is possible by mixing (togetherness) of both virtue and vice, hence occurrence of such kind of act (mixed-disposition) is also established there. Here we ask- "the mixed-disposition is definitely worse than the virtue or benediction alone but is the mixed disposition worse or better than the vice alone? If it is worse, then in this (mixed-disposition) some part of the virtue (religion) is also mixed, how can it be stated worse than the vice (sin) alone? If it is better, then indulging in such mixed acts by leaving only vicious and sinful acts is advisable. Logically also this seems to be correct. No recluse (votary) gets the temple, etc.

constructed, rather practices Samayika (vow of equanimity) etc.  injuriless activities, then by leaving these activities it is not desirable for him to install the idol, etc. and perform worship, etc. But as someone builds house for his own residence, then in comparison to this constructing temple (chaityalaya) etc. is not inferior act. Injury is caused there but in the case of building of house there is increase in greed-passion, which is inauspicious attachment, whereas in the case of building of the temple auspicious attachment is evolved in place of greed-passion. And the activities of worship etc. are in no way inferior to the activities of trading, etc. In trading etc., a lot of injury, etc. is involved, greed, etc. increases, all activities are full of sin only, whereas in worshipping etc. some injury is involved, greed, etc. decreases and the religious devotion increases.


In this way, those who are not recluse (votaries) and spend their wealth in sinful acts are advised to build the Chaityalaya etc. And those who cannot engross their Upayoga (active consciousness) in the injuriless acts like Samayika etc. are not restricted to perform worship, etc.


You may further argue- "Why shall we not keep engaged our- selves in injuriless Samayika etc. acts only? Why should we engage ourselves in acts like worship, etc. instead of religious (injuriless) activities like Samayika etc.?


Answer: If injuriless religious state could be achieved by giving up sinful acts committed through body only then one should do so only, but injuriless state is evolved on relinquishment of sins from thoughts and dispositions. Hence, whose thoughts do not get engrossed in Samayika etc. without recourse to other objects he tries to engross his Upayoga (active consciousness) in worshipping, etc.  There one's Upayoga gets concentrated by taking recourse to different means. If one does not engross his Upayoga there (in worship- ping acts) then his Upayoga will wander in impious acts which will be harmful. Hence, it is proper to engage oneself in such acts (like worshipping, etc.)


And you say- "Great sin is caused by indulging in Hinsa (injury) for the sake of religion and less sin is caused by indulging in Hinsa elsewhere, i.e., in occupations, etc." But firstly this is not the doctrinal statement and does not seem logical too; because by believing so the Lord Indra who performs Abhisheka (bathing ceremony of babe Tirthankara) by large quantity of water in Janma-Kalyanaka (auspicious birth ceremony of babe Tirthankara) and devas (heavenly gods) who indulge in many activities like pouring of flowers in Samavasarana and waving the whisk (over the head of Jina) etc. acts will prove to be the great sinner.


If you will say- "Their demeanour is of such type only," but the activity always bears its fruit.  If it is a sin then Indras etc. being right believers, why shall they indulge in such act and if it is a pious act then why do you forbid it?


Here we ask you- "The kings, etc. went to offer obeisance and invocation to Tirthankar, even they go to far off places for the obeisance of monks, they move on the road for listening to discourses, so injury is involved in the way; food is offered to the co-religionists, necessary rituals (cremation and consecration, etc.) are performed on death of a monk. When a householder becomes monk, celebration takes place. All these practices are seen even today; so in all these acts injury is involved, but these acts are meant for the purpose of religion, no other purpose is there. If great sin is caused here in these acts, then you should negate all such acts done in the past. And now also those householders who perform such acts should relinquish them.  And if these are religious acts, then, why do you confuse people by propagating that injury involved in religious acts is a great sin?


Therefore, it is proper to believe that if by spending some money, lot of money can be earned, then it is worthwhile; similarly, if some injury, etc. sin is involved in such activities which lead to the evolution of high degree of religious thoughts and dispositions then such acts are worthwhile. If a greedy, person spoils his work by not spending even a small amount of money, then he is a fool. Similarly, due to fear of some injury, great pious acts are forsaken, then he is assuredly a sinner. And if someone, by sacrificing more money, earns some money or does not earn at all, then he is a fool. In the same way, if someone, by indulging in highly injurious acts, creates lot of sins and engrosses himself somewhat in invocation, etc. religious activities, or does not engross at all, then he is assuredly a sinner. And as someone earns wealth without any sacrifice and afterwards unnecessarily spends money, then he is a fool. Similarly, if one's Upayoga remains engaged in religious activities involving no injury, then it is not desirable to engage one's Upayoga in the religious activities where injury is envolved.


Thus by considering the state of one's thoughts and dispositions, one should engage himself in those acts which are beneficial to him; but one-sided view is not efficacious. Moreover, Ahinsa (non-injury) alone is not the only part of religion; the main part of religion lies in lessening of the attachment, etc. passions. Hence, one should engage himself in such acts which result in lessening of attachment, etc. passions in one's thoughts and dispositions.


Further, they (the Shwetamberas) encourage the householders to practice chiefly the conventional conduct of Samayika (equanimity), Pratikramana (repentence), Proshadha (fasting) etc. even without adopting the means of Anuvratas (small vows of non-killing etc.).  But Samayika lies in the evolution of the state of equanimity devoid of attachment-aversion; it does not consists in merely reciting the hymns or in standing and sitting postures of the body.


You may, further, say- "This is better than other impious acts".  This is true but in Samayika he takes a vow of not indulging nor causing others to indulge in any activity involving injury through mind, speech and body, but various undesirable thoughts continue arising in the mind and sometimes undesirable actions take place through speech and body also; there the vow is broken. So, instead of breaking the vow, it is better not to take the vow, because breaking the vow is a big sin.


Further we ask- "Someone does not take a vow even and recites the hymn in his own language and keeps engaged his Upayoga in it by knowing its meaning. And someone other takes a vow but does not observe it judiciously and reads the religious text in Prakrit (or in Sanskrit) language, etc. but he does not know its meaning. So, without knowing its meaning, his Upayoga does not remain fixed there, then the Upayoga wanders elsewhere. Who is more religious person in-between these two? If you say that the first one is more religious, then, why, do not preach accordingly? And if you say that the other fellow is more religious, then this could be justified only because of reading hymns but religiosity is not established according to his thoughts, but rather sin is proved due to breach of vow.


Therefore, one should indulge in activities which keep his Upayoga pure. That vow which can be followed should be taken. One should read such religious texts which he can understand. There is no benefit in keeping the name by tradition only.


And Pratikramana consists in repenting and not repeating the fault committed in the past, but simply by expressing Michchhaami Dukkadam, i.e., ("May my wrong deeds be condoned") the vicious deeds are not nullified; only on evolution of (pure) thoughts capable of making the vicious deeds false, the vicious deeds are fahsified; hence, reciting alone is not efficacious.


Further, in the text of Pratikramana there is a statement that- "Whatever inappropriateness in the observance of twelve vows, etc.  might have been caused be nullified". But without taking the vow, how is it possible to do Pratikramana of them? One who has not observed the fast if he tends to nullify the faults which are deemed to have occurred in the observance of fast then this is mere impossibility. Hence, how can such reading of text be meaningful?


Further, in Proshadha* too, they do not observe properly the vow taken as they do in Samayika. Therefore, the aforesaid fault arises.  Moreover, Proshadha is the name of Parva, i.e., an auspicious day but the indulges in sinful activities even on the day of Parva for many hours and afterwards he takes the vow of Proshadha. There is no harm in keeping engaged in pious activities for as long a time as is possible. But taking the vow of Proshadha and not following it properly is not justifiable. The Proshadha consists in keeping oneself totally devoid of injury throughout the Parva day. If observing the fast even for a few hours could be called Proshadha then call Samayika also as Proshadha, otherwise show scriptural proof that so much is the time of the small Proshadha. In all these there appears to be the purpose of keeping people confused under the pretention of real great Proshadha.


*Thus is concluded the fifth chapter throwing light about different religions and sects in the Moksha Marg Prakashak Shastra.


And the text of taking vow (Akhadi) is read by someone and some other takes the vow. But in the text of vow the statement is- "I forsake", therefore, the one who forsakes, he only should read the text. If he is unable to read the text, then he should speak in the spoken language itself but this custom is for the sake of following the tradition.


Further, (in Shwetamberas) great stress is laid on taking vows and inducing others to take vows but there is languidness in following (the vows) appropriately and there is no prudentiality of keeping one's thoughts pure (passionless). By observing the fasts etc. in painful state of mind and with greed, etc., he believes that religion (passionlessness) is evolved but the fruit is obtained according to one's thoughts and passions.


In this way, they talk of many fabricated things which are not possible in the Jaina-religion.


This is the Shwetambera sect found in Jainas; that also describes the characteristics of Deva (omniscient Lord), Tattvas (Jiva etc. essential principles) and the path to liberation, etc. contrarily.  Hence, it is a nourisher of wrong faith, etc. So, it is worth giving up.  The nature of the true Jina-dharma will be described later on, one should follow the right path to liberation as shown therein. By treading over the right path of liberation, one will attain the spiritual benediction.








Mithyadaivadik bhajain ho hea mithyabhav

Taj tinkon sanchai bhajo, yih hit hait upav



Meaning: Instincts like false belief, etc. are found in mundane being from beginningless time and the cause of their reinforcement is the adoration of false deity, false preceptor and false religion.  Stepping in the path of liberation is possible only on their abdication.  Therefore, the same are being discussed hereunder:


Characteristics of false Deities and Denial of Faith in them


Adoration of those who are not benefactors of the self but are fallaciously treated as benefactors are false deities.


The adoration of false deities is done with three types of purposes: Some adore them with the purpose of attaining Moksha (liberation), some for gaining benefit in the next birth and some others for temporal gains in this birth.  But no purpose is served, rather some specific harm is caused, that is why their adoration is a fallacy.  The same being explained here:


Many people adore those deities for the purpose of attaining liberation whose adoration is advocated in other (non-Jaina) sects as instrumental for liberation, but liberation is not achieved.  Their description has already been done in the previous chapter about different non-Jaina faiths.  And many people adore the deities described in other sects (non-Jaina religions) with the purpose of gaining happiness and avoiding miseries in the next birth.  But fulfillment of this purpose is possible only by engaging in virtuous deeds and avoiding vicious deeds.  But they indulge in vicious deeds and say that the Almighty will do good to us. But this is injustice, because it has not been possible that the Almighty would punish someone and would not punish some others for their vicious deeds; one would obtain the fruits according to his inner instincts. God is not the doer of any body's good or bad.


In the process of adoring such Devas (deities) they kill other Jivas and foster their sensual pleasures by Pating, dancing, etc. in the name of Devas. But one cannot escape from suffering the consequences of vicious instincts. Everybody regards Hinsa (injury), and passional acts as sin and the consequence of sinful acts (Papa) is believed by all to be harmful and in the adoration of false deities there lies the involvement in injury and passional acts only. Therefore, by adoration of false deities no benefit is obtainable in the next birth.


Characteristics of Peripatetic Devas And Denialof their Worship


Many people adore false deities (gods & goddesses) with different purposes of ending the misery and obtaining happiness such as killing of foes, etc., eradicating diseases, etc., obtaining wealth and son, etc. related to this present life (paryaya) only. They worship Hanumana, goddesses, Gangaur, Sanjhi, Chauth, Sheetala, Dahari, etc., ghost, goblin, ancestors, peripatetic celestial beings, etc., sun, moon, Saturn, etc. stellar gods, Peer (a Mohammedan saint), Paigambera (prophet) etc., cow, horse, and other animals, fire, water, etc. and weapons (sword) etc. What to describe more, they worship even the pieces of stones, etc. for fulfillment of the aforesaid purposes.


So, this type of adoration of false deities, etc. is done only due to wrong belief, because firstly many of those whose adoration is done are only imaginary gods (deities), how would, therefore, their adoration be purposeful? And many amongst them are the peripatetic gods (Vyantaras Devas); they are not capable of doing good or bad to others. If they would be capable (of doing good or bad) then they only would become the doers (of good or bad), but nothing is seen happening by their acts, they cannot give wealth, etc. by becoming cheerful nor can they do harm to anyone by becoming envious.


Here someone says- "They (the peripatetic Devas) are seen causing pain and misery and if respected they refrain from causing pain?"


Answer: When he (the misbeliever) suffers from the rise of inauspicious karmas then they (the Vyantaras) too are found having sportive mood of this type only, due to which they indulge in sportive actions and because of their such acts the person becomes miserable.  And if out of fun they utter something and this fellow does not act accordingly then they stop teasing him and finding him weak continue making fun. If he has the rise of Punya (auspicious karmas) then they cannot do anything.


It is also seen, that some persons do not worship them and rather criticize them or they (the Vyantaras) also have aversion with him but they (the Vyantaras) cannot harm him. They are also found saying that the particular person does not pay regard to us, still we cannot do anything. Therefore, the peripatetic devas, etc. are not capable of doing anything, rather happiness-unhappiness is caused due to his own Punya-Papa (virtu and vice) karmas only; on the contrary by regarding and worshipping them, miseries are intensified, no Purpose is accomplished.


Further, it should be known that whatever glory and miracles are found associated with imaginary deities, these all are creations of peripatetic devas. Someone was his devotee in the previous birth, after death he became a Vyantara (peripatetic Deva). In that state owing to some reason such conjecture developed due to which he (Vyantara) creates some miracle for inducing people to worship that Deva or false deity. The worldly ignorant people indulge in his worship by seeing some miracle (uncommon happening). As we listen and see the miracles associated with Jina-Pratimas (Idols), but these are not the acts of Jina, rather these are created by some Jaina-Vyantaras. Similarly, whatever miracle is found associated with false deities is the creation of their devotees Vyantaras, etc.


Further, in the other sects it is stated that the God helped the devotees and gave Darshan (sight) directly by appearing before them.  But most of these statements are imaginary. Many such acts are performed by their devotee Vyantara Devas which are stated to have been performed by God. If those acts are done by God then the God is omniscient, is capable in all respects; why would He allow the devotees to suffer from miseries. Even today we see that the low caste people inflict afflictions to devotees, destroy religion and break idols. If God is unaware of these acts then He no longer remains an omniscient. Even after knowing if He does not help the devotee then the kindness towards devotees is lost and He is proved powerless.  And if He remains only a withess then the earlier statement that He helped devotees in the past is false; because His tendency is equanimous.


Further, if you will say- "The devotion is not of high order;" but in any case the devotee is better than the low caste persons and after all his own idol, etc. was installed, at least He should have not allowed its destruction. And if the low caste wicked people become powerful, so is this an act of God or not?  If it is an act of God then what happened to His kind-heartedness towards devotees, because He makes the calumniators happy and produces trouble creators for the devotees ? And if it is not an act of God, then the God is proved to be powerless.  Therefore, it is not the act of God. Some devotee Vyantara only shows the miracle-you should ascertain like this only.


Someone asks here - "Some Vyantara narrates his power, tells the imperceivable things, narrates his inferiority by telling his dirty place of habitation, does not reply to our questions, makes confusing statements, causes others to act contrarily, inflicts misery, etc.--how these astonishing things happen?


Answer: In different Vyantaras comparatively more and less power is found, but those who show their inferiority by telling about their dirty place of habitation, etc. do so out of fun. The Vyantaras continue indulging in sportive actions like children. As a child for the sake of making fun shows himself inferior, teases and abuses others, cries loudly and afterwards starts laughing. Similarly, the Vyantaras also indulge in all such actions. If they are inhabitants of dirty places then when they come into good (clean) places, who brings them there? If they come themselves then having such power why do they live in dirty places? Therefore, their residence where they take birth which is under and above this earth is lovely and attractive. For the sake of fun, they utter whatever they like. If they have any sufferance then how do they start laughing immediately after weeping?


It is true that the Mantras (incantations) have unlimited (and unimaginable) power. Some true Mantra possesses such instru-mental cause and effect relationship that due to it the Vyantara is not able to move from a place and also becomes somewhat miserable.  If some powerful Mantra checks him then he remains stationary or remains stuck up of his own accord; so all this is the power of Mantra butburning, etc. is not possible. The knower of Mantras (incantator) says that he has burnt the Vyantara but the Vyantara appears again because it is not possible to burn the Vaikriyaka (transformable) body.


The range of clairvoyance knowledge found in some of the Vyantaras (peripatetic Devas) is of knowing the things of less area and time and in some ones it is more. There, if they have desire to reply and have knowledge of the question asked then they reply to our question related with unknown objects. If they possess less knowledge then they reply after asking from other Vyantara possessing more knowledge. It should be known that if they possess less knowledge and have no desire to reply then they do not reply to our question. After taking birth the Vyantaras possessing less (clair- voyance) knowledge can know about the events of their previous life for some period only, then afterwards only the remembrance of those events remains. Therefore, if the desire arises then they indulge in various activities and tell about the previous life; but when someone asks something different then, their clairvoyance knowledge being limited, how can then they tell without knowing? The question that they cannot reply and have no desire to reply they do not reply either due to pride or sportive instinct or sometimes tell lies.


The devas (celestial beings) possess such power that they can change or turn their own as well as other Jivas body and material things according to their desire; therefore, they transform themselves into different shapes and sizes, etc. and indulge in various peculiar activities. They create diseases, etc. in other Jiva's body.


It should be remembered that they can turn or transform their own body and other material things to the extent of their power.  Therefore, they do not possess the power of doing all kind of acts.  They can change or turn the body, etc. of other Jivas, only according to the rise of Punya-Papa karmas of that Jiva. If that Jiva is having the rise of Punya (auspicious karma) then the Vyantara Devas cannot make his body diseased, etc. and if he is having the rise of Papa (inauspicious karma) then Vyantara-Deva cannot do his desired work.


Thus, one should know the power of the Vayantara devas, etc.


Someone may ask here- "What is wrong in believing and wor- shipping those who possess so much power?"


Answer: When one is having the rise of Papa-karma the Vyantaras, etc. cannot cause or bestow happiness and when there is rise of Punya-karma they cannot cause misery. Moreover by worshipping them, no bondage of auspicious karmas takes place, on the other hand due to increase in attachment passions, etc., only the bondage of inauspicious karmas is caused; hence paying regard and worshiping them is not beneficial; rather it is harmful. And the Vyantaras' motive in inducing others to believe and worship them is only to make fun and no other specific purpose is there. The one who believes and worships them, with him only they continue making fun. Those who do not believe and worship them, to them they do not say anything. If at all they have any purpose then they should cause more pain and misery to those who do not believe and worship them; but those who have firm determination of not believing and worshiping them, to them they are not seen telling anything. And the purpose would lie only, if they have the suffering of hunger, etc., but such sufferings not found in them. If such suffering be there why do they not accept sweets - oblation which are offered to them?  And why do they encourage the followers to serve food, etc.  to others only? So, they have simply the objective of fun. If anyone becomes a party to their activity of fun, etc., then he would become miserable and feel inferiority; hence, it is not worthwhile to believe and worship them.


Further, someone asks that the Vyantaras say so- "Offer Pinda-daan (oblation of cooked rice to the manes in Gaya, etc. then we shall get released and will never come again." What is all this?


Answer:  The Jivas normally carry the impressions and experiences of their previous birth to the next birth. The Vyantaras also by remembrance, etc. possess the specific impressions of their previous birth; therefore, because the Vyantaras might be having in their previous birth the conjecture that by doing Pinda-Daan, etc. in Gaya, etc, one gets better rebirth; that is why they induce people to do such acts. If the Muslims, etc.  become Vyantaras after death, they do not say so, rather they narrate their experiences and impressions of the past life only; hence, if the state of mind of all Vyantaras be of uniform type then all will pray in the same manner but it is not so. Therefore, one should know the real characteristics of the Vyantaras etc.


Further, sun, moon, planets, etc. are the stellars kinds of celestial beings (Jyotishi Devas), some people worship them, that also is a fallacy. Some worship sun, etc. by believing it as the part of God; there in the sun lies the only specialty of excessive light, however gems like diamonds etc. also possess light. No other specialty seems to be there in the sun for treating it to be part of God. And people worship moon, etc. for the sake of acquiring wealth, etc., but if wealth could be obtained by worshipping them then all the paupers should worship; therefore, this is a false notion. And some people worship them with the view of astrology during the advent of bad planets, etc. and give donations, etc. for the same purpose. As the deers, etc. make movement of their own and they are treated to be the indicator of pre- intimation of likely future happiness and sorrow respectively on their crossing from right and left sides, but they are not at all capable of giving pleasure and pain; similarly, the planets, etc. make movement of their own and are treated as pre-indicators of the knowledge of likely future pleasure or pain on rise of appropriate association of karmas in Jivas, but they, the planets, are not at all capable of giving pleasure or pain. Some people, who worship them, do not get the desired objective fulfilled and some others, who do not worship them, get their desired objective fulfilled. Therefore, worshipping them is not worthwhile and is a fallacy.


Here someone says- "Giving donations is a pious act; therefore, it is good?"


Answer: Donating with the objective of religion is a pious act (Punya); but in the aforesaid cases donation and worship take place due to fear of misery and greed of pleasures; hence, it is assuredly vice (Papa). Likewise, in many ways, they worship the Jyotishi Devas - stellar kinds of celestial goods, which too is a fallacy.


Further, goddesses, Devees and Daharees, etc. are found there; many of them are Vyantarees (peripatetic goddesses and Jyotishinees (stellar goddesses).  People worship them with contrary belief of their characteristics. Several of them are imaginary goddesses, yet people worship them on the basis of their imaginary characteristics.


Thus, worshipping Vyantara gods-goddesses etc. is forbidden


Denial of Worshipping Kshetrapal, Padmavati, etc.


Someone may say here that no fault lies in worshipping the Kshetrapal, Dahari, Padmavati, etc. goddesses Yaksha-Yakshini, etc. because all of them follow Jainism?


Answer: In Jina's religion worshipability is acquired by accepting and following the continence (vows), etc. but continence is not at all found in Devas (celestial beings). And people worship these by believing them as true believers; but in Bhavanatrikas (residentials, peripatetic and stellars - 3 kinds of celestial beings) there is no prominence of possessing right belief. If people worship these Devas presuming them to possess right belief then why not to worship the gods of Sarvartha Siddhi heaven and Laukantika Devas (of fifth heaven) who certainly possess right belief? You may further say- "These Kshetrapal Padmavati etc. are excessively engrossed in Jina's adoration". But Saudharma Indra also indulges in Jina's adoration excessively and also possesses true belief; why then to worship these (Kshetrapsl, Padnzavati, etc.) by ignoring him? Further, if you will say- "As the king has chamberlains as attendants so also the Tirthankaras have Kshterapalas, etc. as attendants. " But in Samavasarana (preaching arena of omniscient Lord) these Kshetrapalas, etc. have no status; hence all such belief is false.  Moreover, as the chamberlains help the visitors in meeting the king, similarly, these (Kshetrapalas, etc.) do not have any role in arranging meeting with the Tirthankaras. In the case of Tirthankara whosoever has the desire to worship he can have His Darshan (Sighting). There is no question of dependence on any one.


And see the height of ignorance ! Those who have fearful form possessed with sword, spear, etc. arms, are being worshipped by singing and dancing. It is a pity that even in Jainism the fearful form has become worshipable. So, this too became similar to other non-Jaina faiths. Belief in such contrary is possible in Jaina's religion only under the influence of the rise of intense delusion.


In this way, worshipping of Kshetrapalas etc. also is not worth-while.


Further, animals like cows, snakes, etc. are clearly found to be inferior to human beings, they are to be disparaged, their culpable condition is clearly seen. And trees, fire, water, etc. are the immobile (one-sensed)- beings, those are clearly found inferior than the animals. And weapons, inkpot, etc. are inanimate objects; those things clearly appear to be destitute of all sorts of power; in no way worshipability can be thought in them. Therefore, worshipping of all these things is a great fallacy. Nothing seems to be achievable directly or indirectly by worshipping all these things. Therefore, it is useless to worship them.


Therefore, from all angles, believing and worshipping of all kinds of false deities-gods and goddesses, is forbidden.


Behold ! the power of false belief. In public life it is considered censurable and below dignity to bow to persons lower in status than ourselves; whereas under the influence of delusion censurability is not felt even in worshipping the pieces of stone. And in public life people are found serving and attending on only those persons from whom they expect their purpose being fulfilled. But due to fallacious belief- "how will my purpose be accomplished by worshipping the false deities" -without such thinking, the people worship the false deities. And while adoring the false deities, thousands of impediments occur but one does not pay attention to them and if due to the rise of auspicious karmas the desired objective is fulfilled then he says and believes that this achievement is the result of adoring false deities. Moreover, if some objective is fulfilled without their adoration, he does not pay any attention to it but if something undesirable takes place then he says that this undesirable has happened because of not worshipping the false deities.  He does not think even this much that if benefitting and harming anybody be in the hands of these false deities then those who worship them would achieve the desirable and those who do not worship will achieve the undesirable; but this does not seem to be happening so. For example, even the sons of those persons who adores' excessively are found to be dieing while in the case of others', sons, etc. are found living without such adoration.


Therefore, believing and adoring of Sheetals (an imaginary goddess) is not at all purposeful.


In the same way, believing and adoring of all other kinds of false deities (gods-goddesses) is not at all useful.


Here someone may say- "Let it not be useful but by believing and adoring them no harm is caused?"


Answer: If there be no harm then why would we forbid? But firstly due to fostering of false belief the right path of liberation becomes remote and inaccessible; this is a big harm and secondly, owing to the bondage of inauspicious karmas (Papa), miseries are caused in future; this is another harm.


Further, someone asks that- "The false belief, etc. dispositions are caused by belief in false Tattvas and the bondage of inauspicious karmas takes place by indulging in evil deeds (vicious acts). Therefore, how would false belief, etc. and the bondage of inauspicious karmas be caused by believing in them?"


Answer: Firstly, it is a fallacy to believe other objects to be agreeable and non-agreeable, because no substance is friend or foe of any body, and whatever agreeable non- agreeable substances are found associated with this Jiva are caused by the rise of auspicious - inauspicious karmas (Punya-Papa) respectively; therefore, one should act in a manner by which bondage of auspicious karmas occur and the bondage of inauspicious karmas do not occur. One may not have conviction even of the rise of one's own karmas and may make effort of getting and avoiding the association of external causes of agreeable and disagreeable objects; but by believing and adoring the false deities, the instinct of considering objects agreeable-non-agree-able is not removed, it rather gets intensified. Due to that even the bondage of Punya (auspicious karmas) is not caused and insted bondage of Papa (inauspicious-karmas) takes place. Moreover, false deities are not seen giving or snatching from someone the wealth, etc., therefore, they are not even the external causes. Why then are they adored? When one is extremely puzzled and is in utter confusion, where even a trace of belief and knowledge about Jiva etc.  essential Tattvas, (principles) is not found and attachment-aversion feelings exist in vehement state, then those things which are not the cause are believed to be the causes of agreeable and non- agreeable conditions. Then (in such state of mind) one starts believing and adoring the false deities.


Thus, under such intense false belief, etc. the path of liberation becomes extremely difficult to attain.


Characteristics of False Preceptor and Denial of Faith in them


Those Jivas who are found indulging in irreligious activities of satisfying sensual pleasures and believe themselves to be religious persons under the influence of pride passion, induce others to offer salutation, etc. to them by believing them religious persons or, by practising some part of religious ritual, wish to be called highly religious persons, force others to observe all the manners befitting to a big religious person; in this way, under the shelter of religion they persuade others to believe them as superior persons, all such persons are to be known as false preceptors, because in religious tradition after relinquishment of sensual pleasures and passions, one should adopt such status which is in conformity with the actual stage of religion.


Negation of Preceptorship from Caste or Family Point of View


There are many people who believe themselves to be preceptors by inheritance, caste and tradition. Among them are Brahmanas, etc. who maintain that because our caste is high, so we are preceptors of all. But the greatness of caste lies in practising religion (virtuous conduct) in life. If someone born in high caste indulges in disgraceful conduct then how can he be treated high? If birth in high caste be the criteria of high status then even people eating meat, etc. would have to be treated as high. But this is not maintainable. In the book Bharata also many (kinds of) Brahmanas are described. Therein it is said- "The one born in Brahmana caste if performs the acts of a Chaandal (sinful person) call him a Chaandal Brahmana". If greatness is decided by caste only then why is such low name given herein?


Further, in Vaishnavas scripture it is stated that Vedvyasa etc.  are born from fish, etc. How did there remain the sequence of caste or family? And original creation, they say, is from the Brahma; hence, everybody's caste is one, where lies the caste difference?  Moreover, the progeny is seen taking place on copulation to a woman of high caste with the man of low caste and to a woman of low caste with the man of high caste. How did there remain the authenticity of caste or family?


Perhaps you might say- "If it is so then why do you believe in the divisions of high and low castes?"


Answer: In the worldly affairs contrary practices too are possible but in religious affairs contrary practices are not acceptable; hence, in religious tradition greatness or preceptorship is not possible on the basis of caste. Preceptorship or greatness is attained only by following religious conduct. The greatness of the caste of Brahmanas etc. is due to religious practice (virtuous conduct); how would greatness or preceptorship remain there by giving up virtuous conduct and indulging in sinful acts like injury, etc.?


Further, some people say that- "Our ancestors have been great devotees, Siddhas (the possessors of extraordinary talents) and highly religious and since we are born in their progeny, therefore, we are the preceptors. But the elders of those (ancestors or forefathers) were not spiritually so great. Therefore, if in their lineage people are believed to be great by their noble deeds then in the lineage of those noble persons he who does not perform noble deeds, how should be treated as noble person? As per scriptures and in actual life it is well-known that the father may attain high status by doing pious deeds whereas the son gets low status by indulging in impious acts; the father may achieve low status due to impious acts but the son attains high status by pious deeds. It is, therefore, not correct to believe someone great only because of being born in the lineage of noble persons.


Thus, it should be known that it is a fallacy to believe someone to be a preceptor because

he belongs to high caste.


Further, some people believe preceptorship to be a matter of succession. Earlier, there might have been some great person and in his succession a tradition of disciples is found. In them if some disciple does not possess the qualities of a noble person even then he is treated as a preceptor. If this be logical then in that tradition some disciple might indulge in the great sinful act of sexual copulation with other's wife, etc. then he also will become the pious person and will attain the heavenly life; but this is not possible. Moreover, if he is a sinner then how can he be treated the rightful occupier of the seat? The one who performs the acts worthy of a preceptorship only can be a preceptor (Guru).


And many people earlier were the abductors of the woman (coition), etc., later on they became debauched and house- holders by getting married; their successors believe themselves to be preceptors (Guru); but after debauchery how is preceptorship possible? So, these too are similar to other householders. The only sepciality in them is that they became householders after debauchery; how can these be accepted as preceptor (Guru) by the persons who basically are found following householder's religion?


Further, many people are found indulging in all kinds of sinful acts but do not marry and because of this - so-called pious practice - believe themselves to be preceptor (Guru) . But the unchastity alone is not a sin; injury (Hinsa), attachment and hoarding (Parigraha), etc.  are also sins. How people indulging in such acts could be treated as religious preceptors? Moreover, he has not given up marriage, etc. with religious instincts but he does not marry either forgetting some means of livelihood or due to ignominy. Had he any religious instincts, then why would he indulge in increasingly injurious acts?  And one who does not have religious attitude cannot be firm in chastity and if he does not marry then he indulges in the great sin of sexual copulation with other's wife, etc. Hence, people who believe persons found involved in the aforesaid (sinful) acts as preceptors (Guru) are highly misguided and intellectually bankrupt.


And many people consider such persons as preceptors who put on a particular attire; but by assuming a particular dress what type of religion is evolved due to which he should be considered a religious preceptor? Someone wears cap, some keeps Gudari (patched quilt), some others put on a Chola (gown), a few keep their body covered by long cloth sheet, some wear red cloths, some white cloths, some wear Bhagwa saffron-coloured cloth, a few put on hessian cloths, some others put on deer-skin, while others rub their body with ash, etc. -in this way different disguises are adopted by them. But if cold, heat, etc. could not be endured and lacked confidence in remaining nude then why did he forsake the commonly worn cloths such as Pagadi (turban), Jama (shirt), etc.? Leaving the common attire, why did they indulge in aforesaid disguises and what aspect of religion is accomplished? All these disguises are assumed merely to cheat the householders. If they keep their robe like that of a (common) householder, how could then the householders be cheated? Their objective is to earn livelihood, acquire wealth and fulfill pride-passion, etc. by adopting such disguises, that is why they put on such disguises. The ignorant people get cheated by seeing such persons in different disguises and believe that he has followed religion, but this is a fallacy. The same is stated in Upadesha Siddhanta Ratnamala as under :-


Jeh kuvi vaisarttai, musijjmanro vimanryai harisan

The michhvaismusiya  gyan pi nr munrati dham nrihan


As some fellow fond of strumpet feels pleasure even on losing his money, similarly, some persons being cheated by false sanctimony do not realise that their religious wealth is being destroyed. The gist is - "By attending on and adoring such false disguised persons, one's religious wealth gets destroyed but alas ! the people instead of feeling distressed feel happy owing to false belief". Some people assume those disguises which are described in false scriptures; but with the perverse intention of establishing their tradition and increasing the number of their followers, the sinful writers of those scriptures have preached in them simple rituals for obtaining higher spiritual status.  The thoughtless Jivas, ignorant of their tradition, do not even ponder over the fact that there is some deception because they preach obtaining high spiritual status through simple rituals, rather move (follow) thoughtlessly in the path shown by them.


Further, they believe that the tough path suggested in some other Shastras (scriptures) will be difficult to follow and people cannot be convinced without keeping high name, with this intention they keep high names like Yati, Muni, Acharya, Upadhyaya, Sadhu, Bhattaraka, Sanyasi, Yogi, Tapasvi, Nagna, etc. but are not able to follow the rituals prescribed for these various spiritual ranks; therefore, they assume different disguises according to their free will. And many of them keep new names (aliases) and adopt various disguises according to their own will. In this way, they believe preceptorship by assuming different disguises; so this is false.


One may ask here- "Various types of disguises (Bheshas) are found, how would one be able to distinguish as to which is right and which is wrong?"


Answer :- Only those outward appearances in which there is not the slightest trace of attachment and passions, are the true ascetic garbs. Those true ascetic garbs are of three types, rest all are false (sanctimonies). The same is descibed by shri Kund-Kund Acharya in Shat-Pahuda*


(* Now known as Ashta Pahuda)


Aigan jinrssruran vidyan ukitth savyanran tu

Avardivyanr tyian chauthh punr ling dansanran nrith  (Darshanpahunrh -18)



Meaning: One ascetic garb is that of possessionless naked monk Nirgrantha-Digamber Muni similar to that of Jina (omni- scient conqueror), the second one is that of the householder of the highest status of Shravaka i.e., a votary belonging to the order of tenth and eleventh Pratima or vow, and the third one is that of a Jaina-nun (Aaryika) as per Digamber scripture; thus, these three ascetic garbs only are to be revered and no fourth ascetic garb is associated with right belief. The gist of above verse is that the one who believes adorable any other posture excepting these three postures or garbs is not a true but a false believer.  Moreover, among these disguisers many of the disguisers observe some religious rituals for the sake of inducing people to adore their postures. As for example, someone desirous of making current a counterfeit rupee-coin also mixes some silver in it, similarly, these disguisers proclaim themselves to be possessing high status by practising part of religious rituals.


Here someone says- "Some appropriate fruit will be reaped by whatever religions one has followed?"


Answer: As someone having accepted the vow of Upavasa (observing complete fast) eats even a particle of food then he is a sinner and if by taking the vow of Ekaashana (taking pure meal only once in a day) takes some quantity of food even then he is a religious person.  Similarly, if someone by assuming high spiritual status violates it even slightly, he is a great sinner and if by accepting the vow of lower spiritual status practices even some part of religion then he is a religious person. Hence, one should practice religion according to one's capacity, no fault lies in this; but if someone proclaiming one-self to be possessing high spiritual status indulges in mean practice then he is assuredly a great sinner. The same is described in Shat-Pahuda by shri Kund- Kund Acharya :-


Jehjayroovsrisee tiltusmaitan nre gihdi hatthaisu

Jeh laiei apbhuyan tato punr jah niggodma


i.e.,the bodily posture of a true saint (muni) is found to be always naked just like the naked state of a child at his birth. He does not accept the slightest material possession; but if a saint accepts even the slightest material possession he assuredly goes to Nigoda (the lowermost one-sensed state of downfall of Jivas existence where one dies and rebirths 18 times per respiration of time).


Let it be kown that- "In the householder's status, if someone keeping a lot of possessions, makes some limitation (with a vow not to increase it any further) then also he deserves the right of attaining the heaven and subsequently liberation; but by adopting monk's status if one keeps the slightest possession even then he attains Nigoda state. Hence, keeping big name and practising lower order of conduct is not correct.


It is to be known that in Hundaavasarpini (1) aeon this the present running time is Kalikala (2) In Jina's religion the characteristics of a monk are such that there should be no attachment with either external or internal possessions; he should keep engrossed in the self soul with the feeling of I- ness in it and should keep himself detached from pious and impious thoughts and dispositions; but now due to dawn of this bad time (i.e.  fifth era) the people who are passionate and fond of sensual pleasures accept monkhood by taking the vow of forsaking all sorts of injury and adopting the five great vows, etc. but such persons in monk's disguise are found wearing white or saffron-coloured cloths and have become voracious of food, etc., make efforts of increasing their tradition; many of them keep money, etc. also; commit injury, etc. and indulge in various unbecoming acts. But the consequence of accepting even the slightest possession is described to be Nigoda; therefore, it is certain that the consequence of such sinful acts would assuredly be unending transmigration.


1. The acon of descendency in all respects.

2. The period of ill-conduct and religious downfall is called 5th era in Jaina scripture.


See the ignorance of the people ! If someone breaks even a small vow, he is called a sinner; but one who breaks such a great vow he is believed to be the Guru (preceptor) and revered as a monk. In the scripture it is stated that one who performs an act, gets it perfomed or praises the performer - in all these three states the same consequence results.


The prescribed sequence of accepting monkhood is that one should first of all obtain the knowledge of true Tattvas, thereafter, should develop apathy (towards sensual pleasures) and acquire power of enduring the afflictions, etc., after all this he should himself express the desire of becoming a monk and then the Acharya (head of monks' congregation) should confer monkhood on him as per rules.


It is a pity to see this contrariness that conferring of monkhood on sensual and passionate persons through deception and greed has become prevalent. Later on such persons are encouraged to follow wrong conduct; so, this is a great injustice.


Thus ends the negation of false preceptor and their adoration.


Now starts the evidence from Shastras (scriptures) in rein- forcement of the aforsesaid description.


There in Upadesha Siddhanta Ratnamala it is said so-


Gurun.o bhatta  jaya, sadai thun. Oon.  Liti dan.ayin

Don.‑vi amun.iysara, dusmismyami buddhanti  (31)


Meaning - Due to bad times the preceptors (Gurus) have become minstrels. They accept gift and donation, etc. by praising the donors in the words of a minstrel.  So, in this distressful era (Dukhama-Kal) both the donor and the recipient are to drown in the ocean of worldly transmigration. It is further stated there :-


Sappai dithai n.asyee loao n.hi kovi kimpi akkhaiyi

Jo chayi kuguroo sappan ha moodha bhan.yi tan dutthan  (36)


Meaning: If after seeing a snake, somebody runs away from it, people do not say anything to him. But alas ! Behold ! To him who quits the company of snake-like false preceptors the ignorant ones call him wicked and speak ill of him.


 Sappo ikan mran.  Kuguru an.antyi daih bran.ayee

To var sappan ghiyan ma kuguroo saivan. Bhadan   (37)


Meaning: Oh ! by snake-bite death is caused only once, whereas, the false preceptor causes infinite deaths, is an instrumental cause of infinite times births and deaths. Therefore, O ! Judicious person!  it is better to keep company with a snake but never adore or keep company with a false preceptor.


Further, many more verses are quoted there for strengthening right belief, same may be studied from that book.


And in Sanghapatta it is said so :-


Kshutksham kil kopi rankshishuk prvrijya chaetyai kvchit

Kritva kinchanpkshmakshtakli praptstdacharykam

Chitram chaetyagrihai griheeyati nijai gachhai kutumbeeyati

Svan shkreeyati balisheeyati budhan vishv varakeeyti


Meaning: See ! some poor man's boy weakened by starvation took the oath of a monk in some temple and without forsaking sins he got installed as Acharya by some group. He now lives in the temple as one lives in his own house, treats the monks of his congregation as members of his own family, thinks himself to be very great like Indra, considers knowledgeable persons as ignorant ones like children and treats other householders as paupers. So, this is all a great wonder.


Further, there is a poetical composition, Yaerjatee na cha vrdhito na cha na cha kroto    etc., its meaning is as follows. The householders with whom he (the so-called monk) has relation neither by birth nor by being nourished, nor has he any business relation and also has not to pay anything, treats them all like bullocks and forcibly takes gifts, donation, etc., none is there to administer justice.

Thus, there are many verses supporting the right faith and the same should be known from that book.


Here someone says- "These are the sermons quoted from Shwetambera's scriptures, why did you quote them as evidence?

Answer: For example, if something which is forbidden by a degraded person then the same is naturally forbidden for a high status person . Similarly, something which is forbidden even by those people for whom appendages of cloths, etc. are allowed then in Digamber religion such contrary practices are naturally forbidden.


Moreover, in Digamber Shastras (scriptures) also there are several verses supporting right faith. There in Shat-Pahuda composed by shri Kund-Kund Acharya, it is said so:-


Dansn.moolo dhammee uvittho jin..vraihin

Tan soun.  dansn.heen.o  n. vdivo


Meaning: Jinendra Deva's exhortation to disciples is that the root cause of religion is right belief. Therefore, let the disciples of Jinendra Deva possessing ears be aware that the man without right belief is not adorable.


How can a false preceptor be instrumental in invoking right belief in a person who believes in that false preceptor? Without right belief no other aspect of religion is possible. How could one be adorable without religion?


Further. it is mentioned:


Jai dansn.aisu  bhat.t.t.ha charit bhat.t.t.ha ya

Aidai bhat.t.t.h vi  bhat.t.t.ha, saisan pi  vin.asati    (8)  Darshanpahudh


Meaning: Those, who have fallen from right belief, right knowledge and right conduct, are the worst polluted (led astray) amongst the polluted. Such persons being themselves spoilt spoil other persons also who follow their preachings.

Further, it is mentioned:


Jai dansn.aisu bhat.t.t.ha payai padanti

Tai hoti lalmooa, bohee pun. Dulha taisin                        (12) Darshanpahudh



Meaning: Those people who have themselves fallen from right belief, but seek adoration from other right believers will become crippled and dumb in the next birth i.e., they will be born as one-sensed immobile beings like trees or plants and achievement of self-knowledge will become extremely difficult, a rarity to them.


Jai vi pad.anti taisin, jan.anta lajjagarav bhyain.

Taisin pi n.antthi bohi pavan an.moyyman.anan            (13) Darshanpahudh



Meaning: '"These saints have fallen from right belief" - even after knowing this thing, those persons also who out of shyness, false prestige and fear bow to them, being supporters of evil, are devoid of i.e., not able to attain right knowledge.  What types of Jivas are these?  They support the vice (sins) ! Even by honoring the sinners one has to suffer from the consequence of supporting the sins.

Further, it is mentioned :-


Jass pariggeh appan bhuyan cha haveyi lingass

So garhiu  parigeh rhio n‑irayaro                            (119, Sootrpahung )


Meaning: That outward posture of a monk in which even a little or more possession is found is censurable in omniscient's preachings.  Only possessionless naked saint is to be revered astrue monk.


Further, it is said-


Dhmmammi n.ippvaso dosavaso ya uchchhuphullsamo

n.ipphaln.iggun.yaro n.angsavan.o  n.aggroovain.                    (71, Bhavpahung)


Meaning: "The one who is indolent in practising religious conduct, is full of blemishes, is worthless like flowers of sugarcane, is devoid of virtuous conduct, he is an acrobat monk in the garb of nakedness, is a disguiser like a buffoon." Here in the naked posture the example of a buffoon is possible, but if someone is found with possessions then this comparison too is not substainable.


Jai pav mohiymayee lingan ghaitoon. Jin.

Pavan kun.anti pava tai chata mokkhmaggammi                     (78, Mokshpahung)


Meaning: Such Jivas whose intellect is infatuated by sins, if they indulge in sinful acts even by adopting the naked posture of Jina (omniscient) are to be known as the idols of sins and fallen from the right path of liberation.


It is further stated :-


Jai panchchailsata ganthggahee ya jayn.aseela

Adhakammammi rya  tai mokkhmaggammi                             (79, Mokshpahung)


Meaning: Those who have excessive love in cloths of five kinds*, keep possessions, indulge in begging and are engaged in Adhah-karma-type of faults concerning preparation and taking of food all such persons (so-called monks) are to be known as fallen from the right path of liberation.


* Cloths of tree-bark/leaves, cotton, jUtl 'eather, silk, wool.


Many such Gatha-Sutras (couplets, verses) are found in Ashta- Pahuda for reinforcement of right belief; one should read them. And in Linga-Pahuda composedby shri Kund-Kund Acharya, very strong criticism is found written about such so-called monks who having adopted the naked posture of Jina indulge in injury, householder's acts and acts of incantations, etc.


And in Atmaanushasana written by Gunabhadra Acharya,it is stated :-


Itstshch tresyanto vibhavvarya yatha mriga

Vanadhishantyupgraman kalo kantan  tapasvin            (197)


Meaning: It is a great pity that in this Kalikala (5th era) the ascetics after wandering here and there out of fear like a deer come near the town in the night from the forest.  Here even staying near the town is prohibited, therefore, living in the town is assuredly forbidden.


Vran garhasthymaivadya tapso bhavijanman

Suratree ktaksh luntak lupt vaeragya sampada                     (200)


Meaning: Here it is stated that "A house holder's status is better than holding such ascetic posture which may result in infinite births.  What kind of ascetic is this whose wealth of non-attachment gets robbed in the morning by the robbers in the forms of beautiful women's side-long glances."


And in the Paramatma-Prakash composed by Monk Yogindra

Deva, it is stated :-


Chillachilliputthyahin, tusai moodh  n.ibhantu

Aiyhin lajjayee, bandhanh  haiu mun.antu            (215/219)


Meaning: The foolish saints (so-called monks) only take pleasure in the congregation of pupils - male & female, and in books but the wise saints (real monks), devoid of fallacy, feel ashamed in keeping them knowing that these are the cause of bondage. appau bandhiyu bandhiyu siru lunchivi chharain.

Seyal vi sang n.a  parihariy jin.varling dharain.                                     (218/218)



Meaning:  Who is he whose soul is cheated by himself? He is that Jiva who having adopted the naked Digamber posture of great Jina, Dulls out his hair with ashes but does not give up all possessions.


Meaning: Oh Jiva ! those ascetics who having adopted the naked posture of Jina keep agreeable possessions are eating the same vomit which they have vomited earlier, i.e., they are censurable.


Such many statements are found therein.


Thus, in the Shastras (Jina's preachings) the false preceptors, their false conduct and attending on them is totally forbidden.


And wherein the scriptures Dhatri Dosa, Duta Dosa, etc. forty-sixfaults concerning the activity of preparation of food by householders and taking of food by a monk (Muni) are described, there pleasing the children of householders, conveying messages, indulging in the acts of teaching Mantras (incantations), prescribing medicines, foretelling future, etc. and taking the food that has been prepared by self or got prepared by others and approved by self, etc. - all such activities are totally forbidden for a monk but now due to bad times the monks take food, etc. by indulging in the aforesaid faults.


Further, the corrupt monks of the category of Parshwastha, Kusheela, etc. are forbidden; and now so-called monks are found possessing such Characteristics. It is to be noted that those Parshwastha, etc. kinds of monks live naked and possessionless physically whereas these - the present so- called monks keep different types of paraphernalias. And there in the scriptures the Bhramari etc. method of taking the food is described for the monks; but this so-called saint having excessive desire takes food, etc. by afflicting the vitality of the donor. And they are clearly seen indulging in the injudicious, censurable and sinful acts which are unbecoming of even the householders.


Further, they disrespect the most venerable Jina-Bimba (Jins's installed idols) and the Shastras (scriptures), etc. and rather considering oneself to be superior to them they sit at a higher level (seat) and likewise many perversities are apparently seen and yet they consider themselves to be true monks and like to be called the possessors of the Mulgunas (basic virtues). In this way, they get their importance (venerableness) established and the innocent house-holders getting cheated by their praise do not ponder over the real religion, rather remain engrossed in their eulogy; but how will the great sin of perverse-belief in terms of treating great sin as great religion not result in infinite transmigration? In Shastras the one whom misbelieves even a single word of Jina's preachings is stated to be the great sinner, whereas here (in such behavior of a monk) there is total disregard of Jina's preachings. What else could be a greater sin than this?


Arguments Supporting Negligence in Conduct and their Refutation


Refutation of those false arguments by which worship of false preceptors is established:


Here someone argues- "In the absence of preceptor(Guru) we shall be treated as having no preceptor (Nigura) and the real preceptors are not found in the present times, should we, therefore, not believe these (monks) as preceptors?"


Answer: Those persons only can be treated as Niguras (preceptorless) who do not believe in preceptors. And the one who has belief in the true preceptor but not finding the true characteristics of a real preceptor in the so-called Gurus in this region, does not believe in them, he cannot be treated as a Nigura (preceptorless). For example, one who does not believe in God is called an atheist and one who believes in God but not finding the true characteristics of real God in the so-called Gods in this region, does not believe in them, then he does not become an atheist.


He further argues- "In Jaina scripture, the absence of omniscient (Kewali-Jina) is described in the present time, but the presence of a real preceptor (possessionless naked ascetic) is not denied?"


Answer: It is not stated that the true preceptor monks will be found in particular regions but it is stated that they will be found in Bharat-Kshetra. Bharat-Kshetra is very vast region, the existence of true monks may be found in some part of it, that is why absence of true monks is not described. If you believe the existence of true monks in the same region where you live, then if you go in a region where even such kind of monks will not be available, then whom shall you regard as preceptor (Guru)? For example, the availability of swans is described in the present time, but if the swans are not actually seen then the other kind of birds cannot be treated to be swans. Similarly, the availability of true monks is described in the present time, but if the true monks are not actually found then others (so-called monks) cannot be treated to be true monks.


Further, he says- "Even the imparter of knowledge of one syllable is believed to be the Guru (preceptor), how should then one not be believed to be a Guru who teaches us Shastras and gives discourses on them?"


Answer: The word Guru denotes a highly respected person. So, in whomsoever whatever type of greatness be possible he is respected as Guru in that sense. For example, from the family status point of view the parents are termed as Guru, similarly the teacher who imparts education is termed as Guru in that sense. But here the issue is that of religion, therefore, in the context of religion he who is great from the conduct (Dharma) point of view is to be treated as Guru. But Dharma is the name of Charitra (true passionless conduct). In the scripture it is stated that (Charitan khalu dhamo )1 true conduct only is religion (Dharma), therefore, the possessor of true conduct can only be termed as Guru. For example, the Bhutas (demons) etc.  are also called devas (Gods), but here in the context of true belief of deva only Arihanta Deva (omniscient God) is accepted as Deva (God).  Similarly, the term Guru though used in various contexts, yet here with reference to true belief the Nirgrantha Guru i.e., totally possessionless naked homeless ascetic monk only is to be believed as Guru. In Jaina religion the terms Arihanta Deva, Nirgrantha Guru are profusely used.

(1. Pravachanasara verse 7.)


Here someone asks- "What is the reason that none else except that Nigrantha (naked possessionless monk) is believed to be the Guru?


Answer: Excepting the Nirgrantha, no other Jiva possesses the supremacy in all respects. For example, if a greedy person delivers lectures on Shastra then the listeners regard him superior because he delivers discourses whereas the discourser regards the listeners superior because they offer him wealth, cloths, etc. Although out wardly the discourser is superior yet being greedy internally he does not possess superiority in all respects.


Question: "The Nigranthas also take food."


Answer: The Nirgranthas do not take food with inferiority complex and greed passion by praising the donor; so, their supremacy is not affected. The greedy only suffers from complexes.


Therefore, the Nirgranthas only possess supremacy in all respects; no other Jivas excepting the Nirgranthas are meritorious in all respects; therefore, superiority and inferiority are to be considered only from the viewpoint of possession of merits and demerits respectively. Therefore, dauntless adoration is not possible.


Moreover, excepting the Nirgranthas whatever religious conduct is observed by other Jivas (so-called monks) can be followed in the same degree or of higher degree even by the householders, then in such a case who should be regarded as Guru? Therefore, only those Nirgrantha monks who have no external and internal possessions and attachments are to be known as true Gurus (real preceptors).


Here someone may ask- "Such Gurus are not found here in the present time, hence as the installation of Arihanta God is his idol, similarly, the installations of the Gurus are these sanctimonious persons?


Answer: For example, if someone treats the portrait of a king to be the king then that portrait is not a rival of the king but if some ordinary person wantshimselfto be treated askingthen thatperson is the rival of the king; similarly, if someone makes the installation of Arihanta God etc. in stone, etc. then that idol is not a rival of him, but if some ordinary person wants himself to be treated as monk then such a person is the rival of the monks. If even in this way, the installation be possible then get yourself be treated as Arihanta also.  And if an ordinary person is installed as a true monk then at least outwardly he must possess the characteristics of a true monk but the true monk (Nirgrantha) is totally possessionless naked homeless ascetic whereas the so-called monks (Gurus) are having lot of possessions - how such installation is possible?


Question: In the present time the Shravakas (Jaina house- holders), too are not found as they ought to be; therefore, the monks are also not found as they ought to be. (So, we worship them).


Answer: In the scripture the term Shravaka is used for all Jaina householders (irrespective of whether he is a votary or a non-votary).  King Shrainika also was an incontinent (non- votary) but in Uttar-Purana he has been stated as the best Shravaka .  In the twelve kinds of assembly halls (in omni scient Jina's Samavasarana) one arena is meant for Shravakas but all of them were not votaries. If all were votaries then the number of the non-votaries (incontinent persons) should have been specified separately, but it is not specified; hence,  all Jaina householders are given the name of Shravaka.  But the term monk (Guru) has nowhere been used for any person except the Nirgranthas.


Further, the Shravakas (all Jaina householders) are stated to possess eight basic right, i.e., eight primary moral characters called Mulgunas. Therefore, the eating and taking of wine, meat, honey and five types of Udumberas figs-fruits (which contain Trasa Jivas) is not found in the Shravakas; so, somehow Shravakaship is possible, but the monk's basic rites (Mulgunas) are twenty-eight which are not seen in the sanctimonious persons; hence, the monkship is not at all possible from any point of view. Further, in the household- ers state Jambu-Kumar, etc. are described to have indulged excessively in the acts of injury, etc., but after accepting monkhood (asceticism) none indulged in any acts of injury, etc., nor kept any possessions and attachment; therefore, your above-stated argument cannot be maintained.


Further, it is stated in the scripture that four thousand kings after adopting asceticism (monkhood) along with Lord Adinathji, became corrupt later on; Then Devas (gods of heaven) warned them- "If you will follow wrong conduct after accepting Jina-Linga (Nirgrantha monkhood), we will punish you. After giving up Jina-Linga you may indulge in whatever practice you like." Therefore, those who follow wrong conduct after accepting Jaina-monkhood are Punishable. How could such persons be revered?


What more to say ! those who indulge in perverse practices after accepting Jina-Linga (Nirgrantha monkhood) they are great sinners. Other Jivas who attend on them and worship them are also great sinners. There is a story in Padma-Purana Shastra that one devout Shravaka (named Shreshthi) did not offer food to the monks possessed of supernatural power (of moving in sky) by believing them corrupt under suspicion. How is then offering of food, etc.  possible to those who are clearly corrupt?


One may say- "In our inner-self we have true belief, but out- wardly due to fear of public censure we respect them, therefore, we will reap the fruit according to our inner belief?"


Answer: In Ashta-Pahuda Shastra paying regard due to shy-ness is negated, this was stated earlier. If someone forcibly makes you bow your head with folded hands then one can argue that it is not according to our inner-self. But if you yourself offer salutation, etc.  due to pride-passion, etc., then how not to attribute involvement of inner conscious in such act? For example, if someone internally believes meat- eating as bad but for the sake of pleasing the king, etc.  he eats the meat, then how could he be treated as a votary (continent)? Similarly, if someone internally believes adoration etc. of false preceptors as bad but for the sake of pleasing them and other persons he adores them then how could he be called a true believer?  Hence, on outward renunciation only the internal renunciation is possible. Therefore, for the true believer the adoration, etc. of false preceptors, etc. is not, justifiable from any point of view.


In this way, the adoration of false preceptors is prohibited.


One may ask here- "How can false belief be attributed to a true believer of Tattvas if he adores the false preceptors?"


Answer: As a chaste woman never cohabits with any other man except her husband; similarly, a true believer of Tattvas never offers salutation, etc. to a false preceptor as he does to a true preceptor.  Because he has firm belief, in Jiva etc. Tattvas, i.e., in his belief, there is total negation of attachment, etc. passions, and highest regard for passionlessness. Therefore, he offers salutation, etc. to those monks (true preceptors) only who possess passionlessness knowing them adorable and never offers salutations, etc. to those so-called monks who possess attachment, etc. passions knowing them unadorable.


Someone may say- "We offer salutations, etc. to the so-called monks with the same view with which we offer salutations, etc. to the kings, etc.


Answer: The kings, etc. have no place in religious tradition, but the preceptor's adoration is a part of religious tradition. Reverence to the kings, etc. is done with the motive of greed, etc.  where the rise of Charitra Moha (conduct-deluding karma) only is possible, but the adoration of false preceptors in place of true preceptors is a contrary practice, because the instrumental cause of right belief in Tattvas is the true preceptor. Therefore, due to shyness if someone adopts perverse instrumental cause then how could he attain staunch belief in Tattvas which is the desired result? Hence, the rise of Darshan Moha (faith-deluding karma) is possible there.


Thus ends the discussion of the characteristics of a false preceptor.


Exposition of False Religion and Denial of Faith in It


Now the false religion is being discussed:-


Believing such acts and dispositions to be religion which involve injury, etc. sins and which cause increase in carnal desires, etc. is to be known as false religion. Indulging in the activities of oblation wherein great injury is involved, killing of big animals is caused, sensual pleasures are fostered, cruel concentration is developed due to injurious attitude towards Jivas, desire of fulfillment of selfish ends arises by harming others due to intense greed, believing all such acts to be religious acts is false religion.


Further, people take bath, etc. in (so-called) holy places which causes injury to innumerous big and small living beings; it provides relaxation to the body, therefore, it fosters sensual pleasures and increases carnal desires. Thus, one increases his passions out of sport and wrongly believes all such activities to be religion. But all this is the false religion.


Further, he gives donation during the period of transition (Samkranti), eclipse and great calamity, etc. and gives donation for the purpose of (neutralizing the effect of) the planets of bad omen, gives donation to the greedy persons by knowing them worthy recipients. In donation he gives gold, elephant, house, sesame, etc.  articles. But Samkranti, etc. are not the religious festivals. By movement of the planets, etc. stellars, the Samkranti (transition), etc. are caused. And donation given for the mitigation of the effect of bad planets, etc. is not religious donation because it is given due to fear and excessive greed, etc. Moreover, the greedy persons are not worthy recipients of donation because the greedy persons cheat through many false tactics, they do not do even a little good.  Benefaction is actually caused only when the donee practices religion with the help of the donation received (But) on the other hand he indulges in sinful conduct. How would benefaction be caused to a person who helps in sinful acts?


The same thing is stated in Ravanasara-Shastra:- sohan va jyee viman.soha savass  jan.aih                 (26)


Meaning:  Giving charity to pious persons is like the splendor of the fruits of Kalpa-Vrikshas (The trees yielding anything desired). This act is splendorous as well as pleasure-giving. And the charity given to greedy persons is like decorating the bier of a dead-body. Though splendor results, yet it causes extreme distress to the owner (kinsmen). Hence, there is no religion in giving charity to the greedy persons.


Moreover, such things should only be given in charity which foster religion in the donee, but the donation of gold, elephant, etc.  creates injury, etc. and increases pride- greed etc. passions which result in great sin. How could virtue (Punya) be caused to the donor of such things?


Moreover, the passionate persons claim that there is virtue (Punya) in providing the objects of sexual pleasure; but how could virtue be claimed in the acts of unchastity which are sinful? And they put up false logic by saying that this gives satisfaction to a lady.  Though a woman gets pleasure by fulfillment of sexual desire, why is then the observance of chastity preached? Even after sexual pleasure if her other desires are not fulfilled then she feels distressed. Therefore, such false logic is fabricated only for gratifying the carnal desires.


Similarly, believing religion in the activities other than compassion and donation to worthy recipients is all false religion.


Moreover, by observing the vows, etc., they foster injury and objects of sensual pleasures, etc. but the vows, etc. are observed for decreasing them. And people forsake eating food grains and instead eat the tuber roots. In such acts, greater injury is caused and relishment of sensual objects increases.


Further, such people do not take meal in the day time and instead take food in the night. So, in this act of taking meals in the night instead of taking food in the day, greater injury is caused and recklessness increases. And by observing the vows (fast), etc. people indulge in excessive adornment of the body, sportive acts, gambling, etc. - all these are sinful acts. But they desire that the fruit of observing vows should be obtained in the form of attainment of worldly agreeable objects and destruction of disagreeable objects; all this results in increasing passions.


Thus, believing religion to consist in the observance of vows (in above-said manner) is false religion.


Further, many people increase injury, etc. sins through adoration, etc. They foster the objects of senses by way of songs, dancing, singing and taking the desired food, etc. and other articles. They indulge in sportive acts and pass time recklessly. In such acts, they create lot of sin but do not have even a little recourse to religion and yet believe it to be religion. So, all this is false religion.


And many people produce affliction to the body and indulge in injury and passional acts. For example, they observe penance by heating their body in five types of fires. In this process, small and big living beings get burnt by fire, lot of injury is caused. How is religion possible in such acts? And some persons swing by keeping the body turned upside down; some keep the arms raised upwards. Thus, in different ways they practice the (false) religion; but anguish only is caused by such acts. These are not the parts of religious practices.


Further, some people control respiration and practice Neti- Dhoti etc. Yogic exercises. In such acts, lot of injury, etc. are caused by consumption of water, etc. If some miracle is produced then pride and other passions increase in him. Hence, in no way, such acts can be called religious acts. Thus, they involve themselves in acts causing distress, but do not bother about reducing indulgence in passional acts. Internally, they possess the intention of anger, pride, deceit and greed passions; they uselessly engage themselves in painful acts and believe them to be religious acts. This too is false religion.


And many people commit suicide because they cannot endure miseries in this world or desire to get agreeable objects in the next birth. Many kill themselves for earning name and fame or under pressure of anger passion, etc. For example, many women burn themselves in the pyre-fire on account of bereavement of their husbands and are called Sati (chaste lady). Some people get dissolved in the snow of Himalaya mountain, some others get sawed in the Kashi (Benaras) city, some people die willfully; thus, these acts are believed to be religious acts; but committing suicide is a great sin.  If attachment in body, etc. was lessened then one should have accepted real penances. But what part of religion is evolved in dieing in the aforesaid manner? Therefore, committing suicide is false religion.


Likewise, there are many facets of false religion. How long to describe ! Believing to be religious all such acts which foster passions and sensuousness is false religion.


Behold ! Due to bad times in the Jina's religion also the practice of false religion has started. Whatever religious festivals are described, in all those festivals it is desirable to observe continence by giving up passional acts. But they do not adopt this practice and instead in the name of vows, etc. adorn the body in various ways, take relishing food, indulge in sportive acts and in the acts which increase the passions and indulge in great sinful acts like gambling, etc.


Further, in the acts of worshipping, etc., this was the preaching that, Savidyalaisho bahupunyasho doshaynal i.e., "In the acts producing excessive virtue (Punya) if some little sinful acts are involved then the same are ignorable". Under this pretext in the name of worship and propagation of religion (Jina's teachings) people burn the lamps in the night, collect the objects containing infinite living beings (such as flowers, vegetables, etc.) and indulge in practices involving injury and other sins (before the Jina's idol). They pay scant respect to virtuous acts, like that of worship, invocation, etc. In all these acts, loss is more, profit (gain) is less or even nil. All such acts are clearly irreligious.


Moreover, the temple of Jina is abode of religion. In the temple people engage themselves in various irreligious talks, sleep and behave indolently; and they foster passions and sensual pleasures by developing orchard and flower garden, etc. (inside temple premises).  Further, they give charity, etc. to the greedy persons believing them to be preceptors (Gurus) and feel exhalted by their false praise. Thus, in various ways they increase their passional desires and believe same to be religion, but the emblem of Jina's religion is passionlessness. Entry of such perverse practices in Jaina religion is due to bad times.


In this way, the adoration and practicing of false religion is forbidden.


Now the involvement of false belief in such practices is being explained:-


The one basic objective in the right belief of Tattvas is to give up passions. This very disposition is called religion. If by increasing passional dispositions one believes that religion is evolved then where remains the right belief in Tattvas? This is against the Jina's commandment. Passions are sinful dispositions; believing these to be religion is false belief Therefore, in the practice of false religion false belief is invariably involved.


In this way, know well that the adoration and believing false deity, false preceptor and false scriptures (false religion) results in strengthening false belief. Therefore, this is described here. The same is stated in the Ashta-Pahuda:


Kuchhiydaivan dhaman kuchhiylingin cha vandya jodu

Lajjabhygarvado michhaditthee havai so hu                                   (92,  Mokshpahung)


Meaning: If someone adores false deity, false religion and false preceptor out of shyness, fear and false prestige, he is assuredly a false believer.


Therefore, those who want to forsake false belief, first of all they should forsake adoring false deity, false preceptor and false religion.


In the abdication of twenty-five types of faults of right belief, under Amoorhadrishti (follilessness) and six places of misbelief, the renouncement of these false deity, etc. only has been preached. Hence, one must invariably forsake them.


Further, false belief resulting from adoration of false deity, etc.  is a bigger sin than the sins of injury, etc. In its fruitation one gets birth in Nigoda and hell, etc. In such births intense agonies and afflictions have got to be suffered for infinite period and attainment of right knowledge becomes extremely difficult.


The same is stated in Ashta-Pahuda:



Kuchhytvan kun.ato  kuchhiygyeebhayan,o hoyee                        (140,   Bhavpahung)


Meaning: One who is engrossed in the practice of false religion, adores the hypocrites and false preceptors, observes false penances, he has to suffer from the miseries of evil state of existence.


So oh ! Bhauyas ! by adoring the false deities, etc. even with the slightest greed and fear, one has to suffer from intense agonies for infinite period; therefore, false belief is in no way worth harnessing.


In Jina's religion it is an eternal tradition that first of all the bigger sin is advised to be forsaken before a smaller sin. Therefore, believing the false belief to be a greater sin than indulgence in seven evil habits, it is to be forsaken first of all. Therefore, those who are afraid of the fruits of sinful acts and do not desire to sink their soul in the ocean of agony should invariably give up false belief. It is not desirable to be of fickle mind due to fear of censure or desire of praise.  Because in ethics also, the same is stated as follows:


Nindantu neetinipun.a  yadi va stuvantu

Lakshmee samavishtu gachhtu va yathaishtam

Adaev vastu  tu yugantrai va

Nyayatpatha prvichlanti padam na dheera                              (184,    Neetishtak)



If someone criticizes, let him criticize; someone praises, let him do so; wealth is obtained or lost, death is instant or comes after long time - in all such contradictory situations the wise persons do not budge an inch from the path of justice.


Remembering this doctrine, it is not proper to indulge in unjustifiable forms of false belief under pressure of censure, praise, fearor greed.


Oh ! the true omniscient God, true preceptor and true religion are the supreme objects; the religion rests on them. How could religion be evolved by fickleness and indecision about them? What more to speak? It is extremely necessary to forsake in every way, the company of false deity, false preceptor and false religion.


By not abdicating the false deity, etc., the false belief is greatly strengthened and in the present times, the tendency of adoring them is found specifically more here. Therefore, their abdication is force-fully described here. Knowing all this, one should adopt the path of liberation by forsaking false belief.


Thus ends the 6th chapter of the treatise Moksha Marg Prakashak in which the description of false deity, false preceptor, false religion is done for abdicating them.












Doha:  Is bhavatrooka mool ik, janhu mithyabhav

Tako kari nirmal ab,  kariye moksh upav



Meaning Oh ! Bhavya Jina ! the false belief is to be known as the only root cause of this world-tree (the ocean of transmigration).  You should immediately uproot it and must make effort for attaining liberation.


Now such false belief which is found in Jivas who are Jains and obey the commandments of omniscient Jina is being described; because even the slightest trace of this false belief is suicidal; hence even the subtle and latent false belief too must be forsaken.


In Jina's scripture (Agama) descriptions are found from two angles - the one is Nishchaya (the real standpoint) and the other Vyavahara (the unreal and conventional standpoint. In them the real standpoint (Yathartha) is called Nishchaya and the unreal or conventional standpoint (Upachara) is called Vyavahara. Without knowing their real nature people indulge in contrary practices, the same is being described here:


The Misbelievers Possessing Wrong Concept of Nishchaya


Many Jivas believe themselves to be the true followers of the path of liberation although they have misconception about Nishchaya and do not know its real nature. They believe as if they have realized the self-soul like Siddha’s.  Actually, they are worldly people but due to delusion they believe that they are like Siddhas. This is their wrong conception.


In Shastras wherever the soul has been described to be like Siddha Gods is from the substantial (Dravya-drishti) point of view; but from the modificational (Paryaya) point of view it is not like Siddha Gods. For example, a king and a pauper man both are alike from the manhood point of view but they are not alike from the king-hood and poorness point of view. Similarly, the Siddhas and the mundane beings are alike from the sentience (Jivatva) point of view but from the Siddhahood and the Mundaneness point of view they are not alike; yet these misbelievers believe themselves to be as pure as are the Siddhas. But the pure and impure state is a modification. If alikeness is believed from the modificational (Paryaya) point of view then it is false belief.


Further, they believe themselves to be possessing omniscience (Kewal-Jnan, i.e., Kshayik-Jnan) but clearly they are found possessing the sensory and scriptural knowledge (Mati and Shrut-jnan) only which is of Kshayopashamic form of knowledge only. But the Kshayik-Bhava is evolved on destruction of its obscuring karma and these people under fallacy believe evolution of Kshayik-Bhava even without the destruction of karmas, so, this is their false belief.


Wherever in the Shastras omniscience is stated to be the nature of Jivas, it is from the potentiality point of view; because all Jivas possess the potentiality of the evolution of omniscience (Kewal-Jnan).  But only on its manifestation in the present state its existence is accepted.


Someone believes that "In the spatial units (Predates) of the soul the omniscience (Kewal-Jnan) always exists manifested, but it is not clearly visible being hidden under the veil of karmas." But this is a fallacy. If omniscience is found manifested then it knows the things clearly even on getting obstructed by the layers of adamantine like things. How could it be obstructed by barricade of karmas? Therefore, due to instrumentality of karmas the omniscience is non-existent. If omniscience were found in all states of Jivas then it would have been termed as Parinamik-Bhava but it is a Kshayik-Bhava.  Such Chaitanya-Bhava (eternal consciousness) in which all kinds of qualities are found existing is termed as Parinamik-Bhava. Its various states are of the form of sensory & scriptural knowledge (Mati-Shrut Jnan etc.) and of omniscience (Kewal-Jnan) form; these states are not Parinamik-Bhava. Therefore, the existence of the state of omniscience (Kewal-Jnan) is not found always.


Moreover, in the Shastras the example of sun (with reference to omniscience) is to be interpreted to mean that as due to the obstruction caused by clouds the light of sun is not visible, similarly, due to the rise of karmas omniscience is not manifested. But it should not be understood to mean that omniscience always remains in the soul in all states as the light remains in the sun; because the example is not found fit in all respects.  For example, the color attribute is found in the matter (Pudgal) substance; green-yellow, etc. are its various states but if any one of these states is found in the present, the other states are absent. Similarly, the Chaitanya Guna (consciousness-attribute) is found in the soul; sensory knowledge, scriptural knowledge, etc. are its states but if any one of these states are found in the presentation the nature is said to have been manifested. Sometimes it is found manifested. Similarly, due to the instrumentality of (rise of) karma the soul assumes alienated (contrary) disposition. In such a situation, there is only absence of omniscience (Kewal-Jnan); but on the removal of the instrumentality of karmas omniscience is evolved for ever.  Therefore, omniscience is said to be the nature of the soul for all times, because such power is always found. On its manifestation, the nature is said to have been manifested.


For example, however, if someone drinks hot water due to the belief that the nature of water is always cool, then burning (of mouth) only will be caused. Similarly, if because of the omniscience nature of the soul, someone (due to misconception) believes that he is realizing the pure soul though his soul is in an impure state, he himself becomes miserable only. In this way, those who realize the soul to be possessing the omniscience state are misbelievers.


Moreover, due to misconception they believe their soul to be devoid of passional dispositions, though the passional dispositions are clearly found in them. To such persons our question is - "The passional dispositions (feelings) are clearly seen in you; tell us as to in which substance's existence these are found? If these are found existing in the body or karmic-matter, then these dispositions should either be insentient or of material form; but these passional dispositions are clearly seen to be of immaterial form with sentience.  These dispositions are, therefore, of the soul substance only. This is what is stated in the Samayasara Kalasha also:


Karyatvadkrint na karm na cha tajjeevprkrityordvayo

Rakshaya prkritai svkaryphalbhugbhavanushangatkriti

Naeksya prkritairchitvalsanajjeevosth karta tato

Jeevsyaev cha karm tachidnugan gyata yat pudgala                    (203)


The meaning of this verse is this:


As the psychic passional dispositions (Bhavakarma) are found existing, therefore, it cannot be said that they are not generated by some body, because these are definitely deeds of some doer. Further, these cannot be treated as being produced by both Jiva and karmic matter; because if it be so, then the material karmas should also bear the consequence of psychic dispositions in the form of happiness and misery, which is impossible. Further, it is not the act of karmic matter alone, because it obviously possesses insentient nature. Therefore, the producer of these psychic passional dispositions is soul only and these passional dispositions are the deeds of soul only; because the psychic dispositions are sentient by nature, these cannot be produced without sentience and matter does not possess sentience.


Thus, the psychic passional dispositions are found in the existence of Jiva.


Now, those Jivas who believe that passional dispositions are produced only by the instrumentality of karma maintain that they are non-doers of the same; although they are the real doers. But because they want to remain reckless and irresponsible, therefore, they put the full blame for these dispositions on karmas. So, this is their distressing delusion.


The same is stated in Samayasara Kalasha also:


Ragjanmani nimitan pardravymaiv klyanti yai tu tai

Utaranti na hi mohvahinee shudhbodhvidhurandhbudhya                      (221)


The meaning of this is:


Those Jivas who believe in the instrumentality of other substance only in the evolution of passional dispositions are devoid of right knowledge and are blindwitted, being so, they are incapable of crossing the river of delusion.


Further, in the Sarva Vishuddha Jnana Adhikara of Samayasara such a person who believes the soul to be the non-doer (Akarta and says that a Karmas alone make Jivas sleep and awake, injury is caused by Parghata-Karma, unchastity by Veda-karma, therefore, the karma alone is the doer," - a Jain having such belief is a Sankhymati (believer of Sankhya faith) because like that of a Sankhyamati he too lives unrestrained treating the soul to be always pure.


Moreover, such a faith resulted in the fault of disowning passional dispositions and one considered oneself as non- doer.  Therefore, one became fearless in indulging in passional acts and so did not make any effort for removal of such feelings of attachment, etc. Due to such belief, one becomes unrestrained and indulges in evil acts which cause bondage of karmas and result in infinite transmigration in the world.


Here one argues that in Samayasara too it is stated so:


Varn.adya va ragmohadyo va bhinna  bhava sarv aivasya puns

Tainaevantstatvat pshyatomo na drishta syurdrishtmaikam pran syat            (37)


Meaning: "The color, etc. and attachment aversion, etc. are the dispositions which are separate from the soul." Further it is stated there that attachment, etc. dispositions bear the imprint of matter and in the other Shastras also the soul is described as unconcerned with attachment, etc. How this is so?


Answer: The attachment, etc. feelings are evolved as impure dispositions (Aupadhik-Bhavas) due to instrumentality of other substance and this Jiva believes them to be his natural dispositions.  Why would one believe as bad and try to uproot such feelings which he believes to be natural instincts? Therefore, this faith also is perverse. To extricate one from such belief, the attachment, etc.  impure dispositions are described to be different from the nature of the soul and the same are described to be of material by laying emphasis on instrumental cause. For example, a physician wants to cure the disease; if he finds excess of cold then he prescribes hot medicine and if he finds excess heat then he prescribes cold medicine. Similarly, the true preceptor wishes to extricate the attachment, etc. passional feelings.  To such Jivas who become unrestrained and indolent by believing the attachment, etc. feelings to be the product of other substance, the true preceptor makes them believes, by laying emphasis on the substantive cause (upadan karan), that the attachment, etc. feelings are of the soul; and to such Jivas who do not try to uproot the impure dispositions, believing them to be the nature of the soul, the true preceptor make, them believe by laying emphasis on instrumental cause, that the attachment, etc. impure dispositions are the products of other substance.


The true belief would be evolved only on forsaking both the contrary types of faiths. Then one would believe that these passional feelings are not natural dispositions of the soul but get evolved in the soul in the form of contrary dispositions due to the instrumentality of the karmas. On removal of the instrumental cause, 'soul's true nature remains as it is.  Therefore, one should make effort for uprooting them.


Here the question arises that "If these attachment, etc. impure dispositions are produced due to the instrumentality of karmas then how could these impure dispositions be eliminated in the continued rise of karmas? Therefore, making effort for their removal is useless.


Answer: In the accomplishment of one act several causes are required. In them, those causes which are consciously gathered, should be gathered and on meeting of those causes which cannot be consciously gathered but are met with on their own, the act gets accomplished. For example, for the birth of a son the conscious causes are marriage, etc. and the unconscious cause is the destiny.  Therefore, one who wishes to have a son should consciously get married and when fortune also favours, the son will be born.  Similarly, for uprooting impure dispositions, the conscious causes are pondering over and ascertaining the Tattvas and unconscious causes are the subsidence, etc. of Moha (deluding) karma. Therefore, one who wishes to eliminate one's impure dispositions should consciously ponder over and ascertain the Tattvas and when the subsidence, etc. of Moha (deluding) karma takes place, the impure dispositions get eliminated.


Question: As marriage, etc. are dependent on destiny, similarly, ascertaining of Tattvas (reality) too is dependent on Kshayopashama  etc. of the karmas, hence making efforts is useless.


Answer: You have got Kshayopashama of Jnanavarana karma (knowledge obscuring karma) so you can ascertain the Tattvas. Therefore, you are advised to make effort of engaging your knowledge there.  The irrational beings do not possess such Kshayopashama; so, how can they be preached?


Then he further says- " If fortune favors then only one's Upayoga (attentive consciousness) can get engrossed there. How would Upayoga be engrossed without such fortune?


Answer:  If your belief  be so then you should not make effort for any work anywhere.  You willfully engage yourself in eating-drinking and doing business, etc. and here you put up the excuse of the destiny.  This shows that your interest does not lie here and only due to pride you are putting up such false excuses.


In this way, such people should be known as false believers who, in spite of being absorbed in passional acts, believe, their soul to be free from them.


Further, there are people who although are having the bondage of karmas and Nokarmas (body, etc.), yet believe the soul to be free from bondage, but their bondage is clearly seen. The Jnanavarana, etc. karmas are seen obscuring the knowledge, etc. and according to their rise, etc., the conditions of the soul are seen changing through the medium of body.  How is then the bondage not there? If there be no bondage why should then the aspirants of liberation make efforts for destroying them?


Question: How is then the soul described in the Shastras as separate from and unbounded and untouched by karmas and Nokarmas?


Answer: The relationship are of several kinds.  From one identity relationship ( Tadatmya-Sambandha) point of view, the soul is described to be separate from Karmas and Nokarmas, etc., because the different substances do not become one by transforming (into one another) and it is from this point of view that the soul is described as unbounded and untouched.  But from the instrumental cause and effect relationship point of view, bondage the soul assuredly assumes different forms.  Therefore, believing the soul as having no bondage is false belief.


Someone may argue here that we do not want to ramble our attention in thoughts of bondage and liberation because in scripture (Yogasara) it is stated so:


Jayee baddhu mukku mun.hi so banhiyahi n.ibhantu

Sehaj saroovyu jyee ramhi to pavhi siv santu                       (87)


Meaning: "That Jiva who believes himself to be bonded or liberated he undoubtedly gets bonded".


Our answer to him is- "There are Jivas who always hold the modificational view point (Paryaya Drishti), believe only in the bonded- liberated states of the soul but do not know the intrinsic nature (Dravya-Swabhava) of the soul.  Such Jivas are preached to remember that those, who do not have belief in the intrinsic nature of the soul and believe only in the bonded -liberated states, are always bonded.  And if bondage- liberation be totally not there then why is it described that the Jiva gets bonded?  And why should one make efforts to destroy the bondage and get liberated?  And why should one exert for self realization? Therefore, one should believe that from substantial (Dravya-Drishti) point of view the soul holds one unchanged form and from modificational (Paryaya Drishti) point of view it assumes different states.


Thus, in various ways he holds perverse belief due to wrong understanding of Nishchaya-Naya (real standpoint) only.


In Jina Vani (omniscient Jina's preachings) different types of descriptions are found from different angles of different Nayas (standpoints) in different contexts.  But this person (misunderstanding Nischyas-Naya) holds misbelief by accepting as per his imagination such descriptions which are stated chiefly from realistic standpoint.


Moreover, in Jina's preachings, the path of liberation is described to be in the union of right belief, knowledge and conduct.  So, in his belief and knowledge he should hold the faith and knowledge of seven Tattvas but he does not think of them.  In this his conduct he should make effort for uprooting  attachment, etc. passions but he does not exert for it; and instead he remains contented by knowing the liberation path to consist in the pure realization of his own soul only.  For practicing the same he internally continuously thinks -"I am pure like Siddha god, I possess omniscience, etc., I am devoid of Dravya-karmas and No- karmas, I am full of beatitude, the miseries of birth-death, etc. are not in me".


So, here we ask him "If you contemplate in this way from the substantial (Dravya-Drishti) point of view, then the substance (soul) is a mass of all sorts of pure and impure modifications, why do you then contemplate the soul as pure only?  And if you contemplate from the modificational (Paryaya-drishti) point of view, then presently you are having impure modifications; how do you then believe yourself to be pure?


Further, if you believe yourself to be pure from the potentiality point of view then you should believe that "I am capable to become so".  Why do you believe "I am so"? Therefore, contemplating oneself to be in pure form is a fallacy.