Chapter - X


Religious Divisions


The Jaina religions like other religions of India has suffered from the tendency of schisms and secessions. The different sects gradually sprang from time to time on account of the different interpretations put on the canonical texts. Besides, the circumstances of the particular time also compelled them to give up old ideas and to adopt new ones. The separation between the Digambaras and the Svetambaras took place in 79 or 82 A.D. A terrible famine occurred in Magadha in 293 B.C. and 14,000 monks under the leadership of Bhadrabahu with Candragupta Maurya moved on to the South. Some monks under the leadership of Sthulabhadra stayed no gaoha.

Both the traditions do not differ as regards the twelve-year famine that took place in Magadha and as regards the consequent emigration of the Jaina Sagha under his leadership. But while the Digambara tradition states that the Sagha migrated to the South, vetmbara tradition says that Bhadrabhu went to Nepal. The origin of the great schism, which later on developed into Digambara and vetmbara sects, is ultimately traced to this event.

After Bhadrabhu's departure Sthlabhadra assumed the leadership of the Sagha in Magadha. He was a contemporary of Maurya Candragupta and Bindusra. After the famine was over he convened a council at Paliputra, at which the remnant of the Sagha left behind in Magadha tried to put in order the sacred lore that had fallen into a state of decay. Sthlabhadra was succeeded by rya Mahgiri and then came Suhastin who was the religious preceptor of the Maurya king Samprati who is said to have been a devout Jaina and to have done much for the glory of his religion. After Suhastin came Susthita, Indradinna (Klaka I), Priyagrantha and Vddhavd, one after the other. At this time lived Klaka II of the aka-Vikrama fame. Then followed Dinnasri, Sihagiri and Vairasvmi. The last of these was the last Daaprv or keeper of a part of the original canon. It was in his time in M.E. 609 (or A.D. 82) that the gradually growing schism in the Jaina Sagha was finalised and the two sects, vetmbara and Digambara, separated for good.

Jacobi observes that the division of the Jaina Sagha into Svetambara-Digambara took place gradually, and that they became aware of their mutual differences about the end of the first century A.D. It is necessary to know what is the exact difference between these two sects, Literally, Digambara mean, 'sky-clad' and vetambara means 'white-robed' i.e. the monks of the Digambaras are naked, while those of the Svetambaras wear white clothes. In fact there is very little difference between the two branches as regards the essentials of doctrine. The most authoritative book, namely, Tattvartha Sutra by Umasvati or Umasvami has been accepted by both the sects. However, there are some major as well as minor points on which the two sections are opposed to each other. The major points of difference between the Digambaras and Svetambaras are as follows :

(i) While the Digambaras believe that a monk who wears clothes, can not attain salvation; the vetmbaras assert that the practice of complete nudity is not essential to attain liberation.

(ii) The Digambaras hold the view that woman, is not entitled to Moka in this life. On the contrary, the vetmbaras believe that women can attain Moksa in this life.

(iii) According to the Digambaras, once a saint has attained Kevala Jna (Omniscience) he needs no food, but can sustain life without eating. The view is not acceptable to the vetmbaras.

Leaving aside the trivial differences in rituals, customs and manners, the following are some of the minor points on which the two sects do not agree :

(i) The Digambaras maintain that the embryo of Mahvra, the last Trthakara, was not removed from the womb of Devnad, a Brhmin lady, to that of Trial or Priyakrii, a Kshatriya lady, as the vetmbaras contend.

(ii) The Digambaras believe in the complete disappearance of the ancient sacred literature and as such they disown the canonical books of the vetmbaras.

(iii) The Digambaras assert that Mahvra never married but according to the vetmbaras, Mahvra married Yaod and had a daughter by name Anojj or Priyadaran.

(iv) The vetmbaras consider Mallintha, the 19th Trthakara as a female but the Digambaras state that Mallintha was a male.

(v) According to Digambaras, the Trthakaras must be represented as nude and unadorned and with downcast eyes. The need not be so according to vetmbars.6

Sagha, Gaa and Gachchha

The Sagha and Gaa are well known political terms. The Sagha-rjya means the rule of a community and the Gana-rjya indicates the rule of many a republic. In early times, there was perhaps no distinction between political Sagha and Gana, because Pini equates Gaa with Sagha. The Sagha and Gaa in Jainism and Buddhism might have come into existence in imitations of the political Saghas and Gaas which flourished in ancient India. Both Mahvra and Buddha were born and brought up in the republican atmosphere. They had Saghas arround them. It is for this reason that they adopted the name as well as the constitution of the political Sagha in organizing their religious Saghas. It is also possible to suggest that the political Saghas as Gaas might have been founded in imitation of the religious Saghas and Gaas which had existed since the time when the two great religions were organized. The head of the Gaa was known as Gaadhara. Both these terms in the political and religious spheres indicate the group of persons with the main characteristic of possessing a mind conscious of certain ideology. The existence of large number of Saghas and Gaas in the Jaina community in ancient times points out that it was politically and culturally Sagha highly organized. It is due to the efficiency of the Sagha organization that Jainism has survived through all vicissitudes. The Gaas in course of time also began to be known as Gacchas.

Gaa in the Kalpa-Stra and Kusha Inscriptions of Mathura

The Kalpastra tells us that there were seven schools of thought with their respective branches (khs) each of which separated in course of time into its own family Kula. It is interesting to note that several of these Jaina orders are mentioned in Kusha records. The seven Gaas are Godsa, Uddeha, Uduvika, Vesavika, Craa, Mnava and Kauika.7

The first Gaa had four khs and Kulas. The second Gaa Uddeha was founded by rya Rohaa and was divided into four akhs and six kulas. Ngabhta and Parihasaka Kulas of Kalpastra may be identified with Ngabhtikya8 and the Paridhsika9 of the Kuna records. The third gaa Uduvika was subdivided into four akhs and three kulas. None of these can be traced in any of the Kua inscriptions. The fourth Gaa Veavtika, founded by Kmarddhi, was subdivided into four akhs and Kulas. Among these, only, the Mehika Kula10 is mentioned in a Kushaa grant. The fifth Gaa Caraa identified by Buhler with Vraa Gaa of the inscriptions, was subdivided into four akhs and seven Kulas.11 The Kua inscriptions refer to several of them.12 The khs may be identified with the Hritamalakari, Vajrangari and Skik and Partidharmik of the Kalpastra. The sixth Gaa Mnava was divided into four khs and three Kulas. But only a few of these are mentioned in Kua records. The seventh Gaa Kauiya Gaa founded by Susthita was subdivided into four Kulas and seven akhs. This Gaa is well represented in the Kuaa inscriptions.13 The khs must be identified with the Vajr, Mdhyamik, Uchhnagari and the Vtsaliya while the Kulas may be identified with the Viya, Brahmaliptika and the Pishavhanaka of the Kalpastra. The Madhyamik branch was named after the ancient place Madhyamik identified with modern Nagar in Mewar. It was founded by Priyagrantha, the second pupil of Susthita and Supratibuddha.14

Pacastpnyya There is a controversy regarding the origin of the Pacastpanyya, a sect of the Digambaras. One view is that it originated from Mathura while the other view is that it was established by Arhadbali who was the native of Puravardhana. Puravardhana was a centre of Jainism. The Pahrpur copper plate grant of the year 159 (478-479 A.D.)15 records that a Brhmaa and his wife deposited three dinrs or gold coins with the city Council and lands for the maintenance of worship of the divine Arhats at the Vihra of Vaa-Gohli which was presided over by the disciples and the disciples of disciples of the Nirgrantha preceptor Guhanandin, belonging to the Pachastpanikya of Banaras. It seems that Guhanandina belonged to the third or fourth century A.D. Vrasena, who wrote a commentary on the Dhavl, was the follower of Pachastpanyya. Harishea has mentioned it in the Kathkosha written in 937 A.D.

Digambara Saghas, Gaas and Gachchhas of the South Nirgrantha Mahramaa Sagha

From the two inscriptions16 of the Kadamba ruler Mgea (500 A.D.), it is known that villages and lands were given to the Munis of Nirgrantha Mahramaa Sagha. What was the shape of this original Sagha, it is not known. The term Nirgrantha or Niganha was used for Mahvra, and also for his followers. It seems that Nirgrantha Mahramaa Saga was in existence during the time of Mahvra, and it continued even afterwards. Bhadrabhu accompanied this Sagha for going to the South. During the third or fourth century A.D., there were two main divisions of the Jaina Sagha (1) Nirgrantha Mahramaa Sagha and (2) vetapata. The Digambaras and the vetambaras lived together at Devagiri as known from the inscription17 and probably there were no separate temples. The Nirgrantha Mahsramaa Sagha was of the Digambaras.

Mla Sagha The earliest mention of the Mlasagha is in the inscription (C. 400 A.D.) of Gaga ruler Mdhavavarma II, and in the inscription of 425 A.D. of his son Avinta.18 In the above two inscriptions, we find the names of crya Vradeva and Candranandi. These two cryas performed the consecration of the temples, and the Gaga rulers Mdhava II and his son Avinta granted lands and villages. It seems that in South India, Mlasgha was used to indicate the separation of the Digambaras from the vetmbaras. The name Nirgrantha-Mahsramaa Sagha probably ceased, and it seems to have been called the Mlasagha. The early great Acaryas Kundakunda, Umsvm and Samantabhadra belonged to the Mlasagha.

The Mlasagha has been divided into seven Gaas - Devagaa, Senagaa, Deiyagaa, Srashagaa Kragaa and Baltkragaa. Generally these Gaas were called after the end names of the Munis, and after the names of the provinces and regions.

Devagana Among the above Gaas, Devagaa is the oldest. The existence of this Gaa is known from the four inscriptions19 of Lakamevara and the eleventh century inscription20 of Kadavanti. It is not mentioned afterwards. The names of the cryas of this Gaa are Pjyapda, Udayadeva21, Rmadeva, Jayadeva, Vijayadeva22, Ekadeva, Jayadeva23, Akadeva and Mahdeva24. Pujyapada was the founder of this Gaa.

De Gaa and Koakunnvaya

Deigaa is mentioned in several inscriptions as Desiya, Deika, Desiga and Deya. The term De originated from Dea which meant province. Some region of Karaka was known by the name of Dea. From the inscriptions, it is known that there were several centres of this Gaa in Kartaka. Among them, Hanasoge (Cikahanasoge) was prominent. From the cryas of this place originated the Hanasogebali or Gaccha. From the inscriptions25 of Chikahanasoge, it is learnt that there were several Vasadis (Temples) of this Gaa here, and they received patronage from the Caglva rulers.

Degaa has been classified into Pustakagachchha, ryasihagrahakula, Candrakarc rjmnya and Maitradnvya.

Pustakagaccha In the Pura inscription26 dated 1087 A.D., the donation of the land given to Padmanandi Maladharideva of the Pustakagachchha has been described. In the Halebeed inscription27 of the eleventh century, the erection of an image by the disciples of Nemichand Bharaka has been mentioned. In the Citapura inscription28 of the twelfth century A.D., the renovation of a temple by this Gaccha has been recorded. In the image inscription of Peddatubalam, the name of Bharaka Cndrakrti is found. In the Stavanidhi inscription29 of 1400 A.D., the construction of the temple at the preaching of Vranandi of this Gaccha has been mentioned. The Samdhimaraa of the crya of Gomini nvaya of the Pustakagaccha in the Heritage inscription dated 1224 has been engraved.30

The first subdivision of Pustakagaccha was Panasoge (Hanasoge) Bali. Its first mention31 is in the early tenth century and there is a reference to Samdhimarana of Nemicandra, disciple of Sridharadeva. The second mention32 of this Bali is of 1180 A.D. Balacanda, pupil of Jayakrti, installed an image. There are four inscriptions33 of this branch which belong from 12th to 14th century A.D. The cryas Lalitakrti, Devacandra and Nayakrti have been mentioned.

The second sub-division of Pustakagaccha was Igulevara Bali. It is mentioned in the seven inscriptions34 and they belong to the 12th-13th centuries A.D. In these inscriptions, the names of the cryas Haricandra, rutakrti, Bhanukirti, Mghanandi, Nemideva, Chandrakrti and Jayadeva are mentioned.

Pustakagaccha has been mentioned without any sub-division in several inscriptions. The first such inscription35 is of 1081 A.D., and Bharaka Sakalakrti is mentioned in it. There are seventeen such inscriptions which belong to the 16th century A.D.

The Pustakagaccha of Deiga is found with Koakunvaya. In some inscriptions, only Koakunnvaya is mentioned. The oldest inscription regarding. Konakunanvaya is the Tamra idia obtained for Markarbhip Lekh Tmrapatra. The other inscriptions37 are dated 802 A.D. and 797 A.D. It mentions Koakuneye Anvaya. It indicates the place Koakuna. This inscription mentions that Rrakta ruler Kambharja donated a village to the Acarya Vardhamna.

The Second Sub-division of Degaa named ryasagha Graha Kula is found only in one inscription38. It belongs to the tenth century, and it mentions ubhacandra, disciple of Kulacandra. This inscription was discovered in the Khaagiri hill of Orissa, while other inscriptions of Deigaa belonged to Karaka.

The third sub-division of Deigaa is Candrakar-crymnya which is mentioned in only one inscription.39 It has been discovered in Madhya Pradesh. Subhadra is known to have performed the consecration ceremony of the temple. The fourth sub-division of Mainadnvaya of Subhacandra crya is mentioned in the inscription40 and it belonged to the 13th century.

The are several inscriptions of Deigana without any sub-division. In two inscriptions41 dated 950 and 1096 A.D., there is mention respectively of the cryas Guacandra and Ravichandra. In these inscriptions, there is mention of Degaa along with Koa Kundnvaya. In eighteen inscriptions, there is mention of Mlasagha Degaa. Among them, old inscriptions42 belong to the twelfth century A.D. Eight inscriptions mention Degaa only. The old inscription43 among them are dated 1032 A.D. and 1054 A.D.

The ancient name in the inscription of the current name Kundakundnvaya was Koakundnvaya, which means it originated from Koakundapura. Some scholars prove on literary grounds that Mlasagha and Koakundnvaya are synonymous, and crya Kondakunda is the founder of the Mlasagha. This is not proved from any inscription before the eleventh century A.D. Mlasagha and Koakundnvaya were together used in the inscription44 of 1044 A.D. Koakundnvaya has been independently used in the inscriptions45 of the eighth or ninth century A.D. In the inscription of 802 A.D., Koakundnvaya was regarded as Gaa46. The earliest use of Deyagana with Koakundnvaya was used in the inscription of 931 A.D.47 From the inscriptions, it appears that the use of Koakundnvaya started from the later half of the seventh century A.D., and in the eighth or ninth century, efforts were made to make it powerful. Its first influence fell on the Deastha Saints of Karaka region. They began to be called Koakundnvaya Deyaga. The Dravia Sagha was also slightly influenced by Koakundnvaya.48 It is known from the inscription but it seems that influence was not permanent. The Drvia Sagha Koakundnvaya is not found mentioned in any other inscription.

Nandi Gana Seeing the similar names of the ancient cryas in the inscriptions of the Mlasagha and the Drviasgha, it appears that old Nandigaa (Saga) might have come from outside in these two Saghas. These ancient cryas might have belonged to Nandigana. It seems that the Dravia-Sagha and the Mlasagha might have adopted the Nandigana of the Ypanya Sagha. The Nandisagha was on important one among the Ypanyas.

Senagan The earliest mention of the Senagaa is found in the inscription49 dated 821 A.D. It is also found in the Mulagunda inscription50 of 903 A.D. Guabhadra, the author of the Uttarapurna, regarded his teacher Jinasena and grand-teacher as scholars of Sennvaya. Vrasena and Jinasena in the commentaries of Dhavala and Jayadhavala mention Pachastpnvaya. Gunabhadra mentions for the first time Pachstpnvaya as Sennvaya in the Uttarapura.

Senagaa has been sub-divided into three Gacchas (1) Pogari or Hogiri Gaccha, (2) Pustakagaccha and (3) Chandrakapa. The first mention of the Pogarigaccha is found in the inscription dated 893 A.D. This inscription51 records the grant of the village to Kanakasena, disciple of Vinayasena. In this inscription, it has been called Pogariyagaa of Mlasennvaya. Another inscription52 is of 1047 A.D., and Pandita Ngasena has been called the crya of Senagaa-Hogari-gaccha. The Clukya queen Akkdev granted some donation to him. The Pogar Gachchha is found mentioned in the inscriptions53 up to the 13th century A.D.

The first inscription54 of Chandrakava Anvaya is dated 1053 A.D. wherein the lineage of Ajitasena, Kanakasena, Nayasena etc. has been described. Saradra Kancarasena of Sindakula gave some charity to Nayasena. Narendrasena II, disciple of Nayasena, has been mentioned in 1081 A.D.55 An officer named Droa gave him some donation. Narendrasena and Nayasena were well versed in Grammar. In the inscription56 of 1066 A.D., Bharaka ntinandi of Candrikvaa has been mentioned. The name Mulasamgha is given but not of Senagaa.

The third sub-division Pustakagachchha of Senagaa is found in the inscription of the 14th century A.D. A lineage of the eleven cryas has been given in it. There is a mention of Samdhimaraa of Laksmsena and of Mnasena, disciple of Lakmisena.

Thirteen inscriptions of the Senagaa from the eighth to seventeenth centuries are known. Five inscriptions from the 12th to the 15th century of this Gaa were found at Hire vali.This proves that Hire vali was a great centre of this Gaa. In the inscription of the 13th century A.D., Kundakundanvaya was associated with Senagaa. From the 15th century onwards, its influence gradually decreased.

Srastha Gaa A Gaa named Srastha of the Mlasagha was famous. This Gaa is known from the inscriptions.57 It is mentioned as Srastha, Surstra, and Srastha. It appears that the monks of this Gaa might have lived in Surashra from the beginning. Hence, this name was given. It is possible that there might be some region of Sursra in South India, from where the Munis might have derived this name. The first mention of this Gaa is in the inscription58 of 962 A.D. in which Mlasagha has been associated with Dravia Sagha. The lineage of the saints namely Prabhcandra, Kalneledeva, Ravicandra, Ravinadi and Elcrya has been decribed. The Ganga ruler Marasiha II donated a village to Elcrya. The inscriptions of this Gaa from the 11th to the 13th century are found. No Kundakundanvaya has been found in the inscriptions of this Gaa.

Two sub-divisions of the Srastha Gaa are known Krra Gachchha and Chitrakunvaya. There is only one inscription59 dated 1007 A.D. in which Arhanandi Paita has been described. There are ten inscriptions of Chitraknvaya.

The first inscription60 is dated 1071 A.D. in which some donation given to ishy of Sri Nandi Pandita has been described. The thrid inscription61 is dated 1074 A.D. in which some donation given to rya Pandita, pupil of Arhanandi has been mentioned. The next two inscriptions62 give the lineage of this Aanvaya Vsupjya, Harinandi and Ngachandra. Harinandi and Ngacandra got some donation in 1148 A.D. That the Srastha gaa was in existence from the tenth to the twelfth century is known from fourteen inscriptions.

The donation of village to Elcrya of this Gaa has been mentioned in the Kdalra Copper plate inscription.63 In this inscription dated 963, the names of early cryas are given Prabhchandra, Kalneledeva, Ravicandra, and Ravinandi. In three inscriptions64 of the 13th century Adalageri, Ngachandra, Nandibharaka and Jayakriti of this Gaa have been mentioned. These are the memorials of the Samdhimaraa of those Saints

Kra Gaa Kragaa is similar to Kaura Gaa the Ypanyas. Both Kura and Kandra reveals a particular place, from where the group of monks of this Gaa derived this name. The earliest inscription of this Gaa belongs to the tenth century A.D.65 It describes the teachers lineage, and mentions some donation given to the disciple of crya Municandra. The inscriptions of this Gaa up to the 14th century are available. From the inscription, it is known that in the 11th and 12th centuries, Gaa king Bhujabala, Gagavarmadeva, his queen Gaga Mahadevi and four sons were devotees of the cryas of this Gaa and honoured them by the charities.

Three sub-divsions of Krra Gaa are known (i) Tintri Gachchha, (ii) Meshapsha Gachchha are (iii) Pustaka Gachchha.

Tintrin Gachchha There are six inscriptions66 of Tintrigachchha. The first two belong to the twelfth century A.D. and they describe Meghacandra and Parvatamuni cryas. The thrid is dated 1207 A.D. and it mentions some donation given to Bharaka Anantakrti. The fourth inscription67 dated 1556 A.D. mentions Devakrti, Municandra and Devacandra.

The inscription68 dated 1130 of Meapaa gachchha describes crya Kulacandra or Prabhcandra, and another inscription69 is concerned with Vasadik. There are inscriptions of Meshapsha gachchha70 and Tintrinka gachchha71. Meapaa means stone meant for sitting of goats. It seems to be a particular place from where the saints of this Gaa might be somehow related. Tintriika was a name of the tree. An inscription of the Pustaka Gachchha is dated 1150 A.D.72 The existence of this Gaa from the tenth to the sixteenth century is known from sixteen inscriptions.

Baltkra Gaa Looking at the resemblance, Baltkragaa originated from Balihri or Balahragaa of the Ypaniya. Balihra or Balagra appears to be territorial in nature. There was a village named Balagra in South India.73 The earliest inscription74 of Baltkragaa is dated 1071 A.D. It mentions the names of eight cryas. Another inscription75 of 1075 mentions Anantakrti, disciple of Municanda of Chitrakmnya of this gaa. Anotherinscription76 mentions the names of three cryas. There is mention of Tribhuvanacandra in the inscription77 dated 1074 A.D. Next important inscriptions of this Gaa are of the 13th century78. In the 14th century, Baltkaragaa is found associated with Sarasvatgachchha. In the inscriptions of the later half of the 14th century, there was special influence of this Gaa. The kings of the Vijayanagara kingdom honoured them. An inscription79 of the reign of Vra Bukkyarya mentions crya Sihanandi as Rjaguru and Maalcrya. Another inscription80 mentioning Nandisagha with Mlasagha and Srasvata gachchha with Baltkra gaa is important. Inscriptions of Kraja branch and its Ltra sub-branch of Baltkargaa of the South were discovered at Ukhalada.

Nigamnvaya : An inscription81 of Mlasagha-Niganvaya is dated 1310 A.D. It records the installation of an image by Kadeva.

Ypana Sagha : According to the Daranasra of Devasena- Sri, Ypanya Sagha was established by vetambara rkalaa in V.S. 205 at Kalya town in Gulbarga District in Kartaka. Like vetmbaras, it recognized the existence of sacred books and believed that women could attain salvation and saints could take food after attaining omniscience. At the same time, it was, like the Digambaras, against using clothes and it followed the rules and regulations of Digambara ascetics. They used the bunch of peacock feathers. It appears that this Sagha was a connecting link between the Digambaras and the vetmbaras. This Sagha produced several renowned scholars such as Aparjita, Plyakrti kayana and Vimalasuri.

The Ypanya Sagha received the royal patronage from the kings of Kadamba, Chlukya, Gaga, Rshrakta and Baa dynasties. These kings donated lands to this Sagha and its saints. The Kadamba ruler Migeavar (470-490 A.D.) performed pious deed by donating land at the place Palsik to this Sagha along with other Saghas namely Nirgranthas and Krchakas82 Ravivarm, son of the above Kadamba king, donated the Purukheaka village in donation to Kumradatta, the main crya of this Sagha.83 Yuvarja Devavarm of the second branch of the Kadamba dynasty also granted some lands to this Sagha84. Some Kadamba inscriptions85 inform that the influence of Ypanya Sagha at the time early Kadamba kings was great.

We learn about the Gaas and Gachchhas of Yapaniya-Sagha from some inscriptions86. In the Sect of the Ypanyas, Nandi Sagha was the main, and also the oldest. The names of the cryas of this Sagha were particularly Nandyanta and Kirtyanta.87 Nandisamgha was divided into several Ganas. Among them Kanakopala Sabhta Viksha Mla Gaa88, Sri Mlamla Gaa89 and Pugaviksha Mlagaa90 were important. The names of the Gaas were connected with some trees. The lineage of the cryas of Kanakopalasambhutavika Mlagaa, as mentioned in the inscription91 dated 488 A.D. is as follows :

Siddhanandi, Chitakcrya (who had five hundred disciples), Ngadeva and Jinanandi. A feudatory named Smiyra of Sendraka dynasty of Chlukya king Jayasiha after constructing Jaina temple for Jinanandi donated a village and some land. Chandranandi, Kumranandi, Krtinandi and Vimalachandrchrya are mentioned in the inscription92. This inscription refers to Eregitturagaa and Pulikalagachchha. At the preaching of Vimalcandrcrya, a Smanta Nirgundarja Paramagla during fifty year reign of the Gaga ruler r Purusha after constructing Jaina temple and freeing people from all taxes granted a village in charity. The lineage of the cryas of Punnga Viksha Mla Gaa in the inscription93 is given as follows 

r Kitycrya, Kavilcrya, Vijayakrti and Arhakrti. At the request of his feudatory Ckirja, the Rshraka king Prabhrita Varsha Govinda III donated a village named Jlamagala to Arakakrti for the management of a Jaina temple in 812 AD. crya Plyakrti, author of the Skatyana Vykarana of the Ypanya Sagha lived during the time of Amghavarsha. Palyakrti was either a disciple or a religious associate of Arkakrti. In the inscription94 of 1108 A.D., we find Puagavksha Mlagaa as branch of the Mulasagha which was afterwards it was absorbed by the Mlasagha.

Like Karaka, Ypanya Sagha was popular even in Tamil Province. Koimauvaga of Nandi Gacchha (Sagha) of the Ypanyas is mentioned in the inscription95 and its cryas were Jinanandi, Divkara and r Mandiradeva (Dhradeva). Dhradeva was the Adhishtht (Builder) of the Kaakmaraa Jinlaya. At the request of commander (Kaakarja) Durgarja. Ambharja II of the Early Clukya Dynasty, donated a village to that temple for the Yapanya Sgha. In another inscription,96 the lineage of the cryas of Akaligacchha Balaharigaa has been given as follows Sakalacandra, Ayyapoti and Arhanandi. Ambharja II donated a village named Kalucumbaru on Attilinadu province for repairing of the kitchen of Sarvalokraya Jinlaya. It appears that Balahrigaa and Akaligaccha belonged to the Ypanyas. Balahri or Balagragaa is mentioned in the inscription97 of the later half of the eleventh century A.D. in the form of Baltkragana of the Mulasagha.

In the inscriptions of the kings of Raa dynasty, we find two names of the Gaas of the Ypanyas Kreyagaa and Karagaa. Indrakrti (disciple of Guakirti), teacher of the first ruler Pithvrma of the Raa dynasty, belonged to the Ypanya Sagha. In another inscritpion,98 Kreyagaa is mentioned, and Mailpnvaya in place of Mailpatrtha. The lineage of the saints of Kreyagaa Mailpa Anvaya is as follows Mlabharaka Guakrti, Indra Krti, Ngachandra, Jinacandra, ubhakrti and Devakrti. Gaga feudatory of some Amoghavara king after constructing Jaina temple donated a village to Muni Devakrti. The existence of Kadra Gaa of the Ypanyas is known from the two inscriptions99 of Raa kings. The lineage of the teachers of Karagaa of the Ypanyas is given as below Devacandra, Devasiha, Ravicandra, Arhanandi, ubhacandra, Maunideva and Prabhcandra Deva.

From the inscriptions of the Ypanyas, it is learnt, that it remained well organized from the fifth to the fifteenth century A.D. There were several influential Gaas in it. Later on, Punnga Viksha Mulagaa, Balahrigaa and Kara Gaa joined the Mulasagha, Nandi sagha, Draviasagha first, but were afterwards absorbed in the Mlasagha.

There is a copper plate inscription100 of the early sixth century A.D. of the Ypanyas. It belongs to Ganga king Avinta. It records the donation of a temple installed by Yavanika Sagha.

There is mention of Kumili or Kumudi gaa of Ypanya Sagha in four inscriptions101. The first inscription102 of the ninth century A.D. describes Amara Mudala Guru, disciple of the Acarya Mahvra. He got built Deavallabha Jinlaya in the north of the village Kreppkkam. In another inscription103 dated 1045 A.D., some cryas of this Gaa have been described. At this time, an official name Chvua got a Jinlaya constructed. Other two inscriptions104 are of uncertain time. These are Niidhi inscriptions. The first inscription is the memorial of Samadhimaraa of nta Vradeva of this Gaa.

There are four inscriptions105 of Punngavrikshamlagaa of the Ypanya Sagha. The first inscription dated 1044 records the donation to Blachandra crya of this gaa for the newly constructed Jinlaya in Pulinagara. It also mentions donation to Rmacandra crya in 1145 A.D. The next inscription106 is dated 1165 A.D., and the lineage of the teachers is given. The commander Klaa of the ilhra king Vijayditya after constructing a Jinlaya at Ekkasambuge city made some donation to Vijayakrti for it. The inscription107 dated 1096 A.D. records some donation to Paita Crukrti, disciple of Munichandra Traividya of Viksha Mlagaa. In an inscription108 of the time not definite, there is mention of the temple of Kusuma Jinlaya of Vikamlagaa.

The Kaura gaa of the Ypanya Sagha is mentioned in three inscriptions.109 The first is of the early twelfth century A.D., and it describes the four cryas namely Bhubali, ubhacandra, Maunideva and Maghanandi. There is a reference to a temple of this gaa in the inscription of the 13th century. The third inscription mentions a Jaina image of this time. The reference to Kreyagaa of Ypanya Sagha is in the inscription110 of the early twelfth century A.D. Mla Bharaka and Jinadevasri were the cryas of this Gaa.

Ypanya sagha has been mentioned in the five inscriptions111 without any reference to Gana or Gaccha. The first inscription is dated 1060 A.D., and it informs the lineage of teachers Jayakrti, Ngacandra and Kanakaakti. The next two inscriptions belong to the twelfth century A.D., and they mention the Samdhimaraa of Municandra and his disciple Plyakrti. The last inscription of the 13th century A.D. refers to Traikrti crya.

The Dharmapur inscription112 of the eleventh century A.D. records donation to Mahvra Paita of Vandiyra gaa of Ypnya Sagha. The Varagala inscription of 1132 A.D. refers to the passing away of Gunacandra of Mahmuni of this gaa.113 In the Tengal inscription114 of the twelfth century A.D., Vaiyragaa has been mentioned. The disciple of crya of Ngavra of this gaa installed in image115. The four inscriptions of this Gaa belong from 980 A.D. to the 13th century.

Krcaka Sagha : The Krcaka Sagha was in existence in Karataka during the fifth century A.D. along with the Yapaniya Sagha as is guided from the inscriptions of the Kadamba rulers. As the Monks of this Sagha had beard-mustache, it was called Krchaka.

In the Kadamba inscription115, Krcaka Sagha is mentioned along with the Nirgranthas and the Ypaniyas. Kadamba ruler Mrigeavarm granted land to the Krcakas along with the Ypanyas and the Nirgranthas. In an inscription116, Vrasnecrya Sagha, a branch of the Krcakas, has been mentioned Kadamba king Harivarm at the preaching of ivaratha donated a village named Vasuntavtaka for the worship of a Jaina temple built by Miges, son of the Senapati Siha and for hra (food) or Sarvasagha. In the inscription117, there is mention of one more ramana Sagha named Aharishi to which at the request of Sendraka feudatory Bhauakti, Kadamba King Harivarm donated a village named Marade.

Dravida Samgha : A group of Jaina Saints residing in Draviadea was known as Drviasagha. In the inscriptions, it is mentioned as Dravia, Dravia, Dravia, Drvia, Davila and Tibula. Draviadea covers the modern Andhra and Madras region which is called Tamiladea. According to the Daranasra of crya Devasena, Drviasagha, was established by Vajranandi disciple of Pjyapda at Madura in the South in V.S. 526. Generally, most of the inscriptions of this Sagha belong to the kings of Koglva dynasty, ntara dynasty and Hoysala dynasties. These inscriptions inform that Drviasagha received royal patronage from the kings of these dynasties. Most of the inscriptions of this Sagha belong to the kings of Hoysala dynasty. It is learnt from these inscriptions that crya of this Sagha contributed to the propagation of worship of Padmvati. The monks of this Sagha renovated the Vasadis or Jaina temples in which they were living, gave hradna, and managed lands, Jgira etc.

The early inscriptions of Drva Sagha were found at Agadi (Solebraan), the origin place of the Hoysalas. In one inscription119 dated 990 of this place, this Sagha was written as Draviasagha Koakundnvaya and in another inscription120 dated 1040 as Mlasagha Dravidnvaya. But in the inscriptions121 of the later half of the eleventh century A.D., it has been mentioned Draviagaa along with Nandisagha I Sagalnvaya or Arugalnvaya. In the beginning, Dravida Sagha reamined associated with Mlasagha or Kundakundnvaya but afterwords, it came to be related with the Nandisagha of the Ypanyas. When Draviagaa became influential, it became Drvia Sagha. The discovery of early inscriptions of the Hoysalas at Agdi (Solebra) proves that they might have contributed to strengthen the Drabida Sagha. In some inscriptions of Nandisagha, Arugalnvaya has been mentioned. Arugala is the name of the place in Gudiyapattana Tluk of Tamila Province. The combined name Dravia Sagha, Nandi Sagha Arugalnvaya informs that it was the Nandisagha of Tamil province, and Nandisamgha originated from Arungala. From the Nandisagha of the Ypanyas came into existence the Nandisagha of Drvida Sagha. In the eleventh and twelfth centuries, the seats of the Munis of this Sagha were Mullra of Konglva kingdom and Hummach, capital of ntara Kings. The inscriptions122 found at Hummach inform about several cryas of this Sagha reya Pandita, Sudharm, Kamalabhadra, Vdhbhasiha and Ajitasena Pandita.

An inscription123 of Nandigaa Arugala Anvaya of Drvia Sagha belongs to the eleventh century A.D. The lineage of ntamuni, Vdirja and Vardhamna has been given in it. The next inscription124 of this Anvaya is dated 1192 A.D. and it describes about Vajaranandi, disciple of Vsapjya. In an inscription125 of the 14th century A.D., the lineage of the Anvaya-rpla, Padmaprabha and Dharmasena is known. In three inscriptions126 of the Drvia Sagha, Arugala Anvaya has not been mentioned.

The Vajrakhea copper plate inscriptions127 dated 915 A.D. record the donation of village to Vardhamna guru, disciple of Lekabhadra of Vragaa-Vrnya Anvaya of Dravi Sagha. Amoghavasati of Chandanpur and Uriammavasati of Vaanera were looked after by them. It is the oldest of all the available inscriptions so far available. Varnita Viragana Vrayya Anvaya is not found mentioned in any other inscription. It is the first and only inscription of the Drvia Sagha found outside Mysore Pradea. The Pudra inscription128 dated 1087 A.D. records the donation of land to crya Kanakasena for Pallava Jinlaya. The Ujjili inscription129 dated 1167 A.D. mentions the donation of land to Indrasena crya of Drvida Sagha Senagana Kairra gachchha. The association of Snagaa with Drva-Sagha was not known earlier. Earlier Senagaa was told related with Mlasagha and Kairra gaccha with Surstha gaa. The inscription130 dated 1194 A.D. is the last of this collection. It was discovered from Yetina hatti and it records the death of crya Ajitasena.

Kshth Sagha There is a controversy among scholars about the origin of the Kshh Sagha. Devasena, an author of the tenth century A.D., mentions in the Daranasra that Kumrasena established the Kshh Sagha in the south. In two inscriptions,131 its name has been mentioned Kch Sagha. It has been written in the Vacanakoa of the 17th century that Lohcrya, Pattadhara of Umsvm established this Sagha at Amaroh in North India. According to Kamta Prasad,132 Kshth Sagha originated from Kshh village near Mathura located on the bank of the river Yamun. The main gacchas or branches of the Kshh Sagha were Nanditala, Mthura, Vgaa and Lavgaa.

Jambkhanda, Gaa Jambkhaagaa has been mentioned in the inscription133 of the sixth-seventh century A.D. Sentraka king Indraanda donated something to crya ryanandi.

Sihavra Gaa There is an inscription134 dated 860 A.D. of Sihavra gaa. It records some donation by king Amoghavarsha to crya Nganandi of this Gaa.

It seems that there was not much difference in the functiong of the Sahas, Gaas and Gacchas of the South. Munis of these organizations go constructed temples and Mathas (Monasteries). They received the donation of the villages, lands, gardens, houses etc. They participated in discussions of the royal courts. Incidentally, they helped the kings to manage the affairs of their kingdoms. They tried to increase the influence of Jainism even by Mantra Sdhan, Astrology and Medicines.

vetmbara Gachchhas of North India During Medieval Period

The number of vetmbara Gachchhas was originally 84 but it seems to be only conventional. Neither the castes nor the Gachchhas were founded at one time. They came into existence at different times. Some names of the Gachchhas have no significance but were added simply to make their number 84. This increase in number started about the eleventh century A.D. At present, their number seems to be about one hundred fifty. Most of these Gachchhas originated in Rajasthan, but a few in Gujarat. The cryas of these Gachchhas are known to have performed the consecration ceremony of images and temples at different times and places. These gachchhas originaged in different ways. Some of the gachchhas were named after certain good deeds by certain persons while others named after influential persons. Some of the ancient Kulas in course of time were also converted into the Gacchas. The Gacchas are also territorial in origin.


Actional Gachchhas

(1) Bihad Gachchha

Uddyotana Suri bestowed the designation of 'Sri' on the eight monks including Devasri under the shade of a large banian tree at a village Teli situated at Mount Abu. According to the opinion of some, the designation of the (highest priest) was conferred only on Sarvadevasuri. As the designation was conferred under the banian tree, the Nirgrantha Gaccha began to be called Vaa Gaccha. Vaa Gachcha is known also by another name Brihad Gaccha.135 The earliest inscription of 1086 A.D. of this Gaccha in Rajasthan is found at Kotar in Sirohi State.136 The next early inscription of 1158 A.D. is found at Ndol in Marwar.137 From the inscriptions it seems that it became popular in Sirohi138 and Marwar States in the 12th, 13th and 14th centuries. The inscriptions of the 14th and 15th centuries of this Gaccha are also found Udaipur and Jaisalmer.139

(2) Kharatara Gaccha Kharatara Gaccha is the most famous and influential Gaccha. Jinevarasri by defeatng the Chaityavss in the royal court of Durlabharja got the title 'Kharatara' in 1017 A.D. From him started the Kharatara Gaccha.140 It arose outside Rajasthan but gathered a large number of followers here. In course of time, it was divided into many branches.The inscriptions of this Gaccha are found in the different parts of Rajasthan. But it remained dominant in Jaisalmer from the 14th century to the 19th century.141 The chryas of this Gaccha installed several images and wrote many works.

(3) Tap Gaccha : Jagacandra Sri was not only a scholar but he was also a great ascetic practising penances. He accepted the penance of doing 'yambil' for the whole life and passed twelve years in this way. Seeing it, Jaitra Simha, the king of Mewar, gave him the title of Tap (which means a real ascetic) in 1228 A.D. From this time, Nirgrantha Gaccha got another name of Tap Gaccha.142 The saints of this Gaccha contributed considerably to the growth of Jainism. Later on, it was also divided into many branches. Viddha Pauslika Tap-Gaccha started from Vijayacandra who was the pupil of Jagacandra Sri. From Devendra Suri, there started the Laghu Pauslika Tap-Gaccha. Vijayacandra Suri was indolent in the performance of religious rites while Devendra Sri devoted himself to the performance of the purifying rites and contributed to the development of Jainism.143 The images installed by the cryas of this Gaccha are found in different parts of Rajasthan. But still, it remained strong in Sirohi,144 Mewar and Jaisalmer.145

(4) Achala Gaccha : Vijayachanda Updhyya was the first person to start a Gaccha called Vidhipakha in order to support the pure rites. Once the merchant Ko went to Ptan. While performing the rites of paikkamaa, he used the edge of his cloth in bowing down instead of using the 'mubhapa' (a piece of cloth kept on the mouth by the Jaina ascetics). Kumrapla asked him the reason of this. The Guru told him about Vidhi-paksha (the new sect) and then Kumrapla used the edge of his cloth (called chala in Gujarti) in saluting. Thence forward, Vidhi-pakha was called chala Gaccha.146

This Gaccha started in 1166 A.D. outside Rajasthan but it spread in Jaisalmer, Udaipur, Jrual in Sirohi State and Nagara in Marwar in the 15th century A.D. as known to us from the inscriptions. Several cryas of this Gaccha composed important works and celebrated the consecration of many images.147

(5) Primiy Gaccha and Srdha Primiy Gaccha : From Prim, it seems to be named Primiy Gaccha. Srdha Primiy system started in 1179 A.D. The great king Kumrapla once asked Hemachandra to call the leader of the Primiy Gaccha in order to inquire whether its followers acted according to the Jaina holy books or not. The leader of the Gaccha was called and questioned by Kumrapla. But he could not give satisfactory answers, so the ascetics of the Gaccha were asked to go into exile. After the death of Kumrapla, Sumatisiha, the chrya of the Gaccha, came to Ptan. On being asked by the people about his Gaccha, he said, 'We belong to Srdha Primiya Gaccha.' The followers of this system do not worship a Jaina shrine with fruits.148 It originated outside Rajasthan but it gathered the followers here also. It remained very dominant in the 15th century in Jaisalmer and Sirohi States as it is known to us from the inscriptions. Its inscriptions are also found at Jodhpur and Nagaur in Marwar, Ajmer and Udaipur.149

(6) gamika Gaccha : laguasri and Devabhadrasri were the two cryas who belonged to Primiy Gaccha. They joined the cala Gaccha, but they soon left it and started their own sect. They taught that prayers should not be offered to Ketra Devat. Besides this, they propounded some new theories and gave the name of gamika Gaccha to their section.150 This sect either started in 1157 A.D., or 1193 A.D., but in Rajasthan it spread in the 15th century A.D. It was prevalent in Jaisalmer, Ajmer, Jaipur and Nagaur, Barmer and Osi in Marwar State and Sirohi State.151

Kula Gacchas :

(1) Candra Gaccha : Candra Kula in course of time was converted into Candra Gaccha. Its name is also mentioned in the inscription of 1182 A.D. at Jlor in Marwar.152 It seems to have been in existence from 1125 A.D. to 1435 A.D. in Sirohi State as known to us from the inscriptions.153

(2) Ngendra Gaccha : From Ngendra Kula, it became famous as Ngendra Gaccha. The preceptor of the founder of Aahilapura-ptan named laguasri also belongs to this Gaccha. The earliest inscription of 1031 A.D. of this Gaccha in Rajasthan is found at Osi in Marwar.154 It became dominant at Jaisalmer from the 13th century to the 16th century. It was in existence at Pl, Nagaur, Sirohi and Udaipur at this time.155

(3) Nivtti Gaccha : Probably Nivitti Kula in course of time began to be called Nivitti Gaccha. In the early inscriptions discovered in Sirohi State, Nivitti-kula is mentioned,156 but in the inscriptions of 1412 A.D. on the metal image of Stalantha at Udaipur, Nivitti Gaccha is mentioned.157

Gacchas Named after Influential Persons

(1) Kharatara Gaccha : The Kharatara Gaccha in course of time was divided into many branches which were started after the influential persons. Bhvahara Kharatara Skh is the 7th Gacchabheda, and it was founded by Bhvaharshopdhyya.158 In 1643 A.D., there originated the Ragavijaya Kharatara kh from Ragavijaya Gai. This is the 9th Gaccha-bheda, and from this kh sprang the rsrya Kharatara kh founded by rsropdhyya as the tenth Gaccha-bheda.159 It seems to have remained in existence at Jaipur in the 19th century.

(2) Tat Gaccha : In course of time, the Tap Gaccha was also divided into many branches. Some of the branches were named after the great cryas. After the demise of crya Mahrja Vijayasena Sri, there were the five divisions in Tap Gaccha after the names of cryas. One was formed by the followers of crya Mahrja Deva Sri and known as Deva Sri Gaccha. The second formed by the followers of crya nanda Sri was known as nanda Sri Gaccha. The third division known as Sgara Gaccha was organized in 1629 A.D. by crya Rja Sgara Sri. The fourth division named Vimala Gaccha was named after Vimala Sri in 1692 A.D. The fifth division known as Saveg Gaccha was created by Pannysa Satya Vijayaj Gai.160

Prvantha Gaccha is also a branch of Tap Gaccha. An intelligent man called Prva Candra took initiation under r Sdhuratna Sri of Ngauri Tap Gaccha in 1515 A.D. About some courses of conduct, he differed from his perceptor and aptly preached his view vigorously. His Gaccha was named after his own name.161 He too believed in image worship, and images have been consecrated by himself and other saints of the Gaccha.

The saint Kisharshi founded Kisharshi Gaccha, a branch of Tap Gaccha. The earliest mention of it is found in the inscription of 1426 A.D. at Jrval in Sirohi State.162 The next mention of it is found in the inscription of 1468 A.D. of Nagaur in Marwar.163 In the 15th century, this Gaccha was in existence at Jaisalmer.164

Kamala Kalaa is also a branch of the Tap Gaccha and it became separated as Kamala Kalaa in the 16th century. It seems to have reamined popular in Sirohi State as known from the inscriptions.165

(3) Gaccha of this Type in Sirohi State : From the name of the chrya Pishplchrya, it was known Pishplchrya Gaccha. It was in existence in Sirohi State from 1151A.D. as it is known from the inscriptions.166 Mahendra Sri Gaccha came into existence after the name of the crya Mahendra Sri. It is mentioned in the inscription of the 13th century at Ajr in Sirohi State.167 mradevcrya Gaccha was named after mradevcrya. It was in existence at Ajri and Lota in Sirohi State in the 11th century. From the inscriptions, it seems that it was associated with Nivitti Kula.168

(4) Gaccha of this Type in Jodhpur State : From the Achrya Prabhkara, it became famous as Prabhkara Gaccha. It is mentioned in the inscription of 1515 A.D. found at Mert in Marwar.169 The name of Kaaumati Gaccha became famous after the name of Kavha in 1505 A.D. The name of this Gaccha is mentioned in the inscription of 1626 A.D. of Osia.170

(5) Common Gaccha Found in the States : Dharmaghosha Gaccha was named after Dharmaghoa Sri probably in the 12th or 13th century. It became dominant at places such as Jaisalmer, Udaipur and Nagaur in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries.171

From Bhvadeva Sri, Bhvadevchrya Gaccha was named. Bhvadra Gaccha and Bahaa Gachha also seem to be of the above type. The earliest mention of its is found in the inscription of 1157 A.D. discovered at a village Sver in Sirohi State.172 From the 13th century to 15th century, the existence of this Gaccha in Jaisalmer is known from the inscriptions.173

Malladhr Gaccha was called after Malladhr crya. It remained in existence from the 13th century to the 16th century at the places such as Jaisalmer, Udaipur and Sirohi State.174

Vidydhara Gaccha was probably named after Vidydhara Sri. From the 14th century to the 17th century, it seems to have been in existence in Rajasthan. Its inscriptions are found at Osia and Nagaur in Marwar, N in Sirohi State and Jaisalmer.175

Probably, Vijaya Gaccha was named after Vijayadeva Sri. There is an inscription of 1642 A.D. found at Bhraja in Sirohi State.176 Another inscription of 1661 A.D. is found at Blotar in Marwar.177 In the 19th century, a person belonging to Alwar of this Gaccha performed the installation ceremony of the image.178

Rmaseniya Gaccha was probably named after Rmasena. The earliest inscription of 1401 A.D. of this Gaccha is found at Nagur in Marwar.179 It seems to have been in existence in Mewar in the 15th century.180

Yaa Sri Gaccha was established after the name of the crya Yaa Sri. The inscription of 1185 A.D. of this Gaccha was found out at Ajmer.181

Territorias Gacchas

(1) Gacchas Originated from the Places in Sirohi State : Sirohi State remained the stronghold of the Jaina religion in early Hindu period. It was, therefore, natural that the Gacchas were named after the places thereof. Madhaa Gaccha became famous from the village Mara in Sirohi State. The oldest inscription of 1230 A.D. of this Gaccha has been found at Mara, the place of its origin.182 The large number of inscriptions of this Gaccha discovered in Sirohi State indicate that this area remained the stronghold of this Gaccha.183 In the 14th and 15th centuries, it was also prevalent in Jaisalmer and Udaipur.184

Nnavla Gaccha and Jnakya Gaccha seem to be the one and the same Gaccha. It seems to have originated from the village named N in Sirohi State. Numerous inscriptions from the 11th century to the 15th century discovered in Sirohi State indicate that it was the centre of this Gaccha.185 It was in existence at Jaisalmer from the 13th to 15th century.186 In the 15th and 16th centuries, it was found in Mewar.187

According to the Pavali, Jirval Gaccha is a branch of Bihad Gaccha. It originated from the place named Jirvali in Sirohi State. It was even in existence in the 14th century at the very place of its origin.188

Brhama Gaccha among the Jainas originated from the place Varmna the ancient name of which was Brhamaa Mahsthna. The centre of this Gaccha was the region of Sirohi State from the 12th century to the 16th century A.D. as it is clear from a large number inscriptions discovered in this area.189 It was found at Varmna in the 12th century A.D. The Jaina temple of Mahvira of this place belonged to this Gacha, and it was built in 1185 A.D. or even before by the rvakas or lay disciples. The inscription of 1185 A.D. records that Puniga and other rvakas constructed Padmail of the temple, of Mahvra of Brhamaa Gaccha.190 There is an inscription of 1087 A.D. with the name of this Gaccha found at Pl in Marwar.191 This Gaccha was prevalent in Mewar in the 14th and 15th centuries and in the 15th and 16th centuries, it was in existence at Jaisalmer.192

Kcholi Gaccha seems to be connected with the place named Kchol in Sirohi State. It was a branch of the Prnim-paka. It was in existence in Sirohi State in the 14th and 15th centuries.193

(2) Gaccha Originated from the Places in Marwar : Upakea Gaccha was named after Osi in Marwar. The inscription of 1202 A.D. with the name of this Gaccha has been also discovered at this place.194 There is also the inscription of 1137 A.D. found at the village Ajr in Sirohi State.195 It remained popular from the 13th to the 16th century in Jaisalmer, Udaipur and Sirohi States as a very large number of the inscriptions have been discovered here.196

The name of Koraaka Gaccha was given after Koraa in Marwar. The earliest inscription of this Gaccha of 1031 A.D. has been found out at Pav in Sirohi State.197 From this time to the 16th century it remained in existence in this area.198 From the 14th century to the 16th century, it was also prevalent in Jaisalmer.199

Saer in Marwar is supposed to be the original seat of Saeraka Gaccha, founded by Yaodeva Sri who came from Kathiawar because of the fear of the Mlecchas. He settled with the people at the tank. He saw a fight between the bull and the lion in which the bull emerged victorious. The village and Gaccha were named as Saeraka Gaccha. This Gaccha spread much in the different parts of Rajasthan. It was in existence at Nol in Marwar in the 12th century.200 In the 15th century, it was dominant in Jaisalmer. From the 14th century to the 16th century, it was prevalent in Mewar.5

From the place named Hatikud in Marwar, Hastikud Gaccha became famous. It is mentioned in the inscription of 1396 A.D. of Udaipur.202

Chaitravla Gaccha and Chaitra Gaccha seem to be identical. They possibly originated from the place named Chaitravla-nagara in Marwar. They prevailed in Jaisalmer and Udaipur from the 13th to the 16th century.203

Pallivla Gaccha originated from Pl of Marwar. It is known both as Pallivla Gaccha and Plli Gaccha. Palli Gaccha is mentioned in the inscription of 1405 A.D. at Jaisalmer and of 1451 A.D. at Jaipur.204 Pallivla Gaccha is found in two incriptions of the 15th century found at Ajmer.205

Ngapurya Gaccha originated from Nagaur in Marwar. The disciple of the famous Vdideva Sri named Padma Prabha Sri practised hard austerities at Nagaur in 1117 A.D. and he was therefore given the title Ngaurya Tapa.

Harshapurya Gaccha, a branch of Sr Prvanthakula, originated probably from the place named Harsaur situated between Ajmer and Pushkar. Some of the chryas of this Gaccha were very powerful and had great influence over their contemporary rulers. At the request of Abhayadeva Sri, the Cauhna ruler Phvrja I of kambhar, who lived in 1105 A.D., put the golden cupolas on the Jaina temples of Rathambho.206 His pupil was Maladhr Hemachandra who had influence over Jayasiha Siddharja of Gujarat. The name of this Gaccha is mentioned in the inscription of 1498 A.D. found at Nagaur.207

Maovara Gaccha is a branch of the Kharatara Gaccha. In 1745 A.D., this branch became separated from Jinamahendra Sri at Maovara and therefore was named Maovara Skh.208

(3) Gacchas Originated from the Places in Mewar : Bhartipurya Gaccha orginated from the village Bhartipura now known as Bhaevara in Mewar. It was founded by Bhartibhaa, the father of the famous king Allaa, in the 10th century A.D. This Gaccha is mentioned in an inscription of the 13th century.209 Ratnapurya Gaccha was originally a branch of Maha Gaccha, but afterwards, it became a separate Gaccha after Ratanapura in Mewar. It is mentioned in the inscription of 1453 A.D. on the metal image found in the Jaina temple of Udaipur.210

(4) Gacchas Originated from the Other Known Places : Kmyaka Gaccha originated from Km in Bharatpur State. It is said that there was a Kmyaka forest in this area. It is mentioned in the Bayn stone inscription of 1043 A.D. The names of the Jaina teachers Vishu Sri and Mahevara Sri are mentioned.211 Rudrapalliya Gaccha is a branch of the Kharatara Gaccha. In 1147 A.D. at Rudrapalli, it was founded by Jinaekharchrya.212 It is said to have originated from the place named Rudrapalli near Delhi. In the 15th century it spread at Nagaur and Blotar in Marwar and Jaisalmer.213

(5) Gacchas Originated from Unknown Places : There are some regional Gacchas but the places of their origin have not been definitely identified. Ppplaka Gaccha is also one of the branches of the Kharatara sect. This branch became separated in 1417 A.D. from Jinavardhana Sri.214 It was connected with the place Pipplaka and therefore it was named Ppplaka.

It seems that both Humbaa Caste as well as Gaccha originated from the place named Humbaa which has not been identified yet. It is mentioned in the inscription of 1396 A.D. of Udaipur,215 Jalyodhara Gaccha originated from the village named Jorudra. This name has been mentioned in an inscription of 1156 A.D. which has been discovered at Ajr in Sirohi State.216 This Gaccha was especially connected with Mohavaa from 1169 A.D., to 1366 A.D.

Bhmapallya Gaccha is a branch of Prim Gaccha and originated from the village named Bhmapallya. It is, therefore, known as Bhmapallya Gaccha. It is mentioned in the inscription of 1541 A.D. found at Jodhpur.217 Kuuvapur Gaccha is one of the branches of Tap Gaccha. It started from the place named Kuuvapur. It was prevalent at Nl in the early 16th century. Indranandi of this Gaccha installed the images in 1512 A.D., 1513 A.D. and 1514 A.D. at this place.218

Other Remaining Gaccha

(1) Sub-Branches of Kharatara Gaccha : It is mentioned in the pavals that Madhukharatara kh was the first Gaccha-bheda which started in about 1107 A.D. from Jinavallabha Sri. Laghukharatara Skh, the third schism, was founded by Jina Siha Sri in 1274 A.D. In 1365 A.D., Vega kh took its rise founded by Dharma - Vallabha Gani. It remained dominant from the 16th century to the 19th century in Jaisalmer.219 It was the fourth Gaccha-bheda. In 1507 A.D., Acryya Kharatara Skh arose founded by chrya ntisgra in Marudea. This is the sixth division. In 1629 A.D., there originated the Laghuvchryya Kharatara kh from chrya Jinasgara Sri occasioned by Harshanandana, pupil of Samaya Sundara. This is the eighth Gaccha-bheda in the Kharatara sect.220

(2) Gacchas Found in Marwar : Marwar remained the chief centre of the Jaina religion, therefore, the followers of the different Gacchas resided here. Siddhnt Gaccha is mentioned in the inscription of 1508 A.D. found out at Jodhpur.221 Jpaa Gaccha is mentined in the inscription of 1477 A.D. of Nagaur.222 An inscription (19th century) referring to Kavala Gaccha is engraved on the pillar of the Jaina temple at Rainapura.223 The name of Tvara Gaccha is found in the inscription of 1442 A.D. of the Jaina temple of Munisuvrata at Jodhpur.224

(3) Gacchas Found in Jaisalmer State : In Jaisalmer State, Jainism flourished greatly because of its situation in the heart of the desert. Vapya Gaccha is mentioned in the two inscriptions of 1105 A.D. and 1281 A.D. discovered at Jaisalmer.225 Saravla Gaccha seems to be in existence the 12th and 13th centuries in the area.226 In 1364 A.D., Ivara Sri of Bhaa Gaccha performed the installation ceremony of the image of Sumatintha.227

(4) Gacchas Found in Jaipur State : Some Gacchas are also found to be mentioned in the inscriptions of Jaipur. In 1472 A.D., the image of Padmaprabhu was set up by Bhkhara through Vajrevara Sri of Cacla Gaccha.228 In 1452 A.D., ivarja celebrated the consecrations ceremony of the image of Kunthuntha through Padmananda of Rja Gaccha.229 Chahiter Gaccha is mentioned in the inscription of 1555 A.D., found on the Pacatrth in the Jaina temple of Jaipur.230

(5) Gacchas Found in Mewar : There are some Gacchas which are not known to have been in existence at any other place except Mewar. The inscription of 1317 A.D. with the name of Pry Gaccha is found at Udaipur.231 In 1144 A.D., Kanudeva of Devbhidita Gaccha performed the installation ceremony of the image through Sla Sri of Devbhidita Gaccha.232 The inscription of 1439 A.D. with the name of Nihati Gaccha233 is engraved.

(6) Common Gacchas : Thrpadrya Gaccha and Thirdr Gaccha seem to be the one and the same Gaccha. In the 12th century, it was in existence in Sirohi State.234 In the 15th century, it seems to be prevalent in Jaisalmer.235 The earliest mention of Pippala Gaccha is in the inscription of 1151 A.D. found at Koar in Sirohi State.236 It was in existence from the 14th century to the 16th century in Jaisalmer.237 Mahukara Gaccha also seems to be known by the name of Madhukara Gaccha which is mentioned in the inscription of 1436 A.D. discovered at Rohi in Sirohi State.238 It is also mentioned in the inscriptions of 1470 A.D. and 1506 A.D. discovered at Alwar and Jaisalmer respectively239. Bokadiy Gaccha seems to have been prevalent in the area of Jaipur and Nagaur in the 14th and 15th centuries.240

Gujarat : That Jamaapura Gaccha originated from Jamanapura is situated in Mahesana District. This Gaccha is mentioned in a metal icon of V.S. 1285. The Tharpadra Gaccha, originated from the ancient name Tharpadra, is located in Banas Kantha District. At present, it is known as Tharda. Harjagaccha originated from the place Hrjagaccha originated from the place Hrja in Mehasana District241. The literary evidence for the existenve of this Gaccha is dated V.S. 1556 (1500 A.D.) while the epigraphical evidence goes from V.S. 1330 to V.S. 1577. The Alijiya Gaccha is connected with a place named Alaja, near Ahmedabad.242 Four inscriptions dated V.S. 1136, V.S. 1207, V.S. 1228 and V.S. 1273 found in the Jaina temple at Badhava mention this Gaccha. The inscriptions engraved on the Jaina images found at Palithana, aturunjaya, Cambay, Bharu Kaccha (Gandhara). Anahilavada etc. mention different Gacchas. Some of them might have originated in Gujarat.

The followers of the different vetmbara Gacchas migrated from Rajasthan to the neighbouring regions of Malwa, Maharashtra and Uttara Pradesh, and settled there. They became prosperous and performed the installation ceremony of images. They also carried old images with them and placed them in the temples. Numerous images engraved with the names of the Gacchaas of the 15th and 16th centuries are noticed. The rvakas of these Gacchas also got prepared the copies of manuscripts for presentation to the cryas. It seems that there was nothing like unity in the vetmbara Jaina Sagha, but on the contrary, it was divided into several Gacchas with differences. They gradually spread throughout North India. There was no personality to unite them under One Sagha.

Malv : Tapgaccha became very popular in Malwa during the 15th and 16th centuries. Next important Gacchas known were Khaatara, gama, chala and Upakea. The other Gacchas mentioned in the Jaina inscriptions are Napla, Pali, Bhvada, Nakya, apallya, Nagendra, Korata, Dharmaghoa, Jrapallya, Rudrapalliya, Brahmaa etc. The main centres of these Gacchas were Ujjain, Badnawar (Vardhamnapura), Mandu (Mandapadurga) and Dhar.243

Mahratra : The inscriptions are engraved on Jaina metal images place in the Jaina temples of Bombay, Nagpur, Amravati, Akola, Chandv near Nasik, Manamda, Karanja, Wardha, Chlsagva and Bhadravati244. Some Jaina inscriptions were found at Dhulia245. These inscriptions give information about the gacchas. The most popular, in this region, were Tap and Kharatara Gacchas. The other Gacchas known from the inscriptions of the metal images were Kurana, Chitra, Bihad, chala, Jirpali, Pali, Dharmaghosha, Sandera, Kishnarshi, gama, Pippala, Ngendra, Brahmaa, Bhmapalli, Gynakya, Bhvadra etc.

Uttra Pradea : The inscriptions of Jaina images found at Banaras, Agra, Ayodhya etc. also give information of these Gacchas such as Kharatara, Tap, Prnima paka, Maladhr, Dharmaghosha, nchala, Korana, Brahamaa gama etc.

An important inscription from Kangra, Himachal Pradesh mentions the names of two Jaina saints belonging to Rjakula-gaccha which is probably the same as Rjagaccha. The Komalagaccha was already in existence in Multan.248

Digambara Saghas, Ganas and Gacchas in the North during the Medieval Period

The Digambara Saghas of the Medieval period in North-India were Mthura, Vgaa, Ltavgeda and Nandtata. Besides, there were Kshh Sagha and lasagha. Later on, Mthura, Vgada, Lavgea and Nandi became the branches of the Kshth-sagha. The lasagha along with the Baltkragana became powerful from the 14th century onwards. The cryas of these Saghas performed the installation ceremony of images and got prepared the copies of the manuscripts. They led pilgrimage to the holy places along with the rvakas. The image of ntintha was consecrated by the crya Subhadra who belonged to the line of Degaa in the mnya of Candrakara crya249. The Puta-Sagha from Badnawar is also known.

Mthura Sagha : Mthura Sagha seems to have originated from Mathura. According to the Daranasra, Rmasena was the crya of the Sagha. He prohibited the use of Picch (small brown peacok feather). The frist historical mention of this Sagha is found in the works of Amitagati. His teacher's lineage is Devasena, Amitagati, Nemisea and Mdhavasena. He wrote the Subhitaratnasadoha in V.S. 1050 during the reign of Paramra king Muja, the Vardhamnanti in V.S. 1068, the Dharmaparksh in V.S. 1070 and the Pacasagraha in V.S. 1073250 :

Another old crya of Mthura Sagha was Chatrasena. His crya loka got the abhantha temple built in V.S. 1166. The third known crya of this Sagha is Gunabhadra. He wrote a lengthy Praasti of the temple of Prvantha in V.S. 1226. Lalitakrti is the fourth crya who installed the Dev image in V.S. 1234. The fifth crya was Amarakrti who wrote the Neminthacarita, and Shaakarmopadea in V.S. 1247251. The Mthura Sgha is known from the inscriptions of the twelfth century engraved on the Jaina images discovered at Badnawar252. The Mthura Sagha and its cryas are known from the inscription of V.S. 1308.253

Mthura Sagha seems to have remained dominant in Rajasthan during the eleventh and the twelfth centuries. At this time, images were installed by the cryas of this Sagha at different places. There is a mention of Paita Mahsena of Mthura Sagha in the inscription of 1158 A.D. on the stone image of Brahm in the Jaina temple of Baghera.254 Yaakrti appears to be the influential crya who performed the consecration ceremony of the white stone image now placed in the temple of Singhiji at Sanganer in 1167 A.D.255 and the white marble image of Padmaprabhu now found at Maroth in 1175 A.D.256 This function was organized by Kuladhara, son of Manoratha who seems to be a rich rvaka. In 1175 A.D., Hety and his son Vilhaa also installed the image of Mroha through the same Yaakrti257. The author of the Bijaulia inscription of 1170 A.D. was Guabhadra, a Mahmuni who belonged to the Mthura Sagha258. An inscription of 1176 A.D. engraved on one side of a four-sided massive Jaina pillar in the Jaina temple at Rphel, near Udaipur, records that the pillar was erected by Padmar, a female disciple of Ajik belonging to the Mthura Sagha259. There was a hold of Mthura Sagha at Badnawar in Malwa. This is clear from the Jaina inscriptions of V.S. 1210, 1226 and 1236 of images260.

The medieval lineage of Mthura Gaa starts from Mdhavasena who had two disciples Uddharasena and Vijayasena. According to traditions, Mdhavasena lived during the reign of Alauddn Khilji261.

After Uddharasena, Devasena, Vimalasena, Dharmasena, Sahasrakrti and Guakrti gradually became Bharakas. In the mnya of Guakrti, a copy of the Pacstikya was written in V.S. 1468 during the reign of Vramadeva of Gwalior. The successor of Gunakirti was Yaahkirti. In V.S. 1486, he got the Bhavishyadatta Pacham Kath prepared at Gwalior during reign of Dgarasiha. Padita Raidhu, disciple of Yaahkrti, installed an image of dintha in Gwalior during the reign of ngarasiha. The Paaishya of Yasahkrti was Malayakrti who installed the Yantra in 1502 and image in V.S. 1510. After Guabhadra, Malayakrti became Bharaka. Jinadsa got a copy of the Samayasra written in Gwalior during the reign of garasiha. A copy of the Jnrava was prepared in Gwalior in V.S. 1521 during the reign of Krtisha. The consecration of images was performed in V.S. 1529, 1531, 1547 and 1548 during the reign of Kalyamala. Caudhar odarmala of the mnya of Guabhadra got a copy of the Mahpura written. Brahma Maana, grand disciple of Guabhadra wrote a Guak of Stotras at Sonapata in V.S. 1576 during the reign of Ibrhim. In the Amnya of Dharmadsa, pupil of Guabhadra, a copy of the Dhanadacarita was written in V.S. 1590 during the reign of Humayun. Bhnukrti became Bharaka after Guabhadra. Sha Rpacanda presented a copy of the Uttarapura to Bharaka, Bhnukrti in V.S. 1606 during the reign of ha Salma (ruler of the Sur dynasty V.S. 1545-1554) at Abrhmba.

A copy of the Bhavishyadatta carita was written in the mnya of Kumrasena, disciple of Bhnukrti in V.S. 1615 during the reign of Akbar. At the request of Shu Todara, Paita Rjamalla wrote the Jambsvm Charita in V.S. 1632 during the reign of Akbar.

The second lineage of medieval period of Mthura Gaccha started from Vijayasena, disciple of Mdhavasena. Afterwards, Msopavs Jayasena, reysasena, Anantakrti and Kamalakrti respectively became the Bharakas. Kamalakrti established an image in V.S. 1443 during the reign of Nthadeva (Local ruler). Harirja, pupil of Padmakrti, wrote a copy of the Pravacanasra in V.S. 1469 at Gwalior during the reign of Viramadeva.

The disciple of Hemakrti was Kmalakrti who erected an image of Chandraprabhu in V.S. 1506. A copy of the Bhavisatta-Kath was written in V.S. 1056 in his mnya at Gwalior during the reign of Dgarasiha. ubacandra and Kumrasena, disciples of Kamalakrti erected an image of Mahvra in V.S. 1510. ubhacandra installed an image in V.S. 1530 at Gwalior during the reign of Krtisiha. From the Harivaa Purna of Raidhu, it is known that their monastery was at Sonagiri. His pupil Yaahsena installed the DaalakshaaYantra in V.S. 1639. Another disciple of Kamalakrti was Kumrasena. His disciple was Hemacandra whose pupil was Padmanandi. Padmanandi's disciple was Mikarja. The disciple of Padmanandi was Yaahkrti. Bhagavatdsa wrote the Mugatiiromani Cnad in V.S. 1680 during the reign of Jahangir and the nckrtha Nmamla in V.S. 1687 during the reign f Shahjahan. Another disciple of Yaahkrti was Kshemakrt. Pandit Rjamalla wrote the Lisamhita in V.S. 1641 for Sha Fmana when Akbar was ruling. The natives of Bairh were the followers of Kemakrti. The successor of Kemakrti was Tribhuvanakrti. His paa ceremony was held at Hisra. Then, Sahasrakirti became successor in V.S. 1663. The Paa ihya of Sahasrakrti was Mahcandra. Devendrakrti, disciple of Mahicandra, renovated the Jaina temple of Fatehapur in V.S. 1770. The disciple of Devendrakrti was Jagatkrti.262

Kth Sagha : There is some controversy among scholars about the origin of the Kh Sagha. One view263 is that it originated from the village Kh, near Delhi. It was the capital of the rulers of Takka dynasty in the twelfth century A.D. Devasena, author of the Daranasra, holds a different view264 about the origin of the Kth Sagha. Kumrasena, disciple of Vinayasena, established this Sagha at Nandiyda (modern Nndea in Maharashtra). The earliest inscription265 of the Kshh Sagha is engraved on a memorial of Jaina Pillar dated 1095 A.D. of the great Acarya Devasena at Dubkunda. After the 14th century A.D., this Sagha was divided into four branches Mthura Gaccha, Vgaa Gaccha, Lavgaa Gaccha and Nanditaa Gaccha. Surendrakrti who lived in V.S. 1747 and belonged to Nanditaa-Gaccha, mentions the above four branches266.

Kh Sagha was in existence at some places in Dhra District. It is clear from the Jaina image inspriptions dated V.S. 1328, V.S. 1408, V.S. 1470 and V.S. 1510267 discovered there. That there were followers of the Khsagha at Mainapuri in Uttar Pradesh as known from the Jaina image inscriptions dated V.S. 1414, V.S. 1473 and V.S. 1515.268

Khsagha seems to have flourished mostly in the Pajba and Mlaw, and Agravalas generally remained associated with it. Most probably, the images and the manuscripts of this Sagha found in Rajasthan were either brought later from outside or installed by Agravlas of Rajasthan. In Rajasthan, there were still some places which somehow remained associated with this Sagha. The work of restoration and repairs of the famous temple of ishabhadeva of Dhuleva near Udaipur was carried out by the followers of this Sagha. The inscription of 1374 A.D. tells us that Hardna, the son of Sha Vj, restored this temple at the instrictions of Bharaka Dharmakrti of Khsagha. From the inscription of 1515 A.D., it is clear that Kadiypriy of Kcchl gotra with his son and wife constructed a hall and a shrine in the time of Bharaka of Kh Sagha. Bhoja, son of Sangh lh of the Bagheravla caste, celebrated the installation ceremony of the newly constructed temple, with the members of his family in the time of Bharaka Surendrakrti. Through the influence of the same Bharaka, Bhpat constructed a small shrine in 1697 A.D.269 From some inscriptions and Praastis of manuscripts, it is known that the ancient Vgaa Province, including the area of ngarpur, Bnswr and Pratapagh, was the headquarters of this Sagha.

Vgaa Sagha : Vgaasagha originated from the region Vgaa which includes Dgarpura, Bsavar and Pratpagaha Districtis of Rajasthan. The inscription of 994 A.D. on the image of a Jaina found at Bayn says that it was caused to be made in accordance with the instructions of Srasena of the Vgaa Sagha by three brothers Sihaka, Yaorja and Nonnaika270. There is an image inscription dated V.S. 1324 of Vgaa Sagha Daapurnvaye found at Ujjaina271. Another Jaina image inscription dated V.S. 1325 found at Tlanpur (Dhar District) is of Vagaa Sagha272.

La Vgada Gaa : The La Vgada Gaa originated from the region of Gujarat Vgaa, crya Mahsena, who composed the Pradyumna Carita Kvya in V.S. 1050 during the reign of Paramra ruler Maju, belonged to La Vgaa Sagha. From the Dubakuda stone inscription273, it is known that encouraged by the teaching of the Jaina monk Vijayakrti of the Lavgaa Gaa, some Jaina rvakas (Laymen) constructed Jaina temple, and the Kacchapagha ruler Mahrjdhirja of the Dubakunda branch made some donation of land and other things in favour of this temple in 1088 A.D. The La Vga Gaccha is also mentioned in the Jaina image dated V.S. 1325 found at Tlanpura274. The Laa Vgaa Gaccha is found mentioned in the Jaina image inscriptions of V.S. 1251 at Badnwara, of V.S. 1288 at Dhra and of V.S. 1325 at Tlanpur in Dhra District.275

Nandi Tata Gaccha : Nanditata Gaccha seems to have been named after Nanditaa village (modern Nndeda) in Mahrshtra. Rmasena of this gaccha founded the Narasihapura caste and got constructed the temple of antintha in Narsihapura. His disciple Nemisena worshipped Padmvat and founded the Bhaapur caste.

The historical period of Nanditaa Gaccha is available from Lakshmsena, disciple of Ratnakrt. The two disciples of Lakshmsena were Bhmasena and Dharmasena. From thems two lineage of cryas are known. The pupil of Bhmasena was Somakrti. He installed an image of italantha in V.S. 1532 along with Vrasena. He wrote the Yaodhara carita at Godhili in V.S. 1536 and set up an image in V.S. 1540. He showed a miracle of flying in the sky at Pvgaha by the grace of Padmvati in the reign of Firozshah.

After Somakrti, Vijayasena, Yaahkrti, Udayasena, Tribhuvanakrti and Ratnabhshaa became Bharakas one after another. Kadsa, pupil of Ratnabhaa, composed the Vimalanatha puraa in V.S. 1674 at Kalpavalli. After Ratnabhaa Jayakrti became Bharaka. An image of Prvantha was set up in V.S. 1686. Then, Keavasena became Bharaka after Jayakrti. Keavasena was succeeded by Vivakirti who wrote a copy of the Harivaa Pura in V.S. 1700.

The second lineage of Acaryas of Nanditaa Gaccha starts from Dharmasena, disciple of Lakshmsena. He wrote the Atiaya Jayamla. After Dharmasena, Vimalasena and Vilakrti respectively became Bharakas. His disciple Vivasena installed an image in V.S. 1596. Vidybhaa, disciple of Vivasena, set up the image of Prvantha in V.S. 1604, and another image in V.S. 1636. Vidybhaa was succeeded by rbhaa. He installed the Prvantha image in V.S. 1636, wrote the Sntintha Pura at Sojitra in V.S. 1659, installed the image of Padmvat in V.S. 1660, a Ratnatraya Yatra in V.S. 1665 and Candraprabha image in V.S. 1676.

The main disciple of r Bhaa was Brahma Jnasgara who wrote several works... ri Bhshaa was succeeded by Bharaka Candrakrti who wrote the Prvantha Pura in V.S. 1654 at Devagiri, installed Padmvati image in V.S. 1681 and composed several Pjs. Candrakrti, while going on pilgrimage of the South, defeated Ka Bhaa at Narasiha Paaa on the bank of Kver. Candrakrti's disciple was Bharaka Rjakrti who gained victory in discussion at Varnasi. Rjakrti's pupil was Lakshmsena who set up the image of Padmvat image in aka Smvat 1561 and Bhubali image in V.S. 1703. Indrabhaa became Bharaka after Lakshmsena. Some of his disciples led pilgrimage to Gommatevara in V.S. 1718.

After Indrabhaa, Surendrakrti became Bharaka. Images ad Yatras were installed, and copies of the manuscripts were prepared. The three disciples of Surendrasena were Lakshmsena, Sakalakrti and Devendrakrti. After Lakshmisena, Vijayakrti became Bharaka276.

Punnta Sagha : As cryas of this Sagha moved in Karaka regio, it became famous by the name of Puaa Sagha. Badnvara (Vardhamnapura) in Malwa became a stronghold of Jainism. crya Jinasena of this Sagha wrote the Harivaapura at Vardhamnapura in aka Samvat 705 (782 A.D.). crya Hriea composed the Bihat Kath-Kosha in V.S. 989 at this place. Vijayakirti, disciple of crya Amritacndra of this Sagha, installed an image in V.S. 1154277. There is an image inscription of V.S. 1227 mentioning Puasagha at Badnavana.278

Mla Sagha : There is a divergence of traditions found in Pavals279 not only about succession but also about the residence or immigrations of the Pontiffs of the Mlasagha. The four Pavals agree on the main points but the fifth Paval presents considerably different traditions. The fifth Pattval closes with the name of ubhachandra who reigned up to 1443 A.D. Hence, this is the oldest Paval and as such the information supplied by it seems to be correct. The Pavals tell us that the first 26 pontificates took place in Bhaddalapura. According to the four Pavals, Bhaddalapura is in Malwa, while the fifth Paval tells us correctly that it was in the South. After that the 27th pontiff transferred his seat from Bhaddalapura to Ujjaina according to all Pavals. From Ujjaia Mghacandra II, the 53rd pontiff, shifted his seat to Br in Kot state in about 1083 A.D. Down to No. 63 or 64, the pontificates took place in Br. From here, 14 pontificates, took place in Gvaliara down to 77 according to the four Pavals but the fifth Paval tells us correctly that ten pontificates were established at Cittora and four at Bagher. This is further confirmed from the fact that there was the existence of a prosperous colony of Digambara Jainas on the hill at Cittora at the time of Kumrapla280, and Bagheravlas were converted to Jainism, and Jaina temples were built at Bagher in about eleventh century A.D.281. From the 78th Pontiff Vasantakrti, the seat was transferred to Ajmer in about 1208 A.D. according to all the Pavals.

From the 84th Pontiff Padmanandi, the seat was transferred to Delhi in about 1328 A.D. according to the four Pavals but the fifth Pavali tells us correctly that it was trasnferred to Idar in ancient Vgaa province. Padmanandi was especially associated with Vgaa province. A certain rvaka of Vgaa called Prabhcandra II of Ajmer was invited for the purpose of performing a consecration ceremony of images but he could not come. Then after giving the Srantra to crya Padmanandi, the rvaka conferred on him the title of Bharaka. Thus Padmanandi became the Bharaka in 1328 A.D. of Vgaa. The term Bharaka is applied to a particular type of Jaina ascetics who unlike Munis assumed the position of religious rulers and enjoyed supreme authority in religious matters.

After Padmanandi, separation took place among his successive Acaryas. These separations were not actually the schisms but seem to be based on temperaments. Padmanandi had two pupils namely Sakalakrti and ubhachandra. During his lifetime, the separation took place between his two pupils. One section under Sbhacandra moved to Cittora while the other continued to live under Sakalakrti. Again under Jinacandra the 86th pontiff, the disagreement arose between the two disciples namely Prabhcandra and Ratnakrti. Prabhcandra continued to live at Cittor, but one section under Ratnakrti moved to Nagaura. Again, differences arose at Ngaura and one section continued to reside at Ngaura, while the other under Ratnakrti shifted to Ajamera. From Cittora, it came to Ctasu in the time of Candrakrti. After that, it migrated to Sanganera, v, mber and lastly to Jaipur.

Baltkra Gana : Mlasagha, in course of time, became associated with Baltkragaa which seems to have derived its name Baltkra Gaa (powerful gaa) from its ancestor Arhadbalin, who was also known as Guptigupta, the master of Mghanandi. Its earliest mention is found in the inscription of the 11th century282 but it was in existence considerably earlier. Afterwards, this was distinguished by the term Sarasvat. In the 14th century A.D., this name seems to have come from the miracle of the pontiff padmanandi who is said to have made a stone figure of Sarasvast speak283.

Several branches of the Baltkragaa are known. The Kraja kh started from Amarakrti. The Ltra kha began from Ajitakirti. The Delhi-Jaipur branch began from ubhacandra. The Nagaura branch started from Ratnakirti, the Atera branch from Sihakrti, Idar branch from Sakalakrti, Bhnapur kh from Janakrti, the Srat branch from Devendrakrti and Jeraha branch from Tribhuvanakrti.284

No activities of the early Bhrakas before Padmanandi are known in Northern India from any other source. No doubt, there is mention of Mlasagha in the inscription of 1170 A.D. and 1186 A.D.285 but without any reference to any Bharaka. Mlasagha has been mentioned in the inscirption of V.S. 1230 found at Badnawar in Malwa. The Mlasagha and its crya Ratnakrti has been mentioned in the inscription of V.S. 1323286 From Padmanandi onwards, we possess some knowledge of the Bharakas of Mlasagha regarding their activities. The Mlasagha remained dominant in North India from the fourteenth century to the eighteenth century A.D. The cryas of the Mlasagha are noticed to have performed installation ceremony of the images and temples in Rajasthana287, Madhya Pradea288 and Uttara Pradea289. Various copies of Manuscripts were prepared. Their Pduks and Nishedhikas are also found.

Padmanandi : According to the Pavals, Padmanandi became Bharaka in 1325 A.D. This date seems to be doubtful as he was living in 1415 A.D. He did enjoy such a long age as known from the Pavals and he therefore, must have become Bharaka sometime after 1325 A.D. He was an influential Bharaka who is said to have caused a stone figure of Sarasvat to speak. From this miracle, Mla Sagha was distinguished by the term Sarasvat. He made the installation ceremony of images from time to time. The image with the inscription of 1400 A.D. was installed at his bidding.290 He had two disciples namely Vilakrti and Nemicanda who also set up images in his time. From the inscription of 1413 A.D. engraved on the images discovered at Tonk, it is clear that Vlhaa and his sons got installed several images by his pupil Vilakrti.291 In 1415 A.D., Asapla on his preaching set up the image of Prvantha.292 In the same year, the consecration ceremony of the image was performed by p through his pupil Nemicanda.293

Sakalakrti : After Padmanandi, Sakalakrti became the head of the seat of Vgaa in about 1420 A.D. He was the highly respected saint of medieval times and had also a good reputation for his scholarship. He wandered from place to place for the propagation of Jainism. In 1424 A.D., he came to Baal where he spent the rainy season with his Sagha.294 Several images were installed by him from time to time. There is a mention of his name in the inscription of 1430 A.D. found on the image in the Digambara Jaina temple at Abu.295 It is known from the inscription of 1433 A.D. that as a result of his preaching, Nsala with his wife, sons and brothers set up the Caubs with dintha as a Mlanyaka.296 In 1435 A.D., Camp set up the image of ntintha after hearing his discourses.297 He is said to have passed away in 1442 A.D. at Mahsana in Gujarata.

Bhuvanakrti : After Sakalakrti, Bhuvanakrti became the Paadhara. He was also a scholar like his predecessor. The consecration function of several images was performed by him. The installation ceremony of the Trimrti was presided over by him in 1443 A.D.298 In 1458 A.D., Nhuy, the son of Sr, performed the Daalakshaa Yantra Pratih on his instructions.299 In 1459 A.D., Sur of his line celebrated the consecration ceremony.300 As a result of his preaching, Chp and his wife Gag performed the installation ceremony of some yantra in 1471 A.D.301

Jnabhaa : After Bhuvanakrti, Jnabhaa became the Bharaka. There is a Yantra of 1377 A.D. consecrated by him in the Jaina temple of Udaipur.302 On his advice, Rma with his wife and son set up the image of Mahvra in 1487 A.D.303

Other Bharakas of this Seat : Jnabaa was succeeded by Vijayakti in about 1500 A.D. At his discourses, resh Mel with his wife, son and brothers made the Pratih of Samavaaraa of dintha in 1513 A.D. 304 Then ubhacandra became the Bharaka in about 1515 A.D. He was a well known scholar who wrote a large number of works in a period between 1515 A.D. and 1556 A.D. His earliest work is Adhytmataragi and the latest work written by him in 1556 A.D. is the Sanskrit commentary on the Svmikrttikeynuprek. On his instructions, Dhann and his wife Dhannde set up the metal image of Prvantha in 1538 A.D.305 In 1550 A.D., rehi Svara with his brothers, wife and son celebrated the function of Jnanirvaa on his preachings.306 After his discourses, rpla erected the image of ntintha in 1551 A.D.307 He was succeeded by Sumatikrti. On his instructions, Sha Jayavanta with his wife and brothers set up the metal image of Padmaprabhu in 1563 A.D.308 He installed the images of Munisuvrata309 and Anantantha310 in 1562 A.D. and 1570 A.D. respectively. After him, Guakrti became the Bharaka. He was succeeded by Vdibhsaa. On his advice, s of Idar with his wife Lakshm and daughter Jhil installed the image of Nemintha.311 An inscription on the pedestal of a stone image of italantha in the vetmbara Jaina temple at Maujpura in Alwar State records that it was set up by Humbaa Lla and Gal resident of Hardoya in 1597 A.D. as a result of his preaching.312 After his discoures, Hansa with his wife and son performed the installation ceremony of Shoaakraa yantra in 1604 A.D.313

After him, Rmakrti became the Bharaka. He was succeeded by Padmanandi II. At his preaching, the consecration ceremony was performed by Ratn.314 Then, Devendrakrti became his paadhara. He was succeeded by Kemakrti. By the influence of his discourses, Sagh Dgaladsa, Mnaka, Nemidsa, Anantadsa, Somadsa and Ratn erected the image of ntintha in 1639 A.D.315 Soma316 with the whole Sagha constructed the Prgra in the Jaina temple of dintha at Sgav. After him, Narndrakrti, Vijayakrti II, Nemicanda, Candrakrti, Rmakrti, Yaakrti, Surendrakrti, Vijayakrti II, Nemichanda, Chandrakrti, Rmakrti, Yaakrti, Surendrakrti, Ramacandrakrti and Kanakakrti became the Bharakas of the seat of Idar one after another in succession.

Bharakas of the Seat of Cittorr : During the lifetime of Padmanandi, ubhacandra separated from Sakalakrti and established his own Paa at Cittora in about 1415 A.D. At this time, Mewara became a centre of Jainism under the royal patronage of Kumbhakaraa. The famous Jaina Krtistambha was also built. The two Bijaulia inscriptions of 1405 A.D. and 1426 A.D. speak of a Niedhik of a Jaina nun named B gamasiri and of a Niedhik of Hemakrti, pupil of ubhacandra respectively.317 With regard to these Niedhiks, a wish has been expressed that they may be endured as long as the Sun and Moon last. On the same pillar that bears the second inscription are sculptured the foot-prints of some saints or pontiffs. On one side is engraved the name of Bharaka r Padmanandideva and on the other of Bharaka ri ubhacandra. At v near Uniara in Jaipur district, there is a Niedhik of ubhacandra.

ubhacandra was followed by Jinacandra in about 1450 A.D. Under his inspiration many-sided activities for the propagation of Jainism received an impetus. Copies of several manuscripts such as rplacaritra,318 Pradyumnacaritra319 and Varddhamnacaritra320 were prepared in his time and probably inspired by him. A number of temples were built and images were placed in them. There is a Caubs consecrated by Hararja of his line in 1460 A.D.321 In 1466 A.D., Sha Dharmas with his wife and sons celebrated the consecration ceremony in his time.322 The installation ceremony of the metal image of Prvantha was also performed through him in 1485 A.D.323 Jvarja Ppaivala at his instructions performed the installation ceremony of a large number of images at Mus in the reign of Rvala lvasiha in 1461 A.D.324 The city Mus seems to be in Gujarat; but from there, these images were sent to the seats of Jainism in different parts of Rajasthan. He enjoyed a long life because Sha Sea with his wife and sons performed the Yantra Praiih in 1514 A.D. when Jinacandra was living.325 There is also a niedhik of Jinacandra at v.

Prabhcandra came after Jinacandra in about 1515 A.D. By his persuasion, a large number of manuscripts were written for presentation to the monks. His followerrs got copies of the manuscripts such as Madanaparjaya,326 Kriykalpastuti,327 rplacaritra,328 Karakaacaritra,329 Bbubalicaritra330 and Ratnakaraa331 prepared in 1519 A.D. 1522 A.D., 1524 A.D., 1527 A.D. and 1535 A.D. respectively. In 1518 A.D. Bi Prvat got the Yaodharacaritra written and presented to him.332 Sha Dodu got the Yaodharacaritra written and gave it to Bramha V, pupil of Bharaka Prabhcandra.333 Images and Yantras were also installed through him in 1515 A.D. Sha l of his line performed the Craayatra Pratih in 1516 A.D.334 In the same year, Rho with his wife, son and daughter-in-law celebrated the installation ceremony of Samyakcritrayantra through him.335 His Niedhik also exists at v.

After Prabhcandra, Dharmacandra became the Bharaka in about 1518 A.D. Under his patronage and inspiration, various copies of manuscripts were prepared at different places for presentation to him and his disciples. With a view to propagating Jainism, he proceeded to Nagaur where his devotees got the copies of the Uttarapura saka,336 Pravacanasra-prbhitavitti,337 Karmaprakitti338 and Prvanthacaritra339 written in 1520 A.D. in order to present him. In 1526 A.D., a copy of the Candraprabhacaritra was made at Ctasu as a result of his discourses.340 In 1528 A.D., Kodamade got a copy of the aphua written for offering him.341 Sha Klh made a copy of the Pavapura342 ready in 1545 A.D. to give it to his pupil Kamalakrti. In 1554, Sha Mahrja prepared the Prvanthacaritra for his presentation.343

Besides other copies of manuscripts such as the Sukumlacarita344 in 1526 A.D., Bhavishyadattacarita345 in 1532 A.D., Varddhamnacaritra346 in 1536 A.D. dipura347 and Saphua348 in 1537 A.D.,Vargacaritra349 and Bhavishyadattacaritra350 in 1538 A.D. and Candraprabahcrita351 in 1546 A.D., were prepared with the object of offering them as gifts to Sdhus. Several Yantra Pratihs are also known to have been performed in his time. Tlu352 and Vlamita353 of his line performed the consecration ceremony of Samyagdaranayantra and Soaakraayantra in 1532 A.D. Inm 1536 A.D., Sha Psa and Hem installed the Arham-yantra.354

Dharmacandra was followed by Lalitakrti in about 1546 A.D. A large number of mansucripts were written in his time. In 1553 A.D., Lohara got a copy of the Yaodharacaritra written for him.355 At the invitation of the rvakas, he went to Todaraisingh where Sha Teh and Sha Pj got the copies of the Ngakumracaritra,356 and Yaodharacaritra357 prepared in order to offer him as present. Besides other copies of manuscripts such as the Upsakdhyayana358 in 1566 A.D. reikacaritra359 in 1570 A.D., Varddhamnacaritra360 in 1574 A.D. amd Sudaranacaritra361 in 1575 A.D. were made ready by his followers for presenting them to monks.

Candrakrti became Bharaka after Lalitakrti in about 1575 A.D. He seems to have removed his seat from Cittora and established it at Ctasu as known from the inscription of 1604 A.D. that he was residing at Ctasu.362 The reason was that Mewar at this time was unsafe and insecure mera from the political point of view. On the other hand, Ctasu was under mera rulers who were on friendly relations with Mughal emperors and were patrons of Jainism. This was the time of Akbar who followed the policy of religious toleration. It was, therefore, natural that the activities of Jainism progressed. Some of the copies of manuscripts such as Jvandharacaritra and Pavapura363 in 1579 A.D., Pahstikyaprbhita364 in 1580 A.D. and Harivaapur365 in 1588 A.D. were prepared by his devotees for offering them to monks of his line.

Besides, Candrakrti is known to have performed the installation ceremony of images, Yantras and temples. In 1584 A.D., Sha Mok,366 Sha Klu,367 Sha Chel368 and Sha Ratn369 of his line with the members of their respective families separately made the pratih of Samayagdarana Yantra, ikra Yantra, Karakua Prvantha Yantra and Daalakshaa Yantra. In 1591 A.D., Thnasiha went on pilgrimage to Pvpuri where he celebrated the installation ceremony of oaakraa Yantra at his preaching.370 In the same year, Cokh of his line installed the Samyak critra Yantra and Samyagjna Yantra with the members of their family.371 In 1603 A.D., Sha Jt372 and Sha Jg373 performed the consecration ceremony of the metal image and oaakraayantra through him separately. Bohitha of Ajmer with his sons and grandsons set up Caubs through him in 1601 A.D.374 In 1604 A.D., sntha of his line made the Pratih of Rikra Yantra.375 An inscription of 1604 A.D. stated that the pillar of the Jaina temple was erected by him when he was residing at Campvat (Ctasu).376

Candrakrti was succeeded by Devendrakrti in about 1606 A.D. Some copies of the manuscripts were written by his inspiration. In 1605 A.D., he went to Sanganer where Kalya gave a copy of the Harivaapurna377 to him in present. Nnu and his wife Nikde got a copy of the dipura written in the temple of dintha at Todaraisingh and presented to him in 1607 A.D.378 A copy of the Neminthapura was prepared in 1617 A.D.379 In 1620 A.D., when he went to Ctasu, Sha Deb offered him a welcome by presenting a mansucript of the Sudaranacaritra.380

Narendrakrti came after Devendrakrti in about 1634 A.D. He is known to have performed the installation ceremony of images and Yantras. An inscription of 1649 A.D. engraved on the lower portion of a large pillar records that it was erected in the temple of Nemintha at Ctasu by Bharaka Narendrakrti.381 He went on pilgrimage to holy places such as Girnar and Hastinpura from time to time with the Sagha. In 1652 A.D., Sagh Tejasi and Udaikaraa of Neva led the Sagha to Girnar where the Yantra-pratish was performed by Narendrakrti.382 Sagh Sambh and Sagh N together celebrated the installation ceremony of Daalakshaa Yantra at his hands in 1653 A.D.383 In 1654 A.D., Jagatasiha in the company of the Caturvidha-Sagha went to Hastinpura where he installed the Samyak Yantra.384 In 1659 A.D. Jagatasiha also celebrated the installation ceremony of Rikra Yantra through him.385 At the same time, his devotee Khemasiha of Amber led a pilgrimage to Hastinpura where the installation ceremony of the inkra Yantra was performed by him.386

Surendrakrti became the Paadhara of Narendrakrti in about 1665 A.D. In 1672 A.D., he proceeded to Sammedaikhara where his followers named Saghavi Naraharidsa and Sagh Prvnanda celebrated the installation ceremony of Daalakshaayantra as a result of his preaching.387 In 1675 A.D., Naraharidsa and Sukhnanda of Amber and Ghsrma with his wife and sons celebrated the consecration ceremony of Prvantha Yantra through him.388

Surendrakrti was succeeded by Jagatakrti in about 1676 A.D. This was a terribe time and the persecutions of Aurangzeb were going on. The old temples were pulled down and the construction of the new ones was not allowed. In spite of this, the activities for the propagation of Jainism continued because some ruling chiefs of Rajasthan were on friendly terms with Aurangzeb. Some copies of the manuscripts such as Upadearatnamla389 in 1688 A.D., Padmatpura390 in 1694 A.D. and Saphuasatka391 in 1708 A.D. were prepared by his followers in order to present them to Bramhacr Nthrma, Acrya ubhacandra and oarja, pupils of Jagatakrti. He also celebrated the consecration ceremony of images and Yantras. In 1684 A.D., Sagh Sonapla made the Yantra Pratith at Karavara through him.392 The consecration ceremony of a large number of images was organized by his devotee Sagh Kishadsa at Cndakhe in 1689 A.D.393 In 1709 A.D, Dayladsa of his line set up the metal image of Prvantha.394

The next Bharaka after Jagatakrti was Devendrakrit II. Under his patronage, manuscripts were written and the consecration of the images took place. Dhanarja wrote a copy of the Karmakasatka in 1720 A.D. at mber for the study of Paita Kianadsa, pupil of Devendrakirti.395 In 1728 A.D., A specimen of Harivaapura was prepared by his followers for the presentation.396 Chhaa and Sagamala performed the installation ceremony of images at Dholea through him in 1716 A.D.397 In 1726 A.D., the consecration ceremony of images was organized at Bansakhoha by his devotee Hidayarma.398

The successor of Devendrakrti II was Mahendrakrti who became Pontiff in 1735 A.D. He came from Sanganer and established his seat at Amber. It is for this reason mer Paa started from him. It is further confirmed by a praasti.399 Copies of the Jambsvmicaritra400 in 1736 A.D., and Trilokadarpaa401 in 1741 A.D. were prepared by his devotees.

Mahendrakrti was succeeded by Kemendrakrti in about 1758 A.D. After him, Surendrakrti became the paadhara in 1765 A.D. In 1769 A.D., Sagh Nandalla performed the installation cerermony of images on a large scale at Sawaimadhopura as a result of his preaching402 Vadhurma prepared a copy of the Munisuvrata-pura403 in order to offer him as a gift. Sukhendrakrti became his successor in 1795 A.D. His followers made the specimen of Vragacaritra404 ready for presentation in 1816 A.D. He participated in the Sagha led by Saghi Ryacandra to Junagad where an Installation ceremony of some Yantra was performed by Ryacandra through him.405 In 1804 A.D., the same person celebrated the consecration ceremony of images at Jaipur as a result of his preachng.406 After him, Narendrakrti II, Devendrakirti and Mahendrakrti became the Bharakas one after another in succession.

Bharakas of Nagaura Paa : Jinacandra had two pupils named Prabhcandra and Ratnakrti. During his life time, there arose a disagreement and his second disciple Ratnakrti established his separate seat at Nagaur. He died at Ajmer which is shown by an inscription of 1515 A.D. on the Chatr of Bharaka Ratnakrti.407 After him, Bhuvanakrti became the Paadhara who was followed by Dharmakrti in about 1533 A.D. In 1542 A.D., a copy of the Dharmapark408 was prepared by this devotee. After him, Vilakrti became the Pontiff in about 1544 A.D. He was followed Lakshmcandra. In 1579 A.D., L of his line got a copy of the Dhanyakumracaritra409 written in order ot offer it to the nun Karami in present. Later on, Sahasrakrti, Nemicandra and Yaakrti became Bharakas one after another in succession.

Yaakrti was the Bharaka of some importance. Under his inspiration, manuscripts were prepared and images were installed. An inscription engraved in the Jaina temple of dintha at Revs of 1604 A.D. records that it was constructed by Sha Jitamala and his brother Nathamala, the two sons of Devidsa the chief minister of Ryasla at the preaching of Bharaka Yaakrti.410 His followers Rp and his son Dgaras of Jobanera made the specimen of Dharmaparkh411 ready for presenting it to Guacandra in 1609 A.D. The Pacas of Revs presented a throne to him in 1615 A.D.412 He was followed by Bhnukrti and Bhaakrti. Bhaakrti had two pupils namely Dharmacandra and Ratnakrti. Again a trouble arose between them, and Ratnakrti established his separate Paa at Ajamera. After Dharmacandra, Devendrakrti, Amerandrakrti and Ratnakrti became the Bharakas one after another in succession of Nagaura Paa.

Bharakas of Ajamera Paa : Ajamera already remained a seat of the Bharakas in early times; but fot it, there is no definite epigraphical and monumental evidence. Mr. Harbilsa rd in his book413 mentioned the inscriptions of the eighth or ninth century on the Cabtaras and Chatrs commemorating the death of the Digambara Jaina Bharakas and the Paitas. But in reality these inscriptions belong to the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.

Ratnakrti separated himself from Nagaura Paa and established his seat at Ajamera. In 1694 A.D., Sagh Jes of his line celebrated the consecration ceremony of images at Jobanera through him.414 He was followed by Vidydhara and then, Mahendrakrti became the Bharaka. In 1709 A.D., Vijayakrti constructed the Cabtar over the remains of Bharaka Ratnakrti. Later on, Anantakrti became the Pontiff. Rmasiha performed the consecration of the temple of Shas as well as of images at Mroha in 1737 A.D. as advised by him.415 Next Bhuvanabhaa became the Paadhara who was followed by Vijayakrti. In 1753 A.D., Vijayakrti constructed the Chatrs over the remains of Anantakrti and Bhuvanabhaa. crya Rjyakrti constructed the Chatr over Bharaka Vidynanda. In 1760 A.D., Vijayakrti spent the rainy seasons at Mroha.416 After him, Trilokendrakrti became the Bharaka. Bharaka Bhuvanakrti erected the Pduk of Trilokendrakrti in 1781 A.D. In 1795 A.D., Dharmadsa celebrated the installation ceremony of images on a large scale through Bhuvanakrti.417 In 1805, he visited Maroha from where he proceeded to Kucma418

In 1818 A.D., Pannlla, pupil of Bhuvanakrti repaired the throne brought from Revs for Yaakrti. Bharaka Ratnabhaa constructed Chatrs over the remains of Bharaka Bhuvanakrti in 1835 A.D. There is also the Chatr of Bharaka Padmanandi with the inscription of 1871 A.D.

Besides, a large number of Cabtars and Chatrs built over the remains of the cryas and the Paitas are found at Ajmer. There is an inscription of 1725 A.D. on the Cabtar built over the remains of Vilakirti. crya Bharaka r Vijayakriti constructed the Cabtar and footprints of crya r Bhnukirti in 1744 A.D. at Ajamera whereas he actually passed away at Danta in ekhv. Paita Basantarma constructed the Cabtar of the crya Ratnabhaa in 1756 A.D. The Cabtar of crya Devendrakrti was built by Gaemala in 1757 A.D. Paita Basantarma also constructed the Cabtar over the remains of Tilakabhaa in 1754 A.D.

Pt. Tulasdsa constructed the Chatr over the remains of Pt. Hemarja, a disciple of crya Rjakrti. In 1754 A.D., the Pduk of Pt. Vakasarma was erected. In 1760 A.D., Pt. Daulatarma constructed the Pduk of his teacher Rmachandra who was a pupil of Hemarja. In 1761 A.D., Pt. Savirama constructed the Cabtars of Pt. Rpachanda, Pt. Malukacanda and Pt. Abhairma. The Pduk of Pt. Viradhicanda was erected in 1798 A.D. The Cabtar of Pt. Pannlla was built in 1844 A.D. Pt. Pannlla was a disciple of Bharaka Bhuvanakrti who repaired the throne of his master in 1818 A.D.

It is thus clear that several Bharakas, cryas and Paitas lived and played an important part in the history of medieval Jaina society when there was anarchy. At this time, the Muslims were carrying on persecutions and destruction, and the Marhs were raiding the different parts of the country. The life and property of the people became unsafe and insecure. Even at this time, Bharakas wandered from place to place without any anxiety and fear for the propagation of Jainism.

Bharakas rendered valuable services to Jainism in medieval times. Some of the Bharakas like Sakalakrti and ubhacandra were great scholars who wrote their literary works in Sanskrit, Prkrit, Apabhraa, Hindi, Gujarti and Rjasthn languages. The preservation of manuscripts was the most valuable work done by them at this time. Several copies of the works on grammar, medicine, mathematics and similar subjects were prepared. They also contributed towards art and architecture. Installation of various images was considered to be their main work. As their Mahas were cultural centres, they patronised music, painting, sculpture, dancing and other arts. In social sphere also, their services are remarkable. They often arranged long pilgrimages with a large number of followers. They sometimes looked after the management of the holy places; for instance, r Mahviraji was managed by the Bharakas of Jaipur. Some of them possessed miraculous powers gained through Mantras. To walk through air, to remove the effect of poison and to make stone image speak are some of the miracles ascribed to them. They used to visit the courts of Hindu and Muslim rulers and induced them to observe the doctrine of Ahims by the prohibition of the slaughter of animals in their kingdom on certain fixed days of the year.

Caityavs System in Rjasthna

The system of the Caityavs functioned in Rjasthna with great success and advantage. A Jaina monk according to the rule prescribed for him does not usually stay longer than one night in a village or five nights in a town. This practice is found in Jainism as well as in Buddhism; and it is an inheritance of ramaa culture. At the same time, there came gradually a good deal of laxity in the conduct of the saints.

crya Dharmasgara in his Paval writes that in 355 A.D., this practice of Caityavs started.419 But according to Muni Kalya Vijaya, it had originated even earlier and in 355 A.D., it had become well established practice.420 At present, the Yatis or rpjyas in the vetmbaras and the Bhattrakas in the Digambaras are known as Mahavs. All are collectively known as Caityavas.

The Caityavs system seems to have developed in Rajasthana from about the 8th century A.D. The Jaina cryas of Rjasthna such as Haribadrasri421 and Jinavallabhasri422 had drawn the attention of the people towards the laxity in the ways of the monks. They resided in temples and used their wealth for their personal good. They put on even coloured or scented clothes. They are food or sweets fetched by the monks. They used to hoard money and relish delicious dishes. They used Sacitta water as well as fruits and flowers. They sold idols and purchased children in order to make them their disciples.

laguasri, the teacher of king Vanarja Cvad (765-825 A.D.) asked him to issue orders forbidding the stay of other saints except Caityavs saints in the city of Aahilavda. In order to violate it, in 957 A.D. Jinevarasri and Buddhisgarasri defeated the Caityavss in the debate in the royal court of Durlabharja and thus sought permission for the admission of the Vidhimrga in Pa.

That Caityavuass had deviated considerably from the traditional ways of Jaina Sdhus is evident from several Jaina temples and idols installed by them. This was the practice of the laity and not of the Sdhus. But the Caityavss saw no harm in these deviations and argued that what was meritorious for the laity was equally creditable for the Sdhus. There are inscriptions which give us information about the practice of the Caityavs in Rjasthna. In 1354 A.D., Rmacandrasri of Jrpall Gaccha for self-merit constructed the Devakulik at Jrpall in Sirohi State.423 Hematilakasri for the merit of his teacher constructed the Ragamaapa of the temple at the village Varmna in Sirohi State in 1389 A.D.424 In 1397 A.D., Vcaka Somaprabhasri of Pispalcrya Gaccha constructed an image of Sumatintha at Ajr which was consecrated by Vraprabhasri.425 Vraprabhasri constructed the Maapa in 1418 A.D. at the village Vrav.426 In 1464 A.D. Vijayaprabhasri of Kccholvl Gaccha built the Devakulik in the temple of Ajitantha for the merit of Guasgarasri at Sirohi.427 Bhadrevarasri for the merit of Tilaka Sri made Devakulik of dintha at Jrapall.428 Udaivardhana of Kccholvla Gaccha built Devakulik at Sirohi.429 Prvadevasri of Naka Gaccha with his disciple Vracanda constructed Lagik at the village Velra.430 Nanna Sri of Pratimkadhra Pratishh Gachcha erected the image of dideva in the building at Vasantagadh.431

In the Digambara Jaina literature, there is no definite and clear mention of the time when the system of Caityavss started. But that it was in existence in the 8th century A.D. in the south is known from several inscriptions. In Rjasthna, the Bharakas were also in possession of villages and gardens. They renovated temples, constructed inns and gave good to other monks. It seems that, in spite of their being Caityavss, the earlier Bharakas remained naked, and this was probably necessary in order to show their separation from the saints of the vetmbaras. At present, there is a tendency in the Bharakas to put off their clothes while eating food but wear them at all other times. It shows that they remained naked in the past and the practice of wearing clothes started afterwards.

In the domain of religion, the Bharakas were the spiritual heads. They enjoyed comforts and received money in various ways from the rvakas. They possessed administrative powers and used to appoint the Paitas at different places in order to carry on the religious affairs.

Minor Protestant and Non-Protestant Sects

The effect of the Muslim invasions of the Jaina religion is seen in two ways. It brought different Jaina sects closer together for self-defence against the iconoclasts. At the same time, it drove others away from idolatry altogether. It, therefore, naturally divided both Digambaras and vetmbaras each into two divisions known as idol-worshippers and non-idol-worshippers. The sect of non-idol-worshippers reminds one of the early Hindu traditions of Vednta and Nirgua Bhakti movement of Kabra and Nnaka. With the impact of the Muslim culture, some sections of Jains began to denounce idol worship with great vehemence. The following sects are the opponents of the idol worship in Rajasthan.

(a) Lok Sect : In Ahmedabada, Lok earned his livelihood by copying books in the Upsar of a Yati called Jnaj. While writing these books, he was struck with the fact that idol worship was not mentioned them. He pointed it out to Jnaj and others, and a sharp controversy arose between them as to the desirability of idolatry. At last in 1451 A.D., he organized a new sect of his own called Lok Sect after his own name. He declared his disbelief in such essential rites as Paushadha, Pratikramaa, Pratykhyna and even in charity. He did not like the rites in which even the slightest touch of violence or injury was involved. The Muslims at this time were destroying the temples and the images. This gave him the opportunity to spread his doctrine well. Great slackness had also come in the mendicants, because they possessed not only the books and clothes but even wealth. There were mutual quarrels among them. For this type of behaviour, the people began to criticize them. He took advantage of all these circumstances in propagating his doctrines by going from place to place.

Lok pronounced 31 Stras as the foundation of his tenet and gave a new interpretation of such Stras seemed to support image worship. He made such drastic changes in the vayakastra that they altogether assumed a new form. In 1476 A.D., he met a man named Bha, a native of rghaapaka near Sirohi who took Sanysa without being initiated by any Acarya. This monk assumed the false name of Dhuhaka. In 1511 A.D., he secured a disciple called Rpakaj and the old Vara Siha became his disciples in 1521 A.D. and 1530 A.D. respectively. Thus, though Lokha himself was not initiated, others were initiated by him and became saints.

(b) Sthnakavas Sect : Some of the members of the Loks Sect disapproved of the lines of their Sdhus declaring that they lived less strictly than Mahvra would have wished. A Lok layman Vraj of Srat received initiation as a Sdhu and won great admiration through the strictness of his life. Many from the Lok Sect joined this reformer; and they took the name of Sthnakavss while their enemies called them Dhdhiy. The followerss of this sect are found in all the important cities of Rjasthna.

(c) Terpanth Sect : The founder of Terpanth Sect was Bhkamaj. After a critical study of the scriptures, he came to know that the Jaina Sdhus were not leading their lives according to stric injunctions and were not promulgating the true principles of Jainism. The Sthnakvss stayed in the places specially set apart for Sdhus to live in. He began to stay even in the places meant for laymen. Once, a strange coincidence took place. Some Sdhus and laymen both numbering thirteen were staying in a shop. This led a poet of the Sevaga class to compose a short parody ridiculing the sect and nicknaming it Terpanth (the path of thirteen). Bhkamaj gave a very appropriate interpretation to it. He said the number indicated five great vows (Mahvrata), five rules of conduct (Samitis), and control of body, mind and speech (three Guptis).

Terpanths do not worship idols. They think that worship of idols does not lead to salvation. They meditate upon and mentally worship those highly developed souls who have attained liberation. They worship and revere those living beings who have renounced the world asbsolutely and lead the life of asceticism strictly observing the five great vows. The followers of this sect are mostly found in Bikanera and Jodhpura States.

Like the vetmbaras, the Digambaras were also divided into the sects of idol-worshippers and non-idol-worshippers. In course of time, the sect of idol-worshippers was further split into several sub-sects.

(a) Traasvm, who was the revolutionary saint, born in V.S. 1505 at Pushpvat Nagar (Bailahari), near Katni in Madhya Pradesh. He raised his voice against the rituals of the Bharakas. He was highly influenced by the works of Kundakunda. He was against the Idol worship but emphasised on the worship of manuscripts in Jaina temples. He wrote 14 works, and out of them Mlrohanaj, Padita Pjj and Kamala Battsji are important. He died in V.S. 1572.432

(b) Terpanthi Sect : The idolatrous sect of Terpanths was founded by Pt. Banarasidas, a resident of Ajgra. It became rapidly popular in Rajputana in the 17th century. Originally, it was known as Vidhimrga but its opponents nicknamed it as Terpanths just to ridicule it. The Terpanths protested against the elaborate ritualism of the Bharakas. During the lifetime of Banrasdsa, the great scholar and reformer of Agra, this sect gained great popularity. It is defined by some as a sect which emphasizes the thirteen points of self discipline for building up the character; others, however, believe that the name was given by its opponents to ridicule it.433 The Digambara Terpanths are held in contempt by the Bharkas like the vetmbara Terpanths by the rpjyas. Bakhata Rma in the Buddhivilsa says that this sect differs from the original faith in thirteen points; and hence, it is called Terpanth. The Terpanths do not recognize the superior position of the Bharkas. The Terpanths of the vetmbaras and the Digambaras differ from each other. The former do not worhsip the images while the later do. The Digambara Terpanths worship the images but not with the flowers, fruits, sandal and prakla. The worship, in this way according to them, involves His and therefore militates against the fundamental principles of Jainism.

(c) Gumnapanthi Sect : Gumnapanth Sect flourished in the 18th century A.D. and was so called after the name of its founder Gumnrma, the son of Pt. Toarmal of Jaipur. It was also known as uddhmnya, because particular emphasis was laid on the purity of conduct of its followers by imposing certain rules of discipline on them. This sect spread in several parts of Rajasthana outside Jaipur such as Mrotha, Bhdav etc.

(d) Bsapanthi Sect : The Bsapanths are the followers of the Bharakas. They assumed its name because they thought that they were superior to Terpanths. This sect permits idol worship and supports the cult and methods of the Bharakas. In this sect, the idols are worshipped with water, lamp, flowers and sandal. The followers of this sect are found in Jaipur, Ajamera, Nagaura and Mroha.

(e) Totpanthi Sect : In course of time, an attempt was made for the compromise between Bsapanths and Terpanths. A new sect known as Totpanth came into existence. This sect partly consists of Bsapanth Sect and partly Terpanth Sect. It is, therefore, also known as Sh Solha Panth Sect. It remained confined only to Nagaur.

These idolatrous sects do not materially differ from each other in the Digambaras. Their founders namely Amara Canda Baajty and Gumn Rma were anxious to maintain the individuality of their sects; and hence, the nominal differences were emphasized.


1. Daranasra, p.7.

2. ramaa Bhagvn Mahvra, IV, P. 269

3. Ibid, p. 272

4. EI, XXI, p. 85; IHQ, 1934, p. 57.

5. Jacobi H : Encylopedia of Religion and Ethics, Vol. VII, p. 473.

6. Vilas a. sangave : Jaina community - A Social Survey, pp. 50-51.

7. Kalpastra, S.B.E., Vol. 22, p. 288 f.

8. E I, I, No. XIX, p. 391.

9. Lders : Epig. Notes. IA, XXXIII, p. 109

10. E I, II, p. 382.

11. Buhler : On the Indian Sect of the Jainas, p. 55.

12. E I, I, No. VI, pp. 385, 87, 88, 97, 96 and 289.

13. E.I., I, VI, pp. 385, 87, 88, 97, 96 and 289.

14. Kalpstra, SBE, XXII, p. 293.

15. E I, XX, pp. 59-61

16. Jsls, Nos. 96, 99.

17. Ibid, 90, 94.

18. Jsls, Nos. 90, 94.

19. Ibid Nos. 111, 113, 114, and 149.

20. Ibid, No. 193

21. Ibid, No. 113.

22. Ibid, No. 114.

23. Ibid, No. 149.

24. Ibid, No. 193.

25. Jsls, Nos. 175, 195, 196 and 223.

26. Ibid, V, No. 55.

27. Ibid, No. 66.

28. Ibid, No. 130.

29. Ibid, No. 183.

30. Ibid, No. 139.

31. Jsls, V, No. 74.

32. Ibid, No. 262.

33. Ibid, IV, Nos. 292, 335, 416 and 538.

34. Ibid, Nos. 290, 310, 369, 378, 382, 606 and 642.

35. Ibid, No. 164.

36. Ibid, Nos. 180 and 222.

37. Ibid, No. 54.

38. Ibid, IV, No. 94.

39. Jsls, II No. 217.

40. Ibid, No. 372.

41. Ibid, IV, Nos. 83 and 169.

42. Ibid, Nos. 193, 229 and 256.

43. Ibid Nos. 126, 139 and 140.

44. Jsls, No. 1, 180.

45. Ibid, Nos. 122, 123, and 135.

46. Ibid, No. 123.

47. Ibid, No. 150.

48. Ibid, No. 166

49. Jsls, N. 55.

50. Ibid, No. 137.

51. Ibid, IV, No. 61.

52. Ibid, No. 134.

53. Ibid, III, No. 186, 217 and 511.

54. Ibid, No. 138.

55. Ibid, II, No. 165.

56. Ibid, No. 147.

57. Jsls, IVI, No. 185, 234, 269, 318, 490 and 541.

58. Ibid, No. 185.

59. Ibid, IV, No. 117.

60. Jsls, III, No. 153.

61. Ibid, No. 158.

62. Ibid, Nos, 237-238.

63. Ibid, No. 17.

64. Ibid Nos. 163-165.

65. Ibid, IV, No. 96.

66. Jsls, No. IV, No. 212, 291, 323, 476, 565 and 609.

67. Ibid, No. 476.

68. Ibid, No. 214.

69. Ibid, No. 603.

70. Ibid, III, Nos. 267, 277, 299 and 353.

71. Ibid, 209, 263, 313, 377, 389, 408, 431, 459, 582.

72. Ibid, IV, No. 240

73. Medieval Jainism, P. 327.

74. Ibid, IV, No. 154.

75. Jsls, III, No. 208.

76. Ibid, IV, No. 55.

77. Ibid, IV, No. 157.

78. Ibid, Nos. 342, 376.

79. Ibid, III, No. 569.

80. Ibid, No. 585.

81. Ibid, IV, No. 390, p. 13.

82. jsls, III, No. 99.

83. Ibid, No. 100.

84. Ibid, No. 105.

85. Ibid, Nos. 99, 100, 105.

86. Ibid, I, Nos. 106, 121, 124 and 142.

87. Ibid, III, No. 124.

88. Ibid, No. 106.

89. Ibid, No. 121.

90. Ibid, No. 124.

91. Ibid, No. 106.

92. Jsls, III, No. 121.

93. Ibid, No. 124.

94. Ibid, No. 250.

95. Ibid, No. 143.

96. Ibid, No. 144.

97. Jsls, III, No. 130.

98. Ibid, No. 182.

99. Ibid, Nos. 160 and 205.

100. Jsls, IV, No. 20.

101. Ibid, Nos. 70, 131, 611 and 612.

102. Ibid, No. 70.

103. Ibid, No. 131.

104. Ibid, Nos. 611 and 612.

105. Ibid, Nos. 130, 259, 168, 607.

106. Ibid, No. 259.

107. Ibid, No. 168.

108. Ibid, No. 607.

109. Jsls, IV, Nos. 207, 368 and 386.

110. Ibid, No. 209.

111. Ibid, Nos. 143, 298, 300 and 384.

112. Ibid, V, No. 70.

113. Ibid, No. 86.

114. Ibid, No. 125.

115. Jsls, V, No. 117

116. Ibid, III, No. 103.

117. Ibid, No. 104.

118. Ibid, No. 104.

119. JSLS, III, No. 166.

120. Ibid, No. 178

121. Ibid, Nos. 188, 189, 190, 192, 202, 214, 215, 216 and 226.

122. JSLS, III, Nos. 213, 214, 215, 216.

123. Ibid, IV, No. 175.

124. Ibid, No. 282

125. Ibid, No. 344.

126. Ibid, Nos. 252, 357 and 409.

127. JSLS, V, Nos. 14-15.

128. Ibid, No. 56.

129. Ibid, No. 104.

130. Ibid, No. 111.

131. J.S.L.S., III, Nos. 633 and 640.

132. Jaina Siddhnta Bhaskara, Vol. 2, IV, pp. 28-29.

133. J.S.L.S. IV, No. 22.

134. Ibid, No. 56.

135. ramaa Bhagavn Mahvra, Vol, V, Pt. II. Sthavirval, p. 2.

136. PJS, Pt. I, No. 3.

137. MJI., No. 833 and 834.

138. APJLS.

139. NJI., Pt. I, II & III.

140. I.A., Vol. IX, p. 248.

141. NJI. Pt. III.

142. ramaa Bhagavn Mahvra, Vol. V, Pt. II, Sthavirval, p. 75.

143. ramaa B.M.

144. APJLS.

145. NJI. Pt. I, II & III and PLS.

146. ramaa Bhagvn Mahvra, Vol. V. Pt. II. Sthavirval, p. 65.

147. NJI. Pt. II, III, PLS. Pt. I, and APJLS.

148. ramaa Bhagvn Mahvra, Vol. V, Pt. II, Sthavirval, p. 65.

149. NJI. Pt. I, II and III & APJLS.

150. ramaa Bhagvn Mahva, Vol. V, Pt. II, Sthavirval, Pt. II, p. 66.

151. NJI. Pt. I, II and III & APJLS.

152. NJI., No. 899.

153. APJLS.

154. NJI. No. 792.

155. NJI., Pt. I & II.

156. APJLS.

157. PLS. No. 106.

158. IA., V. XI, p. 250.

159. IA., V. XI, p. 250.

160. raman Bhagavn Mahvra, Vol. V, Pt. II, Sthavirval, p. 176.

161. raman Bhagavn Mahvra, Vol. V, Pt. II, Sthavirval p. 176.

162. APJLS. No. 138 & 141.

163. NJI., Pt II No. 1275.

164. Ibid. Pt. III.

165. NJI., Pt. I, No. 970 & 971.

166. APJLS.

167. Ibid., No. 425.

168. APJLS. Nos. 396, 470, 471, 472 and 473.

169. NJI., Pt. No. 764.

170. Ibid., No. 899.

171. NJI., Pt. I, II & III.

172. APJLS., No. 319.

173. NJI., Pt. III.

174. NJI., Pt. I, II and III & APJLS., Nos. 82 & 142.

175. NJI., Nos. 789, 1313 & 2278. APJLS., No. 348.

176. APJLS., No. 620.

177. NJI., No. 738.

178. Ibid., No. 1000.

179. NJI., No. 1236.

180. Ibid., Nos. 1080 & 1017.

181. NJI., No. 530.

182. APJLS., No. 66.

183. APJLS.

184. NJI., Pt. I, II & III.

185. APJLS.

186. NJI., Pt. III.

187. Ibid., Nos. 1111, 1143 & 1031.

188. APJLS., Nos. 74 and 119.

189. APJLS.

190. Ibid., No. 110.

191. NJI., No. 811.

192. NJI., Pt. I, II & III.

193. APJLS.

194. NJI., Pt. I, No. 791.

195. APJLS., No. 404.

196. NJI., Pt. II & III & APJLS.

197. APJLS., No. 366.

198. Ibid.

199. NJI., Pt. III.

200. PLS., Nos. 5 & 23.

201. NJI., Pt. II & III.

202. PLS., No. 43.

203. NJI., Pt. II & III.

204. NJI., Nos. 2478 & 577.

205. Ibid., Nos. 533 & 539.

206. Catalogue of the MSS in the Patan Bharas, p. 312.

207. NJI., No. 1295.

208. IA., XI, p. 249.

209. ARRMA. Yr. 1923 No. IX.

210. PLS., Nos. 49, 124 & 256.

211. IA., XIV, p. 8.

212. IA., XI, p. 248.

213. NJI., Nos. 734, 1267, 1315 & pt. III.

214. I.A., XI, 249.

215. NJI., No. 1059.

216. APJLS., No. 408.

217. NJI., No. 604.

218. NJI., Nos. 849, 850 and 851.

219. NJI., Pt. III.

220. IA., XI, pp. 248-249.

221. NJI., No. 597.

222. Ibid., No. 1288.

223. NJI., No. 717.

224. NJI., No. 616.

225. NJI., Nos. 2218 & 2232.

226. Ibid., Nos. 2220-22 & 2415.

227. Ibid., No. 2269.

228. Ibid., 1159.

229. NJI., No. 1174.

230. Ibid., No. 1194.

231. Ibid., 1042.

232. NJI., No 1998.

233. Ibid., 1078.

234. APJLS. Nos. 9, 454 & 466.

235. NJI., Pt. III.

236. NJI. No. 966.

237. NJI., Pt. III.

238. ABJLS, No. 575.

239. NJI, Pt. I & III.

240. Ibid, Nos. 1167, 1169 and 1246.

241. Sramana Oct. -Dec. 1995, p. 28.

242. Ibid, 1997, pp. 81-82.

243. Malavchala Ke Jaina-lekha.

244. MUNI KANTISAGAR : Jaina Dhthu Pratma Lekha Sagraha, I.

245. Mlavnchala Ke Jaina-Lekha. pp. 77-78.

246. P.C. NAHAR : Jaina Inscriptions III, Nos. 403-425.

247. E.I., I, P. 120.

248. Jaina Jorunal Mahavra Jayant Special, pp. 195-196.

249. K.M.T.J., II, p. 410.

250. Bharaka Sampradya, p. 239.

251. Bharaka Sampradya,

252. KMTJ, p. 505.

253. Ibid, p. 505.

254. Vravn, VI, p. 355.

255. Ibid, V, p. 41.

256. Jainism in Rajasthan, p. 72.

257. Ibid,

258. E.I., XXIV, p. 84.

259. ARRMA, 1925-26, No. 3.

260. Mlavchala Ke Jaina-lekha, Nos 3, 6 and 7.

261. Bharaka Sampradya, p. 239.

262. Bharaka Sampradya, pp. 241-242.

263. Ibid, p. 211.

264. Ibid,

265. Bhandarkar List No. 161; ARADGS, 1973, No. 48.

266. Bhaaraka Sampradya, p. 211.

267. Malvanchala Ke Jaina-Lekha, Nos. 217, 209, 198 and 106.

268. KAMTA PRASAD - Patim Lekha Sagrah, Nos. 60, 56 and 20.

269. Udaipur Rjya K Itihsa, p. 41.

270. PRAS, WC, 1909-10, P. 52.

271. Malavchala Ke Jaina-Lekha, No. 59.

272. Mlavchala Ke Jaina-Lekha, No. 170.

273. E.I., II, pp. 232-240.

274. K.M.T.A., p. 505.

275. Mlavchala Ke Jaina-Lekha, Nos, 7, 167, 215, 216.

276. Bharaka Sampradya, pp. 293-294.

277. JSLS, V, p.No. 98.

278. Mlavchala Ke Jaina-Lekha, p. 24, No. 7.

279. PR 1883-84; I.A., XX and IA XXI.

280. PRAS. WC, 1903-04, p. 46.

281. E.I., XXIV, p. 84.

282. JSLS. No. 208.

283. JBBRAS, No. XLIV, Vol. XVII, p. 163 and PR 1883-84.

284. Bharaka Sampradya.

285. Jainism in Rajasthan, p. 74.

286. KMTA, p. 505.

287. Jainism in Rajasthan,

288. Mlvchala Ke Jaina Lekha.

289. KAMATA PRASAD JAIN : Pratima Lekha Sagraha.

290. NJI, No, 1009.

291. Vrav, VII.

292. Aneknta, XIII, p. 126.

293. Ibid.

294. JGPS, p. 10 (Int.)

295. Ibid.

296. 1490 ҇ Ȍ 9 ͋ʊ ˂ʊ ݧʦU ʊ US U ȧȧʸ ^UʦUݧ l ^ԊU ݧݧø UØ UU ʢ ˂ ʸ ʢ ߢ ʸ U ː ʸ UʄU ʟ ʸ Uȧ ʋ ʸ U ͋ݧ cU ݧʦU ʊ ݧU Sݧ ո 1476 ݧ ֡ҟ . .

297. Aneknta, XIII, p. 126.

298. In the Jaina temple at Jaipur.

299. 1515 Ȍ 11 ͋ʊ ݧʦU ʊ US 뿊U ȢȢʸ . ݧݧø ^ԊU . ȝݧø ÌUØ UU ʦU ʄU ߌ ʐÖ (In the temple of Chaudharis, Jaipur). Ø 1496 ҇ʝ Ȍ -11 ^UʦUݧ ^UʦUݧ ݧݧø ݧ U - . . ݧø

300. 1516 ʝ 5 ȦU ͋ . ȝݧø ȦU . ʄUʋ Uݧʋ Uʋ Ê ʐÖ (On the metal image in the temple of Lunakarana, Jaipur).

301. 1528 ҇ 1 ͋ʊ ȝݧø UØ . ʬ ʸ ʐÖ (Inscription on a Yantra in the temple of Chaudharis, Jaipur)

302. NJI., No. 1120.

303. Aneknta, XIII, P. 126.

304. 1570 ٷ - Ê ʦU ʐÖ

305. 1595 ҇ Ȍ x ِ ͋ʊ ^UʦUݧ 㺲 UØ ʸ ʌ Ö

306. 1607 ҇ ȦU ʪU ʊ ʪʫU Sʟ U  Uʝ ʷݧU U ʋ ͋ʊ ^UʦUݧ 㺲 MØ U. Uʡ ʝU . Uͧ ʊ Ê, . U, . ʊ , . ʂ, . M Ê ݧʟ ʸ ݧݧ (In the temple of Laskara, Jaipur).

307. NJI., No. 520.

308. 1620 ҇ Ȍ 9 Ȝ ͋ʊ US 뿊U . Ȑݧø LØ UU U ʊ æUʩU . Uʂ ʢ Uʐ . Uʐʌ . . ݧ . ٟ, , . U k ʐÖ

309. NJI., No 1636.

310. Ibid., No. 631.

311. Aneknta; XIII; p: 126.

312. ARRMA, 1919-20 Nos. 1 & 6.

313. Inscription in the temple of Pod at Jaipur.

1661 ʄUȌ ِ ͋ʊ . ͷ MØ U . Uȧ . ʦU . ˦UʄU ٫U ݧʦU ʐÖ

314. Aneknta, XIII, p. 127.

315. Ibid.

316. 1751 cU Ȍ 5 ِ ǝUʊ ʪÊ ͋ʊ Ê ʋ US 뿊U ݧʦU ʊ ȧȧʸ . ݧݧø Ì . k Ì . 㺲 ݧø ^ԊU . ʊݧø MØ ِ S UU ݧʦU ʐÖ

317. PRAS. wc., 1904-05, p. 57.

318. PS, p. 177.

319. Ibid., p. 138.

320. Ibid., p. 170.

321. 1517 Ȍ 10 U ͋ʊ ^UʦUݧ 㺲 Uʋ ʄU UUUʡ ʸ ʄUݧ ʌ ʄUU (Jaina temple of Patodi, Jaipur). 1299 Ȍ 9 . . U---

322. 1523 ʅU Ȍ 2 L ͋ʊ ^UʦUݧ k ^ԊU 㺲 ^ԊU 㺲 Uʋ UʫU ʊ ʄU ʸ M U, U˦U U ʐ (Jaina temple Siramauriya, Jaipur).

323. 1532 ҇ Ȍ 7 ͋ʊ ^UʦUݧ 㺲 ʊUʋ ʄU Uݧ ݧʟ ʸ S UʩU ʐÖ

324. 1518 ҇ Ȍ 3 ͋ʊ ^UʦUݧ 㺲 ʄU ˝Uʡ ʬU˝ʋ ʐ Uʡ U Uʝ ʄUU ȢUʂʖ

325. 1571 cU Ȍ 2 ِ ͋ʊ ȧȧʸ . 㺲 Ì Uʋ UʫU يʊ U . ȄUʪ S Ր, ʂ, ʂ, Ր ʡ, U Ê ʐÖ

326 PS., P. 154.

327. Ibid., p. 98.

328. Ibid., p. 177.

329. Ibid., p. 96.

330. Ibid., p. 147.

331. Ibid., p. 167.

332. Ibid., p. 163

333. Ibid., p. 164.

334. 1573 Ȍ 3 ͋ʊ ^UʦUݧ 㺲 Ø ^UʦUݧ 㺲 Uʋ UʒU ʊ . Uˋ ʐÖ

335. 1573 ʪ Ȍ 3 ͋ʊ US 뿊U ݧʦU ʊ ^UʦUݧ ȧȧʸ . 㺲 ^ԊU 㺲 Ì Uʋ ݧʋ ʊ UلU ʸ ݧʐ k . k ʐÖ

336. PS., p.2.

337. Ibid., pp. 36 & 37.

338. Ibid., p. 96.

339. Ibid., p. 131.

340. Ibid., p. 99.

341. Ibid., p. 174.

342. PS., p. 127.

343. Ibid., p. 128.

344. Ibid., p. 200.

345. Ibid., p. 149.

346. Ibid., p. 170.

347. Ibid., p. 88.

348. Ibid., p. 175.

349. Ibid., p. 55.

350. Ibid., p. 148.

351. Ibid., p. 99.

352. 1590 Ȍ 7 ͋ʊ ^UʦUݧ 㺲 Ø c U 㺲 Ì ʄU ʊ ʸ Ê ʸ ʌ Ø ʋ ʐÖ (Temple of Luakaranaj, Jaipur).

353. 1590 ʄU Ȍ 4 ȜʦU ͋ʊ l ݧʦUʊ US 뿊U ȢȢʸ . ㌌ Ø c ^UʦUݧ ㌌ Ì Uʋ ȄUU ʊ ʟ . . ʜʝ . U ʦUʄU ʋ Ö (Temple of Lunakaranji, Jaipur).

354. 1593 cU Ȍ 3 ͋ʊ ^UʦUݧ 㺲 Ø c U Ì Uʋ ʄU ʊ ʄU Ì ʸ UU Ì ʄU ʂ ʄU U ʐÖ

355. P.S., p. 163.

356. Ibid., p. 77

357. Ibid., p. 162.

358. Ibid., p. 94.

359. Ibid., p. 169.

360. Ibid., p. 17.

361. Ibid., p. 190.

362. ARAMA, 1927-28, No.11.

363. PS., p. 125.

364. Ibid., p. 132.

365. Ibid., p. 73.

366. 1642 ͟ 7 ȜʂU ͋ʊ ^UʦUݧ 㺲, . 㺲, . 㺲ݧø Ì Uʋ ʊ . ݧ ʸ Պ UʄU UUʡ Ê ʐ

367. 1641 ͟ 7 Ȝ ͋ʊ U Ø U 㐢U ݧø Ø ݧø Ì Uʋ ݧUݧU ʄU ݧʋ ʐÖ

368. 1641 ȟ 2 h ͋ʊ . 㺲ݧø Ì Uʋ ٟ ʊ . Ê, . Ê . ݧ, Uʡ

369. 1641 ȟ Ȍ 7 Ȝ ͋ʊ . 㺲ݧø Ì Uʋ لUU يʊ . Uß . ߸ . ݧʜU, U UUUʂ ʐÖ

370. 1648 ҇ ʂ ʝʬȦU U Uʡ ʟU ͋ʊ . 㺲ݧø M Ø Uʋ ʒU ʊ . U ʊ . ȄUʪ˟ ʦU UUʡ . UU ʦU . ʳU Uʐ . U ʟU ʟU ʐÖ

371. 1648 ҇ 5 ͋ʊ . 㺲ݧø Uʋ ʋ ҥ ʄU , . ˟ ʸ Ìʸ ߫U Ê ʐÖ

372. 1651 Ȍ 10 U ͋ʊ 㺲ݧø Ì Uʋ ʳU ʊ ʄU ʄU ʟ ʄU Uß

373. 1651 Ȍ ʐ ȦU ^UʦUݧ 㺲ݧø U ʊ ʄU ͢ ʐÖ

374. 1658 ʷʅU Ȍ 10 UʦU . 㺲ݧø Ì Uʋ ق U SÚ U . Ê, m. UU, . . Ê U U . U, ˝, U ʐÖ

375. 1661 ȟ Ȍ 2 ͋ʊ U 㺲ݧø Ì Uʋ ʊ Ջ ʇʟ ʐÖ

376. ARRMA, 1927-28, p.11.

377. PS. p. 76.

378. Ibid., p. 89.

379. Ibid., p. 28.

380. Ibid., pp. 189-90.

381. ARRMA., 1927-28, No. 12.

382. 1709 ȟ 7 ͋ʊ ^UʦUݧ 㺲ݧø c U㺲ݧø Ê UݧUʢ U UØ UʦUU ݧ cUÖ

383. See above, p. 48.

384. 1711 Ȍ 4 ِ ͋ʊ k.... ^UʦUݧ U㺲ݧø Ì ʋ ʊ . Uʐ Uٝ U ʝʐ ʄU USßʪȦU ʪ cUʖ U ʐÖ

385. 1716 4 ِ ͋ʊ 108 U㺲ݧø Ì ʋ Uʐ ʊ U ʝ cU ݧʦUʖ

386. 1716 4 ِ ͋ ^UʦUݧ U㺲ݧø Ì ʋ ʊ Uʐ U ʝ ʊ U USßʪȦU ʪ cU U ʐÖ

387. 1729 ȟ Ȍ 9 ͋ʊ ݧʦUʊ US˪뿊U . ȦU㺲ݧø Ì ʄU ʄU UUUʂ ʄU ͦUʟ cUʐ ꐊ U

388. 1732 cU Ȍ 2 ͋ʊ ^UʦUݧ ȦU㺲ݧø Ì Uʋ Μʋ ʊ ʄU UUUʂ ʟ ʐU SÚ ʂ˦Uʐ S S ٳU Ր ʌ٦U S S قʌ m UݧU Ê cU ꐊ U ݧUʖ

389. Ps. p. 4.

390. Ibid., 29.

391. Ibid. p. 174.

392. 1743 ݧøݧ Ȍ 15 ݧUU U ͋ʊ ^UʦUݧ ݧø Ì Uʋ ʄU ٟʋ cU ݧʦUʖ

393. See above, p. 36.

394. 1766 Ȍ 6 ͋ʊ ^UʦUݧ ݧø ʄU U^UʦUݧ ʋʂ cU ݧUʖ

395. Ps., p. 7.

396. Ibid., p. 77.

397. 1773 ʂ ċ ʊ Տ ͋ʊ ---- 㺲ݧø Ì Uʋ ȄUU ʊ ًU U ʄU U˄UU cU ݧU (Temple of Chaudharis, Jaipur).

398. 1783 8 Ȝ ʢلU U ^UʦUݧ 㺲ݧø Ì UʫU ʊ ʄU UUʐ cU ݧUʖ ҥ ҦUʡ ʐÖ

399. PS., pp. 48 and 56.

400. Ibid., p. 124.

401. Ibid., p. 219.

402. See above, p. 47.

403. PS., p. 48.

404. Ibid., p. 56.

405. See above p. 47.

406. See above p. 47.

407. 1572 ݧ ʪ 6 UʦU ^UʦUݧ Uݧø ݧ U˖

408. PS., p. 21.

409. Ibid., p. 108.

410. ARRMA, 1934-35, Non.

411. PS., p. 20.

412. ː ^UʦUݧ 108 ݧø S ʐ ݧ Uʂ ݧU U Uʂ U . 1672 ݧ Ȍ 5

413. Ajmer Historical and Descriptive, p. 123.

414. See above, p. 48.

415. See above, p. 43.

416. 1814 ݧ ʷʅU Ȍ 10 ِ ^UʦUݧ ݧø UʦUʡ U٦UU U Ȑʸ ݧٖ

417. 1852 ҇ ʄU ċ ʊ ʟ LʂU U UʌȪ ˥ æUʝ U ͋ʊ ^UʦUݧ ȝݧøSÌ ʋ ʄU ʂ ߌ Ð ݧʦUʖ

418. UʦUcU U U ㌦U ʝʢ cU æU . 1862 ݧ ʂʅU ʂ Χc ʊ cUʐ ʦU ͋ʊ l U ^ԊU ^UʦUݧ 108 ȝݧø, U ݧʋͦUʐ cUݧ U UʦUU ʦU ʄUʢ ݧ cU ݧ S Uʡ ʝݧ ݧ ʸȦUʪ ʝ U Uʖ ʿU ʦUU ʢݧU ȟ 5 ȧʐ Uʖ (Inscription, Sha Jaina Temple Mroha).

419. JSAI., p. 351.

420. Ibid.

421. Sambodhaprakaraa, Verses 27, 34, 46-49, 61, 63, 68 etc. 

422. Saghapaaka, Verses 7, 11, 12, 15, 21 etc.

423. APJLS, No. 119.

424. Ibid., No. 113.

425. APJLS, No. 432.

426. Ibid., No. 278.

427. Ibid., No. 246-248.

428. Ibid., No. 116.

429. Ibid., No. 249.

430. Ibid., No. 337.

431. Ibid., No. 445.

432. JSAI., p. 363.

433. I.A., XX, p. 347.

434. V.S. 1572.

435. JSAI., p. 367.